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An Alphabetical List of Words in 
Common Use, Grouped with Others 
of Similar and Opposite Meaning 


Author of "Tht Etiqutttt of To-Day" "Handbook of 
Quotation*," Eto. 


Copyright, 1913 

All rights reserved 

IN U. S. A. 


THE aim in compiling this book has been to make the 
list of words in common use concise yet full, and 
authoritative yet suggestive. Above five thousand leading 
words are given, and the synonyms and antonyms comprise 
several thousand more different words. 

Actual references may be multiplied by looking up a 
synonym or antonym, as well as by consulting cognate 
words, such as the corresponding noun, verb, or adjective. 

In some cases common words have been omitted, because 
they were composed of a root word and a prefix, intensive 
or privative. Their synonyms and antonyms may be found 
under the root word. 

Occasionally within the lists words closely synonymous 
or antonymic have been grouped within semicolons. 

The part of speech of a word is designated by an abbrevi- 
ation in such cases as are necessary to save confusion. 

Synonyms appear immediately after the leading word ; an- 
tonyms, after the abbreviation "Ant." This order is 

In the effort to make this list authoritative, the standard 
dictionaries and the acknowledged authorities on the sub- 
ject have been consulted. 

. B. o. 

[v ] 



a. Adjective. 

ad. Adverb. 

Ant. Antonym or Antonyms. 

conj. Conjunction. 

interj. Interjection. 

n. Noun. 

p.p. Past Participle. 

prep. Preposition. 

8yn. Synonym or Synonyms. 

v. Verb. 

I Til 1 


Abandon. Desert, leave, for- 
sake, depart from, quit, give 
up, relinquish, discontinue, ab- 
dicate, renounce, repudiate, for- 
swear, withdraw from, vacate, 
surrender, retract, recant, re- 
tire from, cast off, abjure, cede, 
cease, resign, forego, yield, 
waive, part with, let go, lay 
down, evacuate, drop, deliver 

ANT. Claim, cherish, defend, 
keep, hold, maintain, protect, 
adopt, uphold, advocate, vindi- 
cate, occupy, undertake, prose- 
cute, pursue, follow, seek, 
guard, favor, retain, support, 
assert, haunt. 

Abandoned. Discarded, re- 
jected and the p.p. of the syn. of 
"abandon" ; depraved, corrupt, 
profligate, wicked, unprincipled, 
shameless, sinful, hardened, im- 
penitent, lost, demoralized, 
vicious, dissolute, reprobate, 
graceless, obdurate, licentious, 
incorrigible, irreclaimable, bad. 
ANT. The p.p. of the ant. of 
"abandon"; visited, frequented, 
sociable; virtuous, good, de- 
serving, worthy, commendable, 
excellent, laudable; reclaim- 
able, penitent; conscientiou-s, 
correct, upright, righteous, self- 
controlled, high-principled, 

Abandonment. Desertion, re- 
nunciation, surrender, rejection, 

abandoning, relinquishment, 
dereliction; cession, resigna- 
tion, abnegation, demission, ab- 
juration, abdication, defection, 

ANT. Solicitude, care, heed, 
watchfulness, vigilance; hospi- 
tality, entertainment, convivial- 
ity, welcome, reception; reten- 
tion, completion, reclamation, 
support, help, correction, cus- 
tody, tenacity. 

Abase. Degrade, reduce, lower, 
discredit, disgrace, dishonor, 
humble, sink, humiliate, bring 
low, cast down, stoop, debase, 
depress, drop, take down, 

ANT. Elevate, exalt, honor, 
promote, raise, dignify, uplift, 

Abasement. Degradation, hu- 
miliation, dishonor, degeneracy, 
shame, depression, reduction, 
lowering, fall, deterioration, de- 
basement, degeneration, vitia- 
tion, perversion, depravation, 
abjection, disrepute, discredit, 

ANT. Promotion, exaltation, 
honor, elevation, aggrandize- 
ment, dignity, repute, reputa- 
tion, standing, supremacy. 

Abash. Bewilder, confound, dis- 
concert, discompose, confuse, 
daunt, humble, dishearten, mor- 
tify, shame, humiliate, snub, 

1 1 




ANT. Embolden, cheer, en- 
courage, animate, uphold, rally, 
countenance, inspirit, abet, in- 
cite, buoy. 

Abate. Lessen, lower, reduce, 
diminish, moderate, decrease, 
decline, ebb, mitigate, subside, 
suppress, terminate, remove; 
temper, assuage, alleviate, ap- 
pease, pacify ; remit, allow ; re- 
lax, slacken; bate, deduct; 
soothe, soften, qualify, allay, 
mollify, compose, tranquil ize, 
quiet, quell, calm, dull, blunt; 
batter down, beat down, demol- 
ish, raze. 

ANT. Increase, prolong, mag- 
nify, foment, enlarge, extend, 
aggravate, continue, develop, re- 
vive, raise, enhance, amplify. 

Abatement. Subsidence, decline, 
lowering, reduction, decrease ; 
allowance, discount, rebate, de- 
preciation, drawback; modera- 
tion, lessening, mitigation, as- 
suagement, remission, sinking, 
settling, waning, fading, ebb, 
evanishment, declension, deduc- 
tion, diminution. 

ANT. Increase, augmenta- 
tion, enlargement, increment, 
accretion, development, growth, 
aggrandizement, dilation, acces- 

Abbreviate. Shorten, contract, 
curtail, reduce, abridge, con- 
dense, epitomize, compress. 

ANT. Lengthen, extend,, elon- 
gate, dilate, expand, amplify, 
enlarge, produce, stretch, pro- 
long, expatiate. 

Abbreviation. Abridgment, 
contraction, condensation, com- 
pend, abstract, epitome, reduc- 
tion, summaiy, curtailment, 

ANT. Expansion, amplifica- 
tion, expatiation, extension, pro- 
duction, enlargement, dilation. 

Abdicate. Resign, relinquish of- 

fice (especially of the throne), 
surrender, abandon, vacate, 
forego, renounce, give up, cede. 
ANT. Retain, claim, ocoupy, 
maintain, usurp, seize, grasp. 

Abdomen. Belly, paunch, ven- 
tral region, visceral cavity. 

Abduct. Take away (surrepti- 
tiously or forcibly ) , kidnap, run 
away with, carry off, spirit 
away, drag away. 

ANT. Restore, reinstate, 

Abduction. Withdrawal, draw- 
ing away, abstraction, kidnap- 
ping, seizure, appropriation. 

ANT. Adduction, replace- 
ment, restitution, restoration, 
surrender, reinstatement. 

Aberrant. Wandering, ram- 
bling, divergent, deviating, de- 
vious, erratic ; irregular, abnor- 
mal, unusual, exceptional. 

ANT. Regular, true, consis- 
tent, uniform, consecutive, nor- 
mal, natural, continuous. 

Aberration. Wandering, diver- 
gence, irregularity, rambling, 
disconnectedness, hallucination, 
illusion, delusion, eccentricity, 
singularity, peculiarity. 

ANT. Uniformity, consecu- 
tiveness, regularity, progres- 
sion, continuity, order, type, 

Abet. Aid, assist, promote, sup- 
port, sanction, uphold, counte- 
nance, encourage, advocate, in- 
cite, instigate, embolden, favor, 
foment, connive at, cooperate 

ANT. Hinder, impede, ob- 
struct, frustrate, baffle, con- 
found, counteract, deter, dis- 
courage, thwart, contradict, dis- 
concert, disapprove, denounce, 
dissuade, expose. 

Abettor. Assistant, helper, aid, 
ally, cooperator, advocate, con- 
federate, accomplice, accessory, 




adviser, promoter, instigator, 
associate, coadjutor. 

ANT. Opponent, foe, adver- 
sary, antagonist, rival, dissua- 
der, detector, baffler, discon- 

Abeyance. Suspense, suspen- 
sion, expectancy, waiting, an- 
ticipation, dormancy, intermis- 
sion, quiescence, suppression, 

ANT. Renewal, revival, re- 
suscitation, action, operation, 
exercise, force, possession. 

Abhor. Hate, detest, loathe, 
shrink from, recoil from, shud- 
der at, abominate, despise, dis- 
like, eschew, nauseate, revolt 

ANT. Crave, desire, enjoy, 
covet, esteem, like, love, relish, 
admire, approve, affect. 

Abhorrent. Odious, offensive, 
shocking, repugnant, loath- 
some, revolting, horrible, repel- 
lent, repulsive, nauseating. 

ANT. Admirable, enjoyable, 
lovely, estimable, desirable. 

Abide. Wait for, await, attend ; 
endure, tolerate, bear, suffer; 
anticipate, watch for, expect; 
bide, continue, reside, dwell, so- 
journ, tarry, lodge, rest, stay, 
inhabit, remain. 

ANT. Abandon, shun; resist, 
reject, avoid; deport, migrate, 
move, journey, continue, pro- 
ceed, progress. 

Abiding. Lasting, continuing, 
permanent, durable, constant, 
stable, immutable, changeless, 

ANT. Ephemeral, fickle, 
changeable, unsubstantial, per- 

Ability. Power, force, might, 
efficiency, vigor, skill, energy, 
dexterity, adroitness, skilful- 
ness, cleverness, ingenuity, tal- 
ent, aptitude, facility, knack, 

expertness, readiness, quick- 
ness, strength, capacity, quali- 
fication, competency, genius, ca- 
liber, capability, capableness, 
faculty, gift, parts. 

ANT. Incapacity, weakness, 
inability, unreadiness, mala- 
droitness, imbecility, impotence, 
disability, inaptitude, ineffi- 
ciency, incompetence, disquali- 
fication, helplessness, stupidity, 

Abject. Base, vile, mean, low, 
despicable, contemptible, worth- 
less, groveling, fawning, beg- 
garly, servile, cringing, miser- 
able, degraded, menial, ignoble. 
ANT. Dignified, honorable, ex- 
alted, worthy, venerable, illus- 
trious, independent, princely, 
self-assertive, self-reliant, vain, 
arrogant, insolent, haughty. 

Abjure. Renounce, relinquish, 
reject, forswear, forego, repudi- 
ate, disown, give up, retract, re- 
voke, recant, disavow, disclaim, 
withdraw, take back, deny, 
apostatize, discard. 

ANT. Claim, advocate, ac- 
knowledge, profess, vindicate, 
assert, demand, retain, appro- 
priate, avow. 

Able. Accomplished, adroit, tal- 
ented, clever, ingenious, apt, 
skilful, efficient, capable, fitted, 
learned, gifted, masterly, tell- 
ing, vigorous, strong, proficient, 
competent, versed, practical, en- 
dowed, powerful, mighty. 

ANT. Incapable, ineffective, 
unqualified, stupid, inept, weak, 
inefficient, unskilful, silly, in- 

Ablution. Washing, bathing, 
cleansing, lavation, purifica- 
tion, baptism. 

ANT. Pollution, defilement, 
dirt, soilure, contamination, 
taint, stain, abomination, im- 

[ 3 ] 




Abnegation. Denial, abjuration, 
renunciation, rejection, surren- 
der, abandonment, disallow- 
ance, abstinence. 

ANT. Assertion, vindication, 
license, claim, indulgence, con- 
cession; affirmation, allegation, 
statement, declaration, word, 
averment, deposition; proposal, 

Abnormal. Singular, unnatural, 
unusual, irregular, peculiar, ex- 
ceptional, aberrant, erratic, 
monstrous, preternatural. 

ANT. Normal, regular, usual, 
natural, typical, customary, or- 
dinary, common. 

Aboard. On board, on the ship, 
afloat, inside, within. 

ANT. Ashore, aground. 
Abode. Home, house, place, resi- 
dence, domicile, habitation, 
dwelling, lodging, quarters, 

ANT. Halt, tent, "bivouac, 

Abolish. Abrogate, annul, de- 
stroy, repeal, revoke, suppress, 
terminate, rescind, cancel, nul- 
lify, suppress, overthrow, ex- 
tirpate, remove, prohibit, set 
aside, end, stamp out. 

ANT. Establish, support, sus- 
tain, cherish, confirm, continue, 
restore, revive, reinstate, insti- 
tute, promote, legalize. 
Abominable. Hateful, horrible, 
loathsome, abhorrent, foul, odi- 
ous, offensive, detestable, im- 
pure, execrable. 

ANT. Desirable, admirable, 
enjoyable, pleasing, pure, delec- 

Abomination. Offense, horror, 
shame, wickedness, abhorrence, 
aversion, disgust, curse, pollu- 
tion, iniquity, defilement, cor- 
ruption, nuisance, annoyance. 

ANT. Acquisition, enjoyment, 
gratification, blessing, desire, 

longing, delight, benefit, pleas- 
ure, satisfaction. 

Aboriginal. Primitive, prime- 
val, primary, pristine, native, 
original, indigenous, autoch- 

ANT. Subsequent, imported, 
exotic, recent, modern, late, 
novel, fresh, immigrant, adven- 

Abortion. Failure, miscarriage, 
disappointment, non-success, 
vain effort, defect, frustration, 

ANT. Success, consummation, 
completion, realization, perfec- 
tion, achievement, development, 
exploit, feat. 

Abound. Team, swarm, multi- 
ply, swell, increase, flow, luxu- 
riate, flourish, prevail, wanton, 
revel, exuberate. 

ANT. Waste, lack, wane, van- 
ish, lessen, decrease, die, decay, 

About. Concerning, regarding, 
touching, relative to, with ref- 
erence to, in regard to; near, 
surrounding, around; almost, 
nearly, well-nigh; ready, on the 
point of, on the eve of ; around, 
hind part before. 

ANT. Afar, distant, remote; 
precisely, exactly. 

Above. Overhead, aloft, on high ; 
before, previously; higher, hav- 
ing precedence; over, exceed- 
ing, beyond, superior, exces- 

ANT. Below, beneath, within; 
later, subsequently; lower; less, 

Aboveboard. Openly, candidly, 
frankly, sincerely, fairly, in- 
genuously, unreservedly, guile- 

ANT. Secretly, elusively, un- 
derhand, deceitfully, wiliJy. 

Above-named. Named before, 
aforesaid, above-mentioned, 




above-cited, above-described, 
mentioned above. 

ANT. Named below, described 
below, hereinafter named. 

Abrasion. Rubbing, friction, 
wearing away or off, disinte- 
gration, attrition. 

ANT. Accretion, augmenta- 
tion, increment; supplement, 

Abreast. Alongside, side by 
side, aligned; against, off, op- 
posite to. 

ANT. Ahead, astern; behind. 

Abridge. Abbreviate, shorten, 
condense, diminish, reduce, con- 
tract, cut down, deprive of, di- 
vest of, epitomize, compress. 

ANT. Amplify, expand, 
spread out, extend, dilate. 

Abridgment. Summary, synop- 
sis, compend, analysis, abstract, 
abbreviation, epitome, outline, 
compendium, digest. 

ANT. Amplification, expati- 
ation, exposition, annotation, 
paraphrase, expansion, com- 

Abroad. Far away, distant, apart, 
dispersed, aloof, adrift; dis- 
tracted, confused, dazed, con- 
founded; forth, out of doors. 

ANT. Near, close, collected, 
fast, housed; composed, poised, 
self-contained; loithin. 

Abrogate. Abolish, cancel, set 
aside, annul, make void, over- 
rule, invalidate, nullify, re- 

ANT. Enact, confirm, enforce, 
establish, continue, revive. 

Abrogation. Repeal, rescind- 
ing, annulment, abolition, rev- 
ocation, voidance, cancelation, 
setting aside ; discontinuance, 

ANT. Enactment, institu- 
tion, establishment; sanction, 
continuance, confirmation. 

Abrupt. Sudden, unexpected, 

hasty, ill-timed, precipitate; 
steep, precipitous, craggy, 
rough, rugged, jngged; short, 
blunt, curt, unceremonious ; 
stiff, cramped, harsh, discon- 

ANT. Easy, gliding; pol- 
ished, smooth, undulating; ex- 
pected, courteous, elegant, com- 
plaisant, suave. 

Abscond. Depart, steal away, 
decamp, bolt, disappear, run 
off, hide, withdraw, retreat, es- 
cape, elope, slink or sneak off, 
absent one's self. 

ANT. Show, appear, emerge, 
issue, present one's self. 
Absence. Non-attendance, non- 
appearance, non-existence, ab- 
senteeism ; inattention, ab- 
straction, preoccupation, mus- 
ing; want, lack, privation, de- 
fect, deficiency. 

ANT. Presence, existence, 
manifestation, evidence, sup- 
ply; attention, consideration; 
immanence, inherency. 
Absent. Away, gone; ab- 
stracted, preoccupied, inatten- 
tive, dreaming. 

ANT. Present, here; atten- 
tive, alert. 

Absolute. Perfect, complete, su- 
preme, autocratic, authorita- 
tive, commanding, independent, 
unrestricted, unqualified, un- 
limited, unconditioned, self- 
existent, self-determined, ideal; 
despotic, arbitrary, exacting, 
domineering, tyrannical, impe- 
rious, dictatorial, irresponsi- 
ble; positive, actual, real, veri- 
table, genuine, certain, categori- 
cal, unquestionable. 

ANT. Related, responsible, 
conditioned, limited, qualified, 
restricted, accountable; ductile, 
humble, lenient, meek, mild, 
yielding, compliant, complai- 
sant; dubious, contingent, de- 




fective, deficient, wanting, lack- 
ing, mutilated, incomplete, 

Absolution. Acquittal, remis- 
sion, release, deliverance, for- 
giveness, pardon, shriving, 
shrift; indulgence, justification. 
ANT. Charge, accusation, con- 
demnation, censure, conviction; 
penance, purgation, fasting, 

Absolve. Acquit, clear, exoner- 
ate, forgive, free, liberate, re- 
lease, pardon, set free, dis- 
charge, exempt, exculpate. 

ANT. Accuse, condemn, con- 
vict, impeach, charge, compel; 
obligate, oblige, bind. 

Absorb. Take in, consume, im- 
bibe, swallow, suck up, ex- 
haust; engross, engage, im- 
merse, occupy, arrest, rivet (of 

ANT. Give up, disgorge, send 
out, radiate, throw off, eject; 
dissipate, distract, disperse. 

Absorption. Absorbing, imbib- 
ing, assimilation, destruction, 
consumption, exhaustion ; en- 
grossment, engagement, occu- 
pation, immersion. 

ANT. Ejection, rejection, ex- 
pulsion, discharge; inadver- 
tency, inattention, oversight, 

Abstain. Refrain, resist, for- 
bear, desist, deny one's self, 
avoid, cease, stop, withhold, 
give up, relinquish. 

ANT. Indulge, wanton, revel, 
yield to, gratify. 

Abstemious. Abstinent, sober, 

moderate, temperate, sparing, 

frugal, self-denying, continent. 

ANT. Sensual, self-indulgent, 

intemperate, greedy. 

Absterge. Wipe off, purge, 
cleanse, purify, scrub, sponge, 

ANT. Soil, pollute, begrime, 
contaminate, bespatter, bedaub. 

Abstersive. Cleansing, purging, 
purifying, scouring; detergent, 

ANT. Corruptive, cont ami- 
native, offensive. 

Abstinence. Temperance, abste- 
miousness, self-control, self- 
restraint, self-denial, sobriety, 
fasting, continence, moderation, 

ANT. Excess, intoxication, 
self-indulgence, sensuality, 
wantonness, intemperance, 
greed, gluttony, revelry, dissi- 

Abstinent. Abstaining, fasting; 
abstemious, sober, temperate, 
self-restraining, self-denying, 
continent, austere. 

ANT. Sensual, self-indulgent, 
intemperate, epicurean, dissi- 
pated, incontinent, debauched. 

Abstract, n. Epitome, summary, 
abridgment, compend, synopsis, 
syllabus, outline, digest, brief, 
compendium, gist, drift, con- 

ANT. Amplification, disqui- 
sition, exposition, eatpansion, ex- 

Abstract, v. Appropriate, with- 
draw, remove, separate, take 
away, detach, purloin, part, 
eliminate, distract, discrimi- 
nate, abridge. 

ANT. A dd, complete, increase, 
restore, unite, conjoin, fill up, 
strengthen, combine. 

Abstracted. Separated, with- 
drawn, removed ; subtle, refined, 
abstruse; inattentive, preoccu* 
pied, dreaming, absent-minded, 
oblivious, thoughtless, negli- 
gent, indifferent, heedless, ab- 
sorbed, absent. 

ANT. Intelligible, lucid, trans- 
parent; attentive, intent, ob- 
servant, alert, prompt, ready, 
thoughtful, wide-awake. 

Abstraction. Disconnection, di* 





junction, removal, isolation, 
separation; preoccupation, rev- 
ery, inattention, absorption, ab- 
sence; taking, abduction, seiz- 
ure, stealing, appropriation, 
purloining; classification, gen- 

ANT. Addition, conjunction, 
union, restitution, importation, 
restoration; enumeration, anal- 
ysis; attention, specification, 
observation, individkialization. 

Abstruse. Hidden, difficult, rec- 
ondite, profound, deep, curi- 
ous, occult, dark, obscure, mys- 
tical, hard, . vague, indefinite, 
mysterious, abstract, tran- 

ANT. Patent, simple, obvi- 
ous, trite, intelligible, manifest, 
lucid, clear, easy, plain, popu- 
lar, superficial. 

Absurd. Ludicrous, monstrous, 
nonsensical, preposterous, sense- 
less, ridiculous, foolish, irra- 
tional, wild, unreasonable. 

ANT. Sensible, rational, rea- 
sonable, logical, wise, sagacious, 
sound, substantial, philosophi- 
cal, reflective, consistent, true. 

Absurdity. Unreasonableness, 
irrationality, foolishness, folly, 
fatuity, idiocy, extravagance, 

ANT. Reason, possibility; 
truism, axiom, maxim, adage. 

Abundance. Profusion, wealth, 
affluence; flow, flood, overflow; 
copiousness, fertility, richness, 
largeness, store, plenty, exuber- 
ance, plenteousness. 

ANT. Scarcity, deficiency, 
rarity, scantiness, dearth, fail- 
ure, poverty. 

Abundant. Abounding, flowing, 
plentiful, liberal, bountiful, suf- 
ficient, lavish, plenteous, much, 
copious, replete, full, teeming. 
ANT. Rare, scarce, scant, de- 
ficient, insufficient, short, nig- 

gardly, sparing, impoverished, 
dry, drained. 

Abuse, n. Misuse, dishonor, mal- 
treatment, outrage, reviling, ob- 
loquy, defamation, insult, dis- 
paragement, reproach, ill usage. 
ANT. Kindness, praise, def- 
erence, respect, honor, good 
treatment, good usage. 

Abuse, v. Harm, ill-treat, ill-use, 
injure, wrong, maltreat, op- 
press, molest, malign, impose 
on, ruin, victimize, slander, vio- 
late, ravish, defile, disparage, 
damage, defame, misuse. 

ANT. Cherish, protect, re- 
gard, shield, respect, care for, 
tend, benefit; laud, favor, ap- 
plaud, extol, eulogize, praise; 
uphold, sustain, vindicate, con- 

Abusive. Insulting, rude, de- 
nunciatory, reproachful, injuri- 
ous, offensive, reviling, inso- 
lent, scurrilous, opprobrious. 

ANT. Respectful, attentive, 
laudatory, kind, flattering, 
courteous, complimentary, ob- 

Abut. Be adjacent, extend, im- 
pinge, project, approximate, be 
contiguous, adjoin ; end, border. 
ANT. Diverge, recede, re- 
turn, retreat, recurve. 

Abutment. Terminal support, 

Abuttal. Adjacency, contiguity, 
nearness, juxtaposition; boun- 
dary, terminus, limit, termina- 

ANT. Interval, separation, 
gap, chasm, interspace, fissure, 

Abyss. Gulf, gorge, deep, chasm, 
profound, abysm; the pit. 

ANT. Surface, abutment, ad- 
hesion, contact, contiguity; 

Academical. Scholastic, learned, 
literary, collegiate, classical. 




ANT. Illiterate, ignorant, 

Academy. School, seminary, in- 
stitute, college, gymnasium, 
high school; scientific body, 
association of artists. 

Accede. Consent, assent, acqui- 
esce, comply, agree, accept, con- 
cur, approve, coincide. 

ANT. Decline, unthdraw, re- 
fuse, demur, protest, dissent, 

Accelerate. Hasten, quicken, 
speed, precipitate, despatch, ex- 
pedite, hurry, urge, push for- 
ward, press on; forward, ad- 
vance, further. 

ANT. Delay, impede, clog, 
hinder, retard, drag, obstruct. 

Accent, n. Stress, beat, emphasis, 
rhythm, pulsation, intonation, 
cadence, tone, modulation, ictus. 
ANT. Monotony, equable- 
ness, babble, floiv, smoothness. 

Accentuate, Accent, v. Lay 
stress upon, put the ictus on ; 
emphasize, mark, make promi- 

ANT. Make light of, make 
insignificant, underestimate', ig- 

Accept. Take, receive; admit, 
agree to, approve, acknowledge, 
avow; estimate, regard, value, 

ANT. Refuse, decline, reject, 
ignore, disown, repudiate. 

Acceptable. Welcome, pleasing, 
grateful, gratifying, pleasant, 
agreeable, pleasurable, season- 
able, desirable, expedient. 

ANT. Unpleasant, disagree- 
able, annoying, grievous, un- 
grateful, unwelcome. 

Acceptance. Reception, taking; 
acknowledgment, approbation, 
approval, satisfaction, gratifi- 

ANT. Rejection, refusal, re- 
pudiation, exclusion. 

Acceptation. Meaning, signifi- 
cance, sense, import, interpre- 
tation, construction, under- 
standing; approval, adoption, 

Access. Entrance, approach, 
passage, avenue, entry; admis- 
sion, admittance, audience, in- 
terview; addition, increase, 
gain; accession; attack, onset, 
fit, paroxysm. 

ANT. Exit, egress, depart- 
ure; exclusion; repulse, recoil; 
retirement, retreat ; quiescence, 
inertia, languor, torpor. 

Accessary, see Accessory. 

Accessible. Easy of access, ap- 
proachable, affable, conversible. 
ANT. Distant, cold, unap- 
proachable, difficult. 

Accession. Addition, increase, 
enlargement, extension, aug- 
mentation; arrival, influx; at- 
tainment (of power). 

ANT. Abandonment, de- 
crease, ebb, drain, subsidence, 
departure, resignation, diminu- 

Accessory, n. Confederate, as- 
sistant, helper, associate, ac- 
complice; detail, accompani- 
ment, subordinate element; 
companion, partner. 

ANT. Foe, rival, adversary, 
antagonist, opponent, enemy; 
principal, instigator. 

Accessory, a. Assisting, aiding, 
abetting, helping, acceding, ad- 
ditional ; supplemental, subser- 
vient, subsidiary, subordinate, 
conducive ; accompanying, con- 
tributory, auxiliary. 

ANT. Essential, inherent; 
superfluous, irrelevant. 

Accident. Chance, disaster, hap- 
pening, hazard, incident, mis- 
fortune, calamity, adventure, 
casualty, mishap, possibility. 

ANT. Certainty, provision, 
plan, intention, appointment, 

t 8 ] 




calculation, law, necessity, pur- 
pose, preparation. 

Accidental. Casual, unintended, 
fortuitous, chance ; incidental, 
immaterial, non-essential; oc- 
casional, contingent, adventi- 

ANT. Intended, purposed, 
prepared, appointed, certain. 

Acclamation. Applause, cheer, 
outcry, homage, gratulation, 

ANT. Censure, execration, 
denunciation, obloquy, sibila- 

Acclivity. Rise, incline, ascent, 
steep, hill, height. 

ANT. Decline, declivity, hol- 
loic, descent, depth. 

Accommodate. Oblige, serve, fur- 
nish, supply, contain, hold, con- 
venience; adapt, reconcile, ad- 
just, harmonize, suit, conform, 

ANT. Deprive, aggravate, in- 
convenience, disturb, disoblige; 
misfit, incommode. 

Accommodating. Kind, oblig- 
ing, considerate, unselfish, po- 
lite, yielding, conciliatory. 

ANT. Rude, churlish, dis- 
obliging, inconsiderate, exact- 

Accompany. Follow, attend, 
consort with, go with, escort, 

ANT. Abandon, leave, quit, 
avoid, discard, desert. 

Accomplice. Confederate, ac- 
cessory, abettor, associate, ally, 
aid, assistant, promoter, coad- 

ANT. Rival, enemy, foe, ad- 

Accomplish. Complete, finish, 
achieve, effect, perform, carry 
out, attain, realize, consum- 
mate, execute, perfect, fulfil, 
do; equip, furnish. 

ANT. Fail, mar, spoil, frus- 

trate, defeat, disconcert, de- 

Accomplished. Educated, ex- 
perienced, practiced, finished, 
versed, consummate, adroit, ex- 
pert, apt, skilful, talented, fine, 
qualified, proficient, polite, ele- 
gant; completed, effected, estab- 

ANT. Unskilled, unfettered, 
ignorant, unpolished, uncouth, 
inefficient, incapable, inexpert, 

Accomplishment. Execution, 
achievement, performance, com- 
pletion; acquirement, attain- 
ment, proficiency, ornament, 

ANT. Failure, blunder, folly, 
stupidity, incompetency, mis- 
management, bungling. 

Accord. Agree, correspond, har- 
monize; grant, concede, give, 
yield, deign, vouchsafe, consent, 

ANT. Differ, disagree; with- 
hold, deny, refuse. 

Accordant. Agreeable, suitable, 
consonant, harmonious, congru- 
ous, agreeing, corresponding, 

ANT. Adverse, inconsistent, 

Accordingly. Suitably, conform- 
ably, agreeably ; consequently, 
therefore, hence, wherefore. 

ANT. Conversely, inconsis- 
tently, impertinently. 

Accost. Approach, address, sa- 
lute, greet, confront, speak 

ANT. Depart, rebuff, check, 
repulse, shun, elude, pass, ig- 

Account, n. Record, register, in- 
ventory ; bill, charge ; count, 
calculation, enumeration; state- 
ment, description, narration, re- 
lation, narrative, recital, chron- 
icle, history; explanation, expo- 




sition ; consideration, regard, 
motive, reason ; importance, 
worth, dignity, profit, advan- 
tage, benefit. 

ANT. Suppression, silence; 
attempt, project; misannounce- 

Account, v. Esteem, regard, 
deem, judge, think, hold, be- 
lieve, consider, view; estimate, 
reckon, rate ; explain, solve. 

ANT. Underrate, undervalue; 
disesteem, misestimate; mys- 
tify, perplex, darken. 

Accountable. Responsible, pun- 
ishable, answerable, liable, 
amenable; accredited, dele- 

ANT. Independent, absolute, 
supreme, despotic, autocratic. 

Accouter. Equip, furnish, dress, 
fit out, arm, array. 

ANT. Despoil, impoverish, 
denude, strip, bare. 

Accredit. Credit, authorize, 
trust, empower, commission, de- 

ANT. Recall, supersede, dis- 
miss, discard; disbelieve, dis- 
trust, suspect. 

Accredited. Authorized, com- 
missioned, sanctioned ; confiden- 
tial, trusted, believed. 

ANT. Unauthorized, dis- 
trusted, discredited. 

Accretion. Growth, accumula- 
tion, adhesion, coherence, in- 

ANT. Abrasion, disintegra- 
tion, diminution. 

Accrue. Result, arise, issue, en- 
sue, follow, proceed, come, in- 
crease, augment. 

ANT. Cause, occasion; re- 
duce, weaken, abate. 

Accumulate. Pile, collect, 
gather up, bring together; 
store, amass, garner, treasure, 
husband, lay by, hoard; aggre- 

ANT. Separate, dissipate, 
disperse, scatter, waste, expend. 

Accumulation. Collection, heap, 
mass, accretion, hoard, store. 

ANT. Separation, segrega- 
tion; unit, individual; prodi- 
gality, leakage, expenditure. 

Accuracy. Exactness, precision, 
nicety, truth, carefulness, cor- 
rectness, exactitude, fidelity. 

ANT. Looseness, slovenli- 
ness, incorrectness, error, fal- 
lacy, misconception, misstate- 

Accurate. Careful, exact, faith- 
ful, precise, truthful, correct, 
rigorous, close, severe, just, 

ANT. Inexact, faulty, inac- 
curate, defective, loose, careless. 

Accusation. Charge, indict- 
ment, arraignment, impeach- 
ment, imputation, crimination, 

ANT. Discharge, acquittal, 
vindication, absolution, ap- 

Accuse. Charge, indict, arraign, 
incriminate, impeach, cite, sum- 
mon, tax, censure, taunt, blame, 

ANT. Discharge, acquit, de- 
fend, vindicate, exonerate, par- 
don, absolve, condone, release. 

Accustom. Habituate, use, be 
wonted, harden, familiarize, 
train, addict, drill, break in, 

ANT. Estrange, wean, alien- 
ate, dishabituate. 

Acerbity. Sourness, acidity, 
tartness, bitterness, roughness, 
harshness, acrimony. 

ANT. Sweetness, mildness, 
softness, gentleness, smooth- 

Ache, n. Pain, dull or continued 
pain, anguish, suffering, agony. 
ANT. Pleasure, relief, ease, 
refreshment, dlight. 

[ 10 ] 




Achieve. Accomplish, perform, 
complete, finish, realize, bring 
to pass, work out, conclude ; ob- 
tain, acquire, gain, win, get. 

ANT. Neglect, undo, mar, 
omit; fail of, lose. 

Achievement. Accomplishment, 
performance, attainment, com- 
pletion, consummation ; exploit, 
deed, feat. 

ANT. Forfeit, failure, negli- 
gence, frustration, blunder. 

Acknowledge. Recognize, be 
aware of; admit, concede, al- 
low, accept; confess, avow; ex- 
press thanks for; own. or pro- 

ANT. Disclaim, disown, 
deny, repudiate, ignore, dis- 

Acme. Summit, zenith, climax, 
top, apex, vertex, pinnacle, cul- 

ANT. Base, nadir, depth, 
ground, foundation, foot, root. 

Acquaintance. Association, fa- 
miliarity ; friend ; intimacy, 
companionship, experience, 
knowledge, friendship, fellow- 

ANT. Ignorance, inexperi- 
ence, unfamiliarity, ignoring. 

Acquiesce. Assent, concur, yield, 
comply, submit, agree, con- 

ANT. Object, demur, dissent. 

Acquire. Gain, earn, win, reap, 
obtain, attain, achieve, get, se- 
cure ; master, learn thoroughly. 
ANT. Lose, surrender, miss, 
forego, forfeit. 

Acquit. Discharge, exonerate, 
release, absolve, excuse, par- 
don, exculpate. 

ANT. Charge, condemn, sen- 
tence, compel, indict, imprison. 

Acquittal. Discharge, release, 
deliverance, liberation, abso- 

ANT. Judgment, punish- 

ment, penalty, trial, retribu- 
tion, correction, castigation. 

Acrimony. Bitterness, sharp- 
ness, sourness, tartness, sever- 
ity, asperity, hardness, rancor, 
ill-temper, spite, unkindness. 

ANT. Gentleness, good na- 
ture, kindness, sweetness, cour- 

Act, n. Deed, performance, ex- 
ploit, accomplishment, achieve- 
ment, effect, movement, trans- 
action, work. 

ANT. Cessation, inertia, qui- 
escence, inaction, rest, repose r 
quiet, deliberation. 

Act, v. Work, do, perform, exe- 
cute; behave; play, feign, pre- 
tend, dissemble; operate, have 
effect; be, realize, actualize. 

ANT. Rest, cease, stop, stay; 
neglect, omit, mar, undo; ex- 
pose, reveal, vaunt; be quiescent 
or latent; fancy; endure, suffer. 

Action. Exercise, motion, move- 
ment, deed, performance; 
agency, force, operation ; battle, 
conflict ; gesture ; representa- 
tion, play; subject, plot; law- 
suit, case. 

ANT. Inertia, torpor, lan- 
guor; quiescence, rest, passive- 
ness; harmony, truce, peace. 

Active. Agile, brisk, alert, lively, 
quick, prompt, ready, spry ; in- 
dustrious, energetic, busy, dili- 

ANT. Dull, idle, indolent, 
lazy, quiet, slow, stupid. 

Actual. Real, true, genuine, cer- 
tain, absolute, positive, veri- 
table, substantial ; present, sen- 
sible, perceptible. 

ANT. Possible, fictitious, sup- 
posititious, virtual, theoretical, 
hypothetical, conjectural. 

Acumen. Discernment, penetra- 
tion, keenness, shrewdness, in- 
sight, sharpness, sagacity, 

[ 11 ] 




ANT. Dulness, obtuseness, 
stupidity, bluntness. 

Acute. Sharp, pointed, keen, 
shrewd; violent, intense; high, 
sudden, severe, distressing; 
subtile, ingenious, sagacious, 

ANT. Dull, blunt, obtuse, 
stupid, heavy; chronic; stolid. 

Adaptation. Adjustment, fitness, 
conformity, suitableness, apt- 
ness, harmony. 

ANT. Incompatibility, in- 
congruity, misfit, discord. 

Add. Sum up, increase, adjoin, 
append, attach, augment, en- 
large, amplify, annex, affix. 

ANT. Deduct, subtract, les- 
sen, reduce, remove, diminish. 

Addicted. Habituated, disposed 
to, inclined, prone, attached to, 
devoted, given over to, wedded 

ANT. Averse, disinclined, un- 
accustomed, indisposed, di- 
vorced from. 

Addition. Accession, enlarge- 
ment, increase, extension, ac- 
cretion, augmentation, adjunct. 
ANT. Subtraction, decrease, 

Address, n. Courtesy, manners, 
politeness, tact, ingenuity, dex- 
terity, discretion, adroitness ; 
discourse, harangue, oration, 
lecture, speech, appeal, request, 
suit, solicitation. 

ANT. Clumsiness, rudeness, 
stupidity, unmannerliness, 
folly ; refusal. 

Address, v. Accost, approach, 
court, greet, hail, salute, speak 

ANT. Avoid, elude, ignore, 
shun, cut, pass, overlook. 

Adduce. Offer, present, advance ; 
cite, quote, introduce, name, 
mention; allege. 

ANT. Withdraw, except, de- 
duct, suppress, retract. 

Adept. Expert, master, profi- 
cient, genius, veteran, professor. 
ANT. Novice, tyro, blun- 
derer, inexpert. 

Adequate. Equal, competent, 
fitted, qualified, suitable, suffi- 
cient, capable, adapted, satis- 
factory ; proportionate, com- 

ANT. Inferior, poor, useless, 
worthless, unfit, incompetent. 

Adhere. Stick, cling, cohere, 
hold, cleave; belong, pertain; 
be attached, fixed, or devoted. 

ANT. Part, separate, sunder, 
sever, give way. 

Adherence. Tenacity, attach- 
ment, constancy, fidelity, devo- 
tion, partisanship; adhesion. 

ANT. Desertion, separation, 
disunion, unfaithfulness. 

Adjacent. Near, close, border- 
ing, adjoining, contiguous, be- 

ANT. Separate, distant, re- 
mote, detached, disconnected. 

Adjourn. Postpone, delay, de- 
fer; suspend, interrupt, close, 
end, dissolve. 

ANT Despatch, hasten, con- 
clude, complete, terminate, con- 

Adjunct. Addition, appendage, 
accessory, aid, advantage, help ; 
colleague, associate. 

ANT. Detriment, impedi- 
ment, hindrance, obstruction, 

Adjure. Entreat, beseech, pray, 
supplicate, implore, beg; swear 


ANT. Defy, deprecate, re- 
monstrate, dare, expostulate, 

Adjustment. Arrangement, dis- 
posal ; settlement, agreement, 
understanding; fitting, adapta- 
tion, conformity; regulation, 
rectification, accommodation. 

ANT. Disturbance, disorder, 




confusion; dissension, diver- 
gence; non-conformity. 

Administer. Dispense, distrib- 
ute, supply; direct, manage, 
control, superintend; offer, 
proffer, tender. 

ANT. Withhold, refuse, re- 
tain; betray, mismanage; re- 
pulse, rebuff. 

Admiration. Wonder, approval, 
love, surprise, astonishment, 
appreciation, reverence, high 

ANT. Disapproval, contempt, 

Admire. Honor, esteem, ap- 
prove, adore, wonder at, vener- 
ate, extol, marvel at, applaud, 
revere, respect. 

ANT. Despise, dislike, exe- 
crate, hate, abhor, scorn, de- 

Admissible. Allowable, lawful, 
permissible, possible, probable. 
ANT. Absurd, preposterous, 
improper, wrong, unlawful. 

Admission. Admittance, en- 
trance, access ; avowal, acknowl- 
edgment, concession, concur- 
rence, allowance. 

ANT. Denial, contradiction, 
rejection, negation. 

Admit. Receive; accept, acknowl- 
edge, own, confess; permit, al- 
low, suffer. 

ANT. Exclude, debar; dis- 
oion, deny ; dismiss, reject, re- 

Admonish. Advise, warn, cau- 
tion, counsel, censure, rebuke, 
reprove; forewarn, remind, dis- 
suade; instruct, teach, apprise, 

ANT. Encourage, urge, coun- 
tenance, applaud, abet, insti- 

Admonition. Caution, warning, 
advice, counsel, instruction, re- 
minder, hint, reproof, reprehen- 

ANT. Applause, encourage- 
ment, incitement, urging, insti- 

Ado. Trouble, toil, labor, pains; 
bustle, stir, fuss, noise, tur- 

ANT. Quiet, calm, compos- 
ure, tranquillity. 

Adopt. Appropriate, assume ; 
approve, accept, support, main- 
tain ; affiliate, father. 

ANT. Reject, discard; re- 
nounce, abandon, disclaim; dis- 
own, repudiate. 

Adoration. Worship, devotion, 
homage, reverence, veneration, 

ANT. Execration, disesteem, 
abomination, abhorrence, hatred, 

Adorn. Beautify, decorate, em- 
bellish, ornament, garnish, il- 
lustrate, gild, bedeck, grace, 
dignify, honor, exalt. 

ANT. Mar, spoil, deface, dis- 
figure, deform, denude, strip. 

Adroit. Dexterous, expert, skil- 
ful, apt, handy, quick, clever, 
ready, deft, ingenious, cunning. 
ANT. Clumsy, unskilful? 
awkward, bungling, unliandy, 

Adulation. Flattery, extrava- 
gant compliment, fulsome 
praise, fawning, sycophancy, 
blandishment, obsequiousness. 

ANT. Defamation, obloquy, 
ridicule, satire, sarcasm, de- 
traction, aspersion, libel. 

Adumbrate. Shadow, outline,, 
indicate, hint, trace, delineate; 
typify, represent, symbolize; 
darken, obscure, hide, conceal. 

ANT. Fulfil, realize, em- 
body; misrepresent; reveal, il- 

Advance, n. Progress, improve- 
ment, growth ; offer, proposal, 
overture, tender, proposition ; 
rise, appreciation. 




ANT. Regress, return, retro- 
gression; diminution; depreci- 

Advance, v. Push or send for- 
ward, propel; promote, ele- 
vate, dignify, exalt; improve, 
strengthen, benefit ; propose, 
offer; furnish, lend, loan; in- 
crease, augment, raise; pro- 
ceed, progress; thrive, prosper; 

ANT. Retard, hinder, with- 
hold, withdraw; suppress, de- 
grade, depress; oppose, recall, 
weaken, retreat; lessen, dimin- 

Advantage. Benefit, profit, ex- 
pediency, favorable opportunity, 
blessing; behalf, account, in- 
terest; privilege, convenience, 
assistance, utility, service. 

-ANT. Loss, disappointment, 
frustration, difficulty, dilem- 

Advent. Approach, coming, ar- 
rival, accession. 

ANT. Departure, exit, exo- 
dus, retirement. 

Adventitious. Accidental, inci- 
dental, extrinsic, non-essential, 
foreign, casual; redundant, su- 

ANT. Intrinsic, pertinent, 
regular, proper, necessary, ap- 

Adventure. Chance, hazard, 
risk, venture, experiment, trial; 
event, incident, occurrence, con- 
tingency, crisis. 

ANT. Matter-of-fact, matter- 
of-course; prospect; monotony, 

Adventurous. Bold, daring, ven- 
turesome, rash, reckless, head- 
long; dangerous, perilous, un- 
certain; fearless, enterprising. 
ANT. Timid, nervous, hesi- 
tating, cautious, cowardly. 

Adversary. Foe, enemy, antago- 
nist, opponent, rival, assailant. 

ANT. Ally, helper, assistant, 
accomplice, aider, abettor, ac- 

Adverse. Opposite, contrary, 
conflicting; hostile, injurious, 
harmful ; unlucky, unfortunate, 

ANT. Favorable, friendly, 
propitious, fortunate, lucky. 

Adversity. Calamity, affliction, 
trouble, disaster, woe, distress, 

ANT. Success, prosperity, ad- 
vancement, good luck. 

Advert to. Consider, notice, re- 
mark, heed, attend, refer, al- 
lude, mention, touch upon; re- 

ANT. Ignore, pass, drop, 
overlook, omit. 

Advertent. Mindful, regardful, 
attentive, watchful, observant, 
thoughtful, considerate, heed- 

ANT. Thoughtless, heedless, 
inconsiderate, inattentive. 

Advertise. Announce, publish, 
proclaim, declare, circulate, 
noise abroad ; offer for sale ; in- 
form, notify, apprise; promul- 

ANT. Suppress, ignore, hush, 
conceal; mislead, misinform. 

Advice. Counsel, suggestion, ad- 
monition, instruction, caution; 
tidings, intelligence, notice; de- 
liberation, care, forethought; 
recommendation, exhortation, 

ANT. Remonstrance, re- 
straint, expostulation, prohibi- 
tion; deception, delusion. 

Advisable. Judicious, expedi- 
ent, politic, prudent, desirable, 
beneficial, profitable ; proper, 

ANT. Imprudent, undesir- 
able, inexpedient, improper, det- 

Advocate. Counsel, lawyer, at- 

14 ] 




torney; defender, promoter, 
friend, patron, supporter, 
pleader, maintainer. 

ANT. Accuser, impugner, 
gainsayer, adversary, opponent. 
Affable. Open, free, frank, un- 
reserved ; accessible, familiar ; 
cordial, social, courteous, polite, 
obliging, urbane, benign, gra- 
cious, mild, well-bred; conde- 

ANT. Distant, unapproach- 
able, inaccessible, haughty, con- 
temptuous, supercilious. 
Affair. Business, concern, func- 
tion, matter, circumstance, 
question, subject; event, inci- 
dent, occurrence, performance; 
battle, combat, engagement, 
skirmish, collision, brush, en- 

ANT. Detail, item, feature, 

Affect. Influence, change, trans- 
form, modify, alter; concern, 
interest, touch, move, impress; 
crave, yearn, desire, like; as- 
sume, adopt, feign, pretend; 
operate, act on; melt, soften, 
subdue, overcome. 

ANT. Shun, repel, repudiate, 
spurn, dislike, eschew. 
Affectation. Airs, mannerism, 
pretension, pretense, foppery, 

ANT. Simplicity, artlessness, 
naturalness, genuineness. 
Affection. Feeling, passion, at- 
tachment, fondness, tenderness, 
love; propensity, disposition; 
endearment, devotion, partial- 
ity; attribute, quality, charac- 
teristic, mark. 

ANT. Indifference, repul- 
sion, disaffection, repugnance. 
Affiance. Trust, confidence, hom- 
age, reliance, betrothal, fealty, 
faith, plighting. 

ANT. Disloyalty, distrust, 
treason, suspicion, infidelity. 

Affiliate. Associate, adopt, join, 
connect, incorporate, annex. 

ANT. Sever, transplant, sep- 
arate, disjoin, dissociate. 

Affinity. Relationship, kin, con- 
sanguinity, propinquity; like- 
ness, resemblance, relation, an- 
alogy, connection, correspon- 
dence; sympathy, attraction. 
ANT. Repugnance, discord- 
ance, antipathy, antagonism. 

Affirm. Assert, swear, state, de- 
clare, maintain, allege, protest, 
confirm, ratify, approve, en- 
dorse, aver, asseverate, assure, 
avouch, establish. 

ANT. Deny, doubt, demur, 
contradict, negative, gainsay, 
impugn, oppose, dispute. 

Affirmation. Avowal, declara- 
tion, statement, assertion, tes- 
timony, deposition, confirma- 
tion, ratification, approval, en- 

ANT. Doubt, denial, contra- 
diction, disputation, disap- 

Affix. Join, annex, attach, 
fasten, connect to, unite to, ap- 

ANT. Remove, detach, sepa- 
rate, unfasten. 

Affliction. Adversity, misfor- 
tune, grief, sorrow, distress, 
tribulation, disaster, trial, mis- 
ery, calamity, pain, anguish, 
trouble, hardship. 

ANT. Consolation, relief, 
blessing, gratification, pleasure. 

Affluence. Wealth, fortune, 
riches, opulence, abundance, 
plenty, profusion. 

ANT. Want, scarcity, pov- 
erty, penury, lack, indigence. 

Afford. Supply, furnish, con- 
tribute, bestow, offer, confer, 
bear, endure, support, yield, im- 
part, administer. 

ANT. Withhold, deny, re- 
tain, stint, grudge, withdraw. 

[ 15 ] 



Affray. Quarrel, tussle, scuffle, 
scrimmage, collision, brawl, dis- 
turbance, fight, rumpus, strug- 
gle, contest, strife, encounter, 
feud, tumult. 

ANT. Peace, amity, friend- 
ship, good will. 

Affront. Outrage, insult, abuse, 
annoyance, displeasure, offense, 
provocation, wrong, vexation, 
wound, exasperation, irrita- 

ANT. Courtesy, homage, 
amends, compliment, apology. 

Afire. Ablaze, burning, ignited, 

ANT. Out, quenched, extin- 

Afloat. Adrift, at sea, abroad, 
loose; happening, betiding, 

ANT. Moored, anchored, 
aground, stranded, fixed, stead- 
fast, firm. 

Afoot. Afloat, preparing, forth- 
coming, ready, brewing, on 
hand, astir. 

ANT. Unprepared, unpro- 
vided for, inactive, sluggish, 

Aforesaid. Above-mentioned, 
foregoing, preceding, above- 

AXT. Folloicing, subsequent, 
subjoined, forthcoming, after- 

Afraid. Fearful, timid, appre- 
hensive, anxious, alarmed, terri- 
fied, frightened. 

ANT. Fearless, bold, confi- 
dent, reckless, venturesome, in- 
different, secure, hopeful, auda- 

Afresh. Anew, again, newly, fre- 
quently, repeatedly, once more. 
ANT. Uniformly, connect- 
edly, continuously/. 

After. Subsequent, later; fol- 
lowing, behind, rear, back, pos- 
terior; concerning, about, for, 

in relation to; in imitation, of, 
in the pattern of. 

ANT. Before, preceding, in- 
troducing; in front of; oppo- 
site; facing; previous or prior 
to, afore; in advance; previ- 
ously, already. 

Again. Anew, afresh, repeatedly ; 
further, moreover, besides; on 
the contrary; back, in answer 
or restitution, in return; once 

ANT. Once, continuously, un- 
interruptedly, uniformly. 

Against. Opposite, across, ad- 
verse to, counter to, athwart; 
facing, fronting, close up to, in 
contact with; for, in prepara- 
tion for, in expectation of; in 
compensation for, in requital 
of, to match. 

ANT. With, for, beside, ac- 
companying, aiding, promoting. 

Agape. Yawning, open-mouthed; 
wondering, gazing, dazed, 
amazed ; curious, inquisitive, 
agog, astare, eager. 

ANT. Listless, lukewarm, in- 
curious, indifferent. 

Age. Duration; period, date, 
epoch, time; maturity, genera- 
tion; era, century. 

ANT. Infancy, youth, boy- 
hood, childhood; moment, in- 

Agent. Actor, doer, operator, 
promoter, performer ; cause, 
force, power; deputy, factor, 
attorney, representative, substi- 
tute; means, instrument. 

ANT. Counteragent, counter- 
actor, opponent, neutralizer ; 
chief, principal; originator, in- 

Agglomeration. Accumulation, 
heap, pile, mass, conglomera- 
tion, cluster. 

ANT. Disprrsion, division, 
separation, sifting, dissipation. 

Aggrandize. Exalt, honor, ele- 




vate, dignify, promote, advance, 
enrich, augment. 

ANT. Degrade, impoverish, 
debase, humiliate, dishonor, 

Aggravate. Exasperate, pro- 
voke, wound, make worse, inten- 
sify, embitter, heighten. 

ANT. Soothe, assuage, palli- 
ate, diminish, conciliate, allevi- 

Aggregation. Collection, accu- 
mulation, mass, heap, pile, 
amount, total, sum, result, 
whole, agglomeration. 

ANT. Dispersion, dissipation, 
separation, division ; u n i t ; 
element, individual, ingredient, 

Aggression. Attack, invasion, 
encroachment, assault, injury, 
offense, onslaught, provocation, 

ANT. Retaliation, repulsion, 
retreat, resistance, evacuation. 

Aghast. Dismayed, horrified, 
terrified, frightened ; amazed, 
astounded, startled, astonished, 

ANT. Cool, fearless, indiffer- 
ent, unmoved, unaffected, un- 

Agile. Nimble, active, lively, 
smart, prompt, alert, supple, 
brisk, quick, ready, sprightly, 

ANT. Sloio, heavy, clumsy, 
bulky, awkward, inert, ponder- 

Agitate. Disturb, trouble, shake, 
jar, convulse; excite, rouse, fer- 
ment; fluster, hurry, discon- 
cert; discuss, controvert, de- 
bate, examine, ventilate, inves- 
tigate ; deliberate, contrive, de- 
vise, plan. 

ANT. Calm, allay, pacify, 
smooth, compose, quiet / solve, 
determine, settle. 

Ago. Past, gone, since. 

ANT. Future, coming, here- 
after, hence. 

Agony. Anguish, torture, tor- 
ment, distress, throe, panga, 
pain, suffering, woe, excrucia- 

ANT. Assuagement, comfort, 
relief, composure, ease, enjoy- 

Agree. Accept, assent, approve 
comply, consent, concur, admit, 

ANT. Contend, disagree, deny ; 
dissent, dispute, protest, oppose, 
demur, differ; decline. 

Agreeable. Suitable, proper, ap- 
propriate, befitting, accordant, 
conformable, consonant, wel- 
come, amiable, pleasing, grati- 

ANT. Unpleasant, disoblig- 
ing, obnoxious, disagreeable, un- 
w^jcome, offensive, inharmoni- 
ous, unaccommodating. 

Agreement. Contract, compact, 
bond, Bargain, covenant, har- 
mony, ixison, obligation, under- 
taking, treaty. 

ANT. Promise, understand- 
ing, parole; discord, dissen- 

Agriculture. Farming, hus- 
bandry, cultivation of the soil, 

ANT. Falloumess, sterility, 
unproductiveness, waste. 

Aground. Ashore, stranded, not 
afloat; exhausted in resources. 
ANT. Afloat, loose, abroad, 
adrift; flush. 

Ahead. In front, forwavi, on- 
ward, in advance. 

ANT. Abaft, astern, back, be- 
hind, aft. 

Aid. Help, support, assist, serve, 
befriend, minister to, relieve, 
succor; supply, give alms to; 
foster, protect, encourage, favor. 
A N T . Oppose, discourage, 
t7iicart, baffle, deter, confront. 

[ 17 ] 




Ailing. Sick, ill, indisposed, un- 
well, feeble, infirm, weakly, 
delicate, unhealthy, pining. 

ANT. Well, healthy, ener- 
getic, strong, vigorous. 

Ailment. Disease, malady, in- 
disposition, distemper, com- 

ANT. Health, sanity, conva- 
lescence, vigor, recovery. 

Aim. Direction, course, tendency, 
bent, proclivity, bearing; inten- 
tion, purpose, design, scheme; 
reason ; view, scope, drift, mark, 
goal, point; endeavor, attempt, 
aspiration, determination. 

ANT. Deviation, divergence, 
deflection, digression, aberra- 
tion; tangent; venture, leap, 
fluke, chance, hazard, specula- 
tion; neglect, avoidance, care- 
lessness, oversight. 

Air. Atmosphere, gas; breeze, 
vapor, zephyr, wind; weather; 
appearance, aspect, manner, 
sort, style, way, behavior, car- 
riage, bearing, expression, look, 
demeanor, mien, fashion; tune. 

Airy. Aerial, thin, rare, ethe- 
real; light, subtle, sublimated; 
sprightly, buoyant, vivacious, 
volatile, jolly, jovial, light- 
hearted; graceful, lithe, pliant, 
flexible, showy, jaunty, flaunt- 
ing, garish ; windy, empty. 

ANT. Thick, ponderous, heavy, 
inert, clumsy, dull, sluggish, 
wooden, slow, cheerless, sullen, 
doleful, leaden, lugubrious. 

Akin. Related, allied, homogene- 
ous, cognate, similar, congenial, 

ANT. Foreign, alien, hostile, 
heterogeneous, dissimilar. 

Alacrity. Readiness, briskness, 
activity, quickness, willingness, 
promptness, compliance, cheer- 
fulness, eagerness, gaiety, agil- 
ANT. Sloumess, reluctance, 

repugnance, aversion, refusal, 
shrinking, recoil, disinclination. 

Alarm. Summons, tocsin, dis- 
tress signal, war-cry; fear, ter- 
ror, apprehension, consterna- 
tion, dismay, dread, affright. 

ANT. Lullaby; confidence, 
quiet, composure, assurance, 

Alert. Lively, prompt, ready, 
prepared, vigilant, wide-awake, 
bustling, active, brisk, nimble, 
watchful, sprightly, agile. 

ANT. Slow, lazy, absent, ob- 
livious, sluggish, dilatory, 

Alien, n. Foreigner, stranger. 

ANT. Citizen, countryman, 
native, naturalized person. 

Alien, a. Strange, foreign, hos- 
tile, remote, distant, contrasted, 
contrary, unlike, unconnected. 
ANT. Pertinent, essential; 
domesticated, naturalized; ger- 
mane, akin, appropriate. 

Alienation. Estrangement, trans- 
fer, conveyance, disaffection, 
variance, rupture, breach; (re- 
lating to the mind) insanity, 
aberration, delusion, lunacy, de- 
lirium, mania, imbecility. 

ANT. Confederacy, coalition, 
alliance, league, union; sanity, 
soundness, sobriety, rationality. 

Alight. Perch, settle, drop, lodge; 
dismount, descend. 

ANT. Soar, spring, ascend, 
start, mount. 

Alike. Similar, kindred, same, 
resembling, equivalent, homoge- 
neous, identical, analogous, uni- 
form, akin, allied. 

ANT. Different, unequal, dis- 
similar, unlike, heterogeneous, 
distinct, various. 

Aliment. Food, nourishment, 

subsistence, fare, diet, regimen, 

nutriment, viands, meat, suste* 


ANT. Poison, bane; starva* 




tion, exhaustion; venom, 

Alive. Living, quick, subsist- 
ing, animate, alert, active, 
breathing; sensitive, suscep- 
tible; operative; cheerful, joy- 
ous; brisk. 

ANT. Dead, defunct, lifeless, 
deceased; inanimate, dull; de- 
parted, cold; dispirited. 

All, n. Whole, totality. 

ANT. P art, piece, share, por- 

All, o. Whole, entire, complete, 
total ; each, every. 
ANT. Some, part. 

Allay. Repress, restrain, check, 
subdue, silence, still, hush, 
soothe, compose, calm, appease, 
lull, alleviate, mitigate, solace, 
abate, relieve, palliate. 

ANT. Aggravate, arouse, ex- 
cite, stir, kindle, fan, provoke. 

Allege. Declare, afiirm, claim, 
maintain, state, asseverate ; 
advance, aver, introduce; pro- 
fess, cite. 

ANT. Contradict, gainsay, 
refute, deny, disprove, quash. 

Allegiance. Fealty, loyalty, de- 
votion, homage, faithfulness, 

ANT. Treason, rebellion, se- 
dition, disloyalty, disaffection. 

Allegory. Parable, fable, myth, 
story, tale, apologue, metaphor, 
illustration, simile. 

ANT. History, fact, narra- 
tive, chronicle, record. 

Alleviate. Abate, mitigate, re- 
duce, relieve, lessen, assuage, re- 
move, soften, moderate, lighten. 
ANT. Augment, increase, 
heighten, intensify, magnify, ag- 
gravate, enhance, embitter. 

Alliance. Connection, relation- 
ship, affinity; confederacy, 
league, union, treaty, copartner- 
ship, coalition; affiliation, simi- 

ANT. Separation, estrange- 
ment, divorce; antagonism, dis- 
ruption, enmity, hostility, 
schism, secession. 

Allot. Divide, apportion, dis- 
tribute, deal out, dispense; as- 
sign, grant, give, appoint, des- 

ANT. Refuse, retain, misdeal, 
deny, confiscate, appropriate, 
seize, withhold. 

Allow. Grant, own, confess, ad- 
mit; permit, let, authorize; 
suffer, tolerate, endure; yield, 
give, grant; approve, sanction, 
abate, remit. 

ANT. Protest, refuse, deny, 
disapprove, forbid, disallow, 
reject, withstand, resist. 

Allowance. Leave, permission, 
sanction, approval; admission, 
acknowledgment, assent; com- 
mission; qualification, excep- 
tion; ration. 

ANT. Refusal, disapproval, 
denial; ratification, confirma- 

Alloy, n. Admixture, adultera- 
tion, deterioration, debasement, 
disparagement, drawback. 

ANT. Genuineness, enhance- 
ment, purity, integrity. 

Allude. Intimate, insinuate, 
point, refer, suggest, signify, 
hint, imply, indicate, mention. 

ANT. Demonstrate, specify, 

Allure. Decoy, entice, coax, at- 
tract, tempt, inveigle, seduce. 

ANT. Dissuade, repel, warn, 
chill, damp, drive away, deter, 
alarm, terrify. 

Allusion. Hint, suggestion, inti- 
mation, reference, implication, 

ANT. Mention, demonstra- 
tion, specification. 

Ally, n. Assistant, helper, aider, 
friend, associate, colleague, 
partner, accessory, accomplice. 

[ 19 




ANT. Opponent, adversary, 
foe, enemy, antagonist. 

Aloft. Above, skyward, heaven- 
ward, overhead, in the air. 

ANT. Beneath, earthward, 

Alone. Solitary, sole, single, 

ANT. Accompanied, associ- 

Along. Lengthwise, onward, for- 
ward; together, beside, simul- 

ANT. Across, sidewise or 
sideways, lateral; apart, tan- 

Aloof. Apart, distant, away, 

ANT. Close, near, together, 

Aloud. Distinctly, audibly, vo- 
ciferously, clamorously, sonor- 

ANT. Softly, silently, inau- 

Also. As well, likewise, too, sim- 
ilarly, withal, besides, in addi- 
tion, in like manner. 

ANT. Nevertheless, notwith- 
standing, on the contrary, but, 
yet, in spite of, on the other 

Alter. Change, turn, vary, mod- 
ify, shift, substitute, remodel, 
transform, convert. 

ANT. Conserve, perpetuate, 
preserve, arrest, solidify, retain. 

Alteration. Change, variation, 
modification, shifting, muta- 

- ANT. Changelessness, iden- 
tity, fixity, permanence. 

Altercation. Dispute, conten- 
tion, controversy, difference, 
quarrel, wrangle, dissension. 

ANT. Concord, agreement, 
compromise, reconciliation, 
unanimity, harmony, conso- 

Alternate. Reciprocal, every 

other one, one after another, in 
turn, interchangeable, mutual. 

ANT. Continuous, successive, 
consequent, proximate, sequent. 

Alternative. Choice, option, 
preference, election, pick, re- 

ANT. Compulsion, quandary, 
necessity; fixity, changeless- 

Although. Albeit, even if, sup- 
posing, grant that. 

ANT. Yet, notwithstanding. 

Altitude. Height, elevation, lof- 
tiness, ascent, eminence. 

ANT. Depth, declivity, de- 
scent, abasement. 

Altogether. Collectively, con- 
jointly, wholly, quite, com- 
pletely, totally, utterly, en- 
tirely, thoroughly, fully, in the 

ANT. Partially, piecemeal, 
by instalments, partly, incom- 
pletely, by halves, wanting; in- 
dividually, separately. 

Altruism. Philanthropy, unself- 
ishness, public spirit, devotion 
to others, self-sacrifice, self-for- 
getfulness, generosity. 

ANT. Selfishness, self-indul- 
gence, worldliness, meanness; 

Always. Ever, forever, eter< 
nally, for aye, evermore, ever- 
lastingly, perpetually; uni- 
formly, invariably, generally, 

ANT. Now, momently, in- 
stantly, suddenly; sometimes, 

Amalgamate. Mix, commingle, 
unite, combine, blend, com- 
pound, incorporate, join, fuse, 

ANT. Disintegrate, decom- 
pose, disperse, separate, dissi- 
pate, analyze. 

Amaranthine. Of the amaranth ; 
fadeless, imperishable, undying, 

[ 20 1 




immortal, perennial; purplish, 

ANT. Ephemeral, perishable, 
mortal, fading. 

Amass. Accumulate, heap up, 
collect, gather, hoard, store 

ANT. Disperse, divide, scat- 
ter, spend, squander, loaste, dis- 
sipate; portion, distribute, par- 

Amateur. Lover, votary, devo- 
tee; beginner, neophyte, nov- 
i<f, tyro, dilettante. 
Amazement. Astonishment, be- 
wilderment, wonder, marvel, 
stupefaction, confusion, per- 
plexity, awe. 

ANT. Anticipation, calmness, 
coolness, familiarity, prepara- 
tion, stoicism, self-possession, 
steadiness, composure. 
Amazing. Astonishing, astound- 
ing, wonderful, surprising, mar- 
velous, prodigious, strange, mi- 
raculous, stupendous, extraor- 

ANT. Common, familiar, triv- 
ial, commonplace, frequent, 
hackneyed, usual, customary. 
Ambagious. Winding, devious, 
sinuous ; tortuous, indirect, eva- 
sive, circuitous; diffuse, dull, 
tedious; dubious, enigmatical, 

ANT. Direct, straight, frank, 
open, simple, straightfoncard, 
plain, clear, lucid, unmistak- 

Ambassador. Minister, envoy, 
legate, deputy, plenipotentiary. 
Ambient. Surrounding, encom- 
passing, enfolding, circling, in- 

ANT. Penetrating, infiltrat- 
ing, permeating, intervening. 
Ambiguous. Doubtful, dubious, 
uncertain, indefinite, vague, ob- 
scure, indistinct, equivocal, en- 

ANT. Obvious, plain, clear, 
lucid, unmistakable. 

Ambition. Emulation, rivalry, 
aspiration, competition, opposi- 

ANT. Contentment, moder- 
ation, indifference, satisfac- 

Amelioration. Amendment, im- 
provement, promotion, better- 
ing, elevation. 

ANT. Degeneration, deterio- 
ration, injury, detriment. 

Amenable. Liable, responsible, 
answerable, accountable; open, 
impressible, pliant, docile. 

ANT. Obstinate, irrespon- 
sible, independent, autocratic. 

Amend. Improve, mend, repair, 
ameliorate, reform, correct, 

ANT. Harm, corrupt, spoil, 
debase, aggravate. 

Amends. Compensation, atone- 
ment, expiation, recompense, in- 

ANT. Insult, injury, fault, 

Amenity. Softness, mildness, 
suavity, gentleness, refinement, 

ANT. Austerity, ungracious- 
ness, discourtesy, moroseness. 

Amiable. Agreeable, gentle, good- 
natured, pleasing, winsome, at- 
tractive, charming, lovable. 

ANT. Crusty, hateful, sullen, 
surly, crabbed, cruel, unlovely, 
gruff, disagreeable, ill-tempered. 

Amicable. Cordial, kind, friendly, 
harmonious, peaceable, propi- 
tious, favorable, sociable, ami- 

ANT. Unkind, cold, distant, 
hostile, adverse, unfriendly. 

Amid. Among, between, in the 
midst of, betwixt, surrounded 


ANT. Outside, without, be- 
yond, afar from, away from. 

I 21 ] 




Amiss. Wrong, improper, faulty, 
incorrect, inaccurate, inoppor- 

ANT. Correct, right, fault- 
less, perfect, effective, true. 

Amount, n. Sum, total, aggre- 
gate, whole; effect, substance, 

ANT. Portion, instalment, 
part; failure, deficiency, 

Ample. Liberal, large, spacious, 
plentiful, copious, lavish, exu- 
berant, bountiful, generous. 

ANT. Niggardly, stingy, scant, 
mean, narrow, insufficient. 

Amplify. Augment, enlarge, ex- 
pand, expatiate, increase, de- 
velop, widen, dilate, extend. 

ANT. Abbreviate, condense, 
reduce, abridge, amputate, epit- 
omize, summarize. 

Amusement. Diversion, sport, 
play, fun, entertainment, merri- 
ment, pastime, game, frolic, 

ANT. Weariness, disgust, sa- 
tiety, tedium, monotony, stren- 

Analogy. Likeness, relation, re- 
semblance, similitude, compari- 

ANT. Unlikeness, incongru- 
ity, disproportion, disagree- 

Analysis. Separation, dissection, 
investigation, partition. 

ANT. Synthesis, composition, 
aggregation, combination, co- 

Anarchy. Misrule, disorder, law- 
lessness, violence, confusion. 

ANT. Law, order, government, 
control, organization, subjec- 

Anatomy. Analysis, dissection; 
skeleton; dismemberment. 

ANT. Synthesis, organization, 
union, construction; body. 

Ancient. Old, antique, anti- 
quated, obsolete, primeval, aged. 

ANT. Modern, young, fresh, 
new, juvenile, upstart. 

Ancillary. Auxiliary, helping, 
instrumental ; subsidiary, sub- 
ordinate, subservient. 

ANT. Alien, adverse, redun- 
dant, obstructive, impertinent, 
irrelative, counteractive. 

Angelic. Seraphic, celestial, pure, 
ethereal, adorable, rapturous, 
heavenly, divine, spiritual. 

ANT. Demoniac, demoniacal, 
diabolical, hellish, fiendish, foul. 

Anger. Fury, ire, offense, pas- 
sion, choler, indignation, rage, 
temper, vexation, displeasure, 
animosity, wrath, resentment. 

ANT. Patience, self-control, 
self-restraint, forbearance, le- 
niency, mildness, forgiveness, 
giveness, charity, lore. 

Angry. Provoked, indignant, ex- 
asperated, irritated, wrathful, 
furious, resentful, mad, passion- 
ate, sulky, piqued, galled. 

ANT. Calm, unresentful, 
peaceful, self-controlled, good- 
tempered, forgiving, lenient. 

Anguish. Agony, torture, tor- 
ment, pang, acute distress, ex- 
treme suffering. 

ANT. Ease, pleasure, relief, 
solace, assuagement, ecstasy. 

Animal. Brute, beast, living or- 
ganism, sentient being; fauna. 
ANT. Man ; vegetable ; angel ; 
inanimate object, substance; 
soul, spirit. 

Animate. Enliven, vivify, 
quicken, invigorate, revive, 
stimulate, waken, rouse, excite, 
provoke, encourage, inspire, 

ANT. Deaden, discourage, de- 
ter, depress, dishearten, stifle. . 

Animation. Life, vitality, spirit, 

vivacity, energy, exhilaration, 

sprightliness, courage, force, 

buoyancy, vigor, liveliness. 

ANT. Dulness, deadness, 

[ 22 ] 




spiritlessness, inertnest, stolid- 

Animosity. Hatred, enmity, 
malignity, antipathy, aversion, 
acrimony, strife, bitterness, hos- 
tility, dissension, malice, an- 

ANT. Congeniality, unanim- 
ity, friendship, companionship, 
harmony, concord, regard, alli- 
ance, kindness, sympathy. 

Annals. Chronicles, records, reg- 
isters, rolls, archives. 

ANT. Romance, tradition, 
hearsay, legend, lays. 

Annex. Add, affix, attach, ad- 
join, append, subjoin, tag, join, 
unite, connect. 

ANT. Detach, disconnect, 
withdraw, separate, remove, dis- 

Annihilation. Extermination, 
obliteration, eradication, de- 
struction; non-existence; obliv- 
ion, non-being, eternal blank; 

ANT. Perpetuation, immor- 
tality; genesis, evolution, de- 

Annotation. Note, comment, re- 
mark, observation, gloss, scho- 
lium, explanation, illustration, 

ANT. Narrative, text, asser- 
tion, proposition, statement. 

Announce. Proclaim, publish, re- 
port, herald, make known, state, 
reveal, tell, declare, communi- 
cate, promulgate, circulate, 

ANT. Suppress, secrete, hide, 
cover up, conceal, bury, with- 

Announcement. Notice, procla- 
mation, declaration, advertise- 
ment, notification, manifesto, 

ANT. Suppression, conceal- 
ment, secrecy, equivocation, am- 
biguity, insinuation. 

Annoyance. Trouble, discom- 
fort, vexation, torment, inflic- 
tion, nuisance, irritation. 

ANT. Oratification, delight, 
ease, pleasure, relief. 

Annual, n. Yearly publication, 
year-book, annals; plant living 
but a year. 

ANT. Perennial, biennial, tri- 
ennial; exotic. 

Annul. Cancel, abrogate, recall, 
repeal, revoke, countermand, re- 
verse, reached, abolish, nullify, 
supersede, invalidate. 

ANT. Conserve, confirm, 
maintain, enact, establish. 

Anomalous. Abnormal, unnat- 
ural, irregular, peculiar, excep- 
tional, aberrant, unusual, sin- 
gular, eccentric, erratic. 

ANT. Normal, regular, usual, 
ordinary, common, iconted. 

Anon. Soon, shortly, forthwith, 
immediately, instantly, directly, 
ere long; afterward, presently, 

ANT. Herewith, now; already, 

Anonymous. Nameless, unac- 
knowledged, of unknown author- 

ANT. Identified, authorized, 
authenticated, attested, signed. 

Answer, v. Reply, rejoin, re- 
spond; be accountable, respon- 
sible, or liable, go surety; cor- 
respond, be similar; do, serve, 
suit, pass; refute, defend; sat- 
isfy, fulfil. 

ANT. Challenge, defy, ques- 
tion, interrogate, query, sum- 

Answerable. Refutable, respon- 
sible, amenable, liable, account- 
able ; corresponding, correla- 
tive, suitable, proportionate. 

ANT. Independent, irrespon- 
sible, irrefutable; unsuitable, 
dissimilar, different. 

Antagonism. Opposition, con 

[ 23 ] 




tradiction, hostility, animosity, 

ANT. Amity, alliance, associ- 

Antecedent, a. Preceding, pre- 
vious, prior, foregoing, anterior, 

ANT. Subsequent, posterior, 
sequent, following. 

Antedate. Date before the true 
time ; anticipate, forestall, fore- 

ANT. Postdate, follow, suc- 
ceed, supervene. 

Anticipate. Forestall, expect, 
foretaste, antedate, forecast, ap- 
prehend, hope for, look forward 

ANT. Postdate, follow; re- 
flect upon, recall, recollect, re- 
member; despair of, doubt, 
dread, fear. 

Anticipation. Expectation, pros- 
pect, hope, trust, contempla- 
tion, abeyance, foreboding, ap- 
prehension, presentiment; pre- 
science, prevision, forethought. 
ANT. Realization, consum- 
mation, despair, enjoyment, sur- 
prise, doubt, dread, wonder, 

Antipathy. Repugnance, repul- 
sion, aversion, detestation, ab- 
horrence, hatred, hostility, 

ANT. Attraction, affinity, 
congeniality, sympathy, har- 

Antiquated. Quaint, obsolete, 
bygone, ancient, archaic, old- 

ANT. Modern, modish, new, 
recent, stylish, fashionable, 

Antiquity. Ancient times, eld. 
early days; ancients, people of 
early days; great age; (pi.) 
relics of ancient days, archeol- 

ANT. Modernity; futurity, 

eventuality, posterity ; the pres- 
ent, to-day. 

Anxiety. Perplexity, apprehen- 
sion, care, concern, solicitude, 
worry, dread, trouble, forebod- 
ing, misgiving, eagerness, diffi- 

ANT. Ease, confidence, con- 
tentment, apathy, acquiescence, 
calmness, nonchalance, assur- 

Apathy. Stoicism, calmness, 
composure, lethargy, uncon- 
cern, indifference, insensibility, 
immobility, quietude, phlegm, 

ANT. Fury, frenzy, suscepti- 
bility, sensitiveness, anxiety, 
excitement, agitation, feeling, 
passion, vehemence, emotion. 

Ape, v. Mimic, imitate, counter- 
feit, copy, affect, personate, 

ANT. Vary, modify, change. 

Aperture. Opening, hole, gap, 
rift, chasm, loophole, orifice, 

ANT. Closure, blank wall; 
seclusion, imperviousness. 

Apex. Acme, vertex, pinnacle, 

ANT. Base, nadir, foot, root. 

Aphorism. Adage, maxim, prov- 
erb, saying, dictum, apothegm, 

ANT. Lecture, disquisition, 
discourse, sermon. 

Apiece. Each, individually, sev- 
erally, distributively, sepa- 

ANT. Together, collectively, 
synthetically, in the aggre- 

Apocalyptic. Tn or from " The 
Revelation of St. John the 
Divine"; prophetic, mystical, 
mysterious; manifesting, re- 
vealing, unveiling. 

ANT. Concealing, obscuring t 
shrouding, eclipsing. 

t 24 ] 




Apocryphal. Unauthentic, un- 
canonical, legendary, fictitious, 
false, equivocal, doubtful, spu- 

ANT. Palpable, authorized, 
accepted, authentic, genuine, 
current, verified, attested. 

Apology. Plea, excuse, defense, 
confession, acknowledgment, 
justification, vindication, ex- 
planation, extenuation. 

ANT. Charge, censure, im- 
putation, condemnation, insult, 
complaint, offense, wrong. 

Apostate. Renegade, turncoat, 
backslider, deserter, pervert, 

ANT. Adherent, supporter, 
zealot, dogmatist, fanatic. 

Apothegm. Saying, dictum, 
proverb, aphorism, precept, by- 

ANT. Sermon, discourse, ti- 
rade, harangue. 

Appall. Terrify, frighten, dis- 
may, shock, daunt, alarm, af- 

ANT. Reassure, embolden. 

Apparel. Clothes, dress, rai- 
ment, attire, costume, habit, 
guise, garments, robes, ves- 
ture, wardrobe, equipment, 

ANT. Nudity, deshabille, 
rags, tatters. 

Apparent. Seeming, probable, 
likely, obvious, conspicuous, 
manifest, clear, patent, evident, 
plain, legible, specious. 

ANT. Real, hidden, dubious, 
improbable, doubtful, unimag- 
inable, unsupposable, minute. 

Appeal. Address, invoke, en- 
treat, implore, supplicate, sue, 

ANT. Protest, defy, abjure, 
disdain, deprecate, repudiate. 

Appearance. Semblance, look, 
show, pretense, guise, fashion; 
arrival, advent, apparition; de- 

meanor, air, complexion, man- 

ANT. Disappearance, eva- 
nition, departure, vanishing. 

Appease. Calm, pacify, soothe, 
quell, mollify, mitigate, lull; 
propitiate, placate, satisfy, rec- 

ANT. Aggravate, exasperate, 
provoke, inflame, incense, eat- 

Appellation. Epithet, title, de- 
scription, designation, name. 

ANT. Anonymousness, name- 

Appendage, Appendix. At- 
tachment, addition, adjunct, 

ANT. Main body, original, 
whole, total. 

Appertain. Belong, inhere, ad- 
here, regard, concern, touch, re- 

ANT. Be remote, far-fetched, 
or forced, have no bearing upon. 

Appetite. Longing, craving, de- 
sire, relish, gust, zest, liking. 

ANT. Aversion, loathing, re~ 
pugnance, antipathy, disgust. 

Applause. Praise, approbation, 
commendation, compliment, 
plaudit, acclamation, eclat, 
clapping of hands. 

ANT. Denunciation, censure, 
blame, sibilation, vituperation f 

Appliances, n. pi. Means, in- 
struments, appointments, ap- 
purtenances, tools, adjuncts, 
equipment ; resources, steps, 
measures, ways; contrivances. 

Applicable. Fit, appropriate, 
suitable, pertinent, apt, proper, 
relevant, germane ; adjustable. 
ANT. Irrelevant, useless, un- 
available, impertinent. 

Applicant. Petitioner, solicitor, 
suitor, candidate, aspirant. 

Apply. Use, employ, exercise, 
appropriate^ execute, carry out, 

[ 25 ] 




practice; devote, engage, dedi- 
cate; request, petition. 

ANT. Divert, misuse, dis- 
card, divorce. 

Appoint. Determine, establish, 
fix; assign, allot, designate; 
nominate, name, create; equip, 
supply, furnish; direct, com- 
mand, decree, enjoin, impose, re- 
quire, ordain. 

ANT. Reserve, cancel, dis- 
arrange, reverse, unthhold, re- 
tain, undo, suspend, recall, 

Appointment. Assignation, as- 
signment, agreement, arrange- 
ment; meeting, tryst; station, 
position, office, place; decree, 
command, order, edict, ordi- 
nance, mandate, requirement, 

Apportion. Appoint, allot, ap- 
propriate, divide, distribute, 
share, grant, dispense, assign, 

ANT. Retain, collect, con- 
solidate, receive, gather, di- 

Apposite. Apt, pertinent, suit- 
able, seasonable, apropos, fit, 
applicable, adapted. 

ANT. Untimely, irrelevant, 
unfitting, impertinent, mis- 

Appraise. Estimate, prize, 
value, rate, fix a price for, sur- 
vey, assess, assize. 

ANT. Undervalue, discard, 
misprize; discount, rebate, al- 

Appreciate. Estimate justly, 
value highly, esteem, prize, 
raise the value of; recognize, 

ANT. Undervalue, misjudge, 
ignore, misconceive; depreciate, 

Apprehend. Arrest, seize, take, 
catch, capture; imagine, con- 
ceive, regard; perceive, realize, 

understand, appreciate; fear, 

ANT. Miss, lose, misundeT' 
stand, ignore, misconceive. 

Apprehension. Arrest, cap- 
ture; understanding, intelli- 
gence, mind, reason ; notice, cog- 
nizance ; conception, imagina- 
tion ; knowledge, discernment, 
perception, sense; opinion, 
fancy, sentiment, notion, fear, 
suspicion, anxiety. 

ANT. Escape, non-detection; 
sensibility, emotion; apathy, 
lethargy; illiteracy, stupidity, 
stolidity; confidence, noncha- 

Apprise. Give notice, inform, 
tell, publish, advise, acquaint. 
ANT. Deceive, mislead, hood- 
wink, mystify. 

Approach, v. Advance, draw 
near, bring near, go near, push ; 
broach, address confidentially; 
resemble closely, be like, simi- 
lar, or equal. 

ANT. Diverge, retreat, go 
back; retard, restrain; be un- 

Approbation. Praise, commen- 
dation, approval, liking; sup- 
port, consent, sanction, indorse- 
ment, concurrence, assent. 

ANT. Censure, protest, de- 
nial, disapproval, dissatisfac- 

Approve. Praise, commend, 
sanction, support, encourage, 

ANT. Disparage, condemn, 
disown, repudiate, dislike. 

Approximation. Approach, 
nearness, similarity, likeness, 
contiguity, resemblance, pro- 
pinquity, neighborhood. 

ANT. Remoteness, variation, 
distance, difference, divergence. 

Appurtenant. Belonging, con- 
nected, appended, attached, co- 

I 26 ] 




ANT. Isolated, detached, un- 
allied, independent. 

A priori. Theoretically; neces- 
sarily, apodictically, constitu- 
tionally, absolutely, primordi- 
ally, inductively. 

ANT. A posteriori; practi- 
cally, according to experience; 
deductively from facts. 

Apropos. Opportune, seasonable, 
apposite, timely, apt, suitable. 

ANT. Inopportune, irrele- 
vant, untimely, inapt, unsuit- 

Aptitude. Disposition, knack, 
endowment, tendency, inclina- 
tion, fitness, suitability, bias, 

ANT. Unreadiness, unskilful- 
ness, repugnance, incongruity. 

Arbiter. Umpire, judge, referee ; 
controller, master, lord. 

ANT. Appellant, claimant, 
litigant, disputant. 

Arbitrary. Despotic, autocratic, 
tyrannical, overbearing, pe- 
remptory; capricious, wilful, 
fanciful; imperious, dictatorial. 
ANT. Considerate, lenient, 
obliging, equitable. 

Arbitration. Mediation, inter- 
cession, interposition, interven- 
tion; arbitrament, umpirage, 
trial, judgment, decision. 

ANT. Litigation, contention, 
disputation, appeal, dissension. 

Ardent. Passionate, fervent, in- 
tense, vehement, fierce, fiery; 
hot, burning; zealous, enthusi- 
astic, strenuous. 

ANT. Cool, cold, indifferent, 

, torpid, apathetic, dispassionate, 

Argument. Reasoning, proof, 
evidence, controversy, discus- 
sion, debate; subject, topic, 
theme, thesis; summary, ab- 
stract, outline. 

ANT. Assertion, assumption; 

Aridity. Dryness, parchedness, 
sterility, unfertility, barren- 
ness; dulness, indifference, tor- 
pidity, insensibility. 

ANT. Moisture, fertility, ver- 
dancy, luxuriance, productivity. 

Arise. Ascend, mount, get up, 
stand up; rebel, revolt; result, 

ANT. Descend, dismount; 
submit, cower; cause, instigate. 

Aristocracy. Government of 
nobles; nobility, peerage, gen- 

ANT. Democracy; people, 
populace, masses, rabble. 

Arm, v. Equip, array, furnish, 

gird, accouter, provide; fortify, 

cover, protect, guard; prepare. 

ANT. Divest, disarm; expose. 

Army. Soldiery, legion, arma- 
ment, forces, host, phalanx, 

ANT. Individual; citizens. 

Aromatic. Fragrant, spicy, 
balmy, redolent, odoriferous, 

ANT. Scentless, malodorous, 
fetid, offensive, noisome, rank. 

Arouse. Excite, provoke, insti- 
gate, stimulate, animate, kindle, 
warm, whet, summon, awaken. 

ANT. Allay, mitigate, mod- 
erate, still, quiet, assuage, quell. 

Arraign. Accuse, charge, indict, 
impeach, denounce; prosecute- 

ANT. Acquit, discharge, con- 
done, release. 

Arrange. Settle, determine, ad- 
just; dispose, group, marshall, 
rank, range, distribute, place; 
plan, contrive, project, devise, 
construct, organize. 

ANT. Confuse, disturb, 
jumble, disperse, disorder, de- 

Array, n. Order, parade, show, 
exhibition, collection, arrange- 
ment, line of battle, disposi- 

[ 27 ] 




ANT. Disorder, confusion, 

Arrest. Apprehend, capture, 
seize, detain, hold, take pris- 
oner; stop. 

ANT. Liberate, free, dismiss, 
release, discharge; expedite. 

Arrival. Advent, coming; comer, 
person or thing arrived. 
ANT. Departure, going. 

Arrive. Reach, get to, come ; at- 
tain, touch, overtake; happen. 
ANT. Depart, set out or 
forth, be gone. 

Arrogant. Haughty, insolent, 
proud, lordly, disdainful, su- 
percilious, self-important, ego- 
istic, overbearing, dogmatic, 

ANT. Humble, diffident, po- 
lite, bashful, servile, consider- 

Art. Craft, business, calling, em- 
ployment, trade; practical 
knowledge ; creation of beauty ; 
skill, dexterity, sagacity, apti- 
tude, cleverness, ingenuity ; 
cunning, artifice, deceit, guile. 
ANT. Misrepresentation, cari- 
cature; candor, simplicity; in- 
competency, inability. 

Article. Tiling, substance, com- 
modity; part, portion, particu- 
lar, point, item, member; essay, 
paper, monograph, brochure. 

AXT. Nothing, nullity, cipher; 
totality, entirety, unity, integer. 

Articulate. Join, unite, connect, 
fasten together; enunciate, ut- 
ter distinctly, pronounce. 

ANT. Disperse, separate, 
rend, dissect, disjoin, discon- 
nect; whisper; render mute, si- 
lence, muzzle. 

Artifice. Cunning, craft, machi- 
nation, stratagem, guile, device, 
contrivance, cheat, imposture, 
trick, ruse, maneuver, wile. 

ANT. Fairness, frankness, 
candor, openness, sincerity, 

truth, honesty, artlessness, in- 
genuousness, simplicity. 

Artificial. Unnatural, factitious ; 
feigned, counterfeit, fictitious, 
spurious, sham ; affected, forced, 

ANT. Natural, genuine, spon- 
taneous, transparent, artless, 

Artist. Designer, contriver, 
skilled workman, artisan; me- 
chanic, operative; painter; 
sculptor, carver; master, mas- 

Ascend. Rise, mount, soar, as- 
pire, go up, tower. 

ANT. Descend, fall, sink. 

Ascendancy. Power, authority, 
sway, dominion, rule, mastery, 
control, government, influence. 

ANT. Subordination, ser- 

Ascertain. Determine, establish, 
settle, flx, define, verify; dis- 
cover, find out, get at. 

ANT. Guess, surmise, sup- 
pose, presume, conjecture. 

Ascetic. Austere, rigid, severe, 
self-denying, abstinent, stern, 

ANT. Lenient, indulgent, 
epicurean, pampered, mild, tol- 

Ascribe. Impute, attribute, as- 
sign, refer, charge, set down. 
ANT. Dissociate, exclude; 
deny, refuse; disconnect. 

Ask. Request, petition, solicit, 
entreat, beg, beseech, suppli- 
cate, require of, crave, demand. 
AXT. Refuse, reject, deny; 
command, claim, exact, extort, 
enforce, insist. 

Aspect. Air, mien, look, counte- 
nance, expression, feature, bear- 
ing; state, attitude, posture, 
condition, appearance; direc- 
tion, outlook, prospect. 

Asperity. Acrimony, sourness, 
sharpness; sternness, severity, 

I 28 1 




bitterness, sullenness, ill-tem- 
per; roughness, unevenness. 

ANT. Sweetness, pleasant- 
ness; gentleness, mildness ; 

Asperse. Slander, calumniate, 
traduce, vilify, attack, abuse, 
blemish, besmirch, vituperate, 
disparage, censure, slur, malign. 
ANT. Eulogize, vindicate, 
clear, defend, extol, praise, 

Aspiration. Pronouncing with 
the rough breathing; yearning, 
longing, ardent desire, craving, 
spiritual ambition. 

ANT. Apathy, inertia, indif- 
ference, dulness, aversion, re- 
pudiation, avoidance. 

Assault. Attack, invation, 
charge, onset, onslaught, ag- 

ANT. Resistance, defense, re- 
pulsion, retaliation, undermin- 

Assemble. Gather, collect, con- 
vene, congregate, meet, come 

ANT. Disperse, scatter, dis- 

Assembly. Concourse, company, 
gathering, congregation, as- 
semblage, meeting, convocation, 
throng ; congress, parliament, 
legislature, synod, diet, coun- 
cil, convention; ball, dance, 
dancing party. 

ANT. Dispersion, dismissal, 
disunion, disruption. 

Assent, n. Acquiescence, ac- 
knowledgment, approval, con- 
currence, approbation, accord, 
consent, agreement, compliance. 
ANT. Disagreement, dissent, 
difference, protest, declension. 

Assertion. Asseveration, prot- 
estation, allegation ; position, 
statement, word, declaration; 
vindication, defense, mainte- 

ANT. Denial, contradiction, 
abandonment, protest, dis- 
avowal, retraction, repudiation, 
confutation, abjuration. 
Assess. Tax, value, appraise, es- 
timate, compute, fix, assign, de- 
termine, impose. 

ANT. Discount, rebate, uA- 

Assiduous. Diligent, industri- 
ous, untiring, indefatigable, de- 
voted, constant, attentive, 
painstaking, laborious, persist- 
ent, active. 

ANT. Indolent, remiss, inat- 
tentive, lazy, desultory, incon- 

Assignment. Appointment, al- 
lotment; specification, fixing, 
determination, offer, presenta- 
tion; transfer, allowance. 

ANT. Withdrawal, refusal; 
acceptance, reception. 
Assimilate. Make similar, cause 
to resemble; digest, appropri- 
ate, incorporate, absorb. 

ANT. Contrast, reject, sepa- 
rate, segregate. 

Assist. Help, aid, succor, re- 
lieve, support, befriend, serve; 
speed, sustain, promote, fur- 
ther, cooperate with, patronize. 

ANT. Hinder, oppose, an- 
tagonize, prevent, resist, coun- 

Associate, n. Companion, com- 
rade, chum, friend, helpmate, 
partner, colleague, coadjutor, 
accomplice, ally, consort, con- 
federate, peer. 

ANT. Antagonist, enemy, foe, 
opponent, rival, stranger, op- 

Association. Federation, fellow- 
ship, alliance, companionship, 
society, union, partnership, 
lodge, company, confederacy, 
corporation, fraternity, club. 

ANT. Solitude; disintegra- 
tion; independence, separation, 




disunion, estrangement, disrup- 
tion, avoidance; individuality. 

Assortment. Arrangement, al- 
lotment, distribution; set, class, 
group, parcel, collection; vari- 
ety, miscellany. 

ANT. Disarrangement, dis- 
placement, misplacement j con- 

Assuage. Soothe, pacify, miti- 
gate, ease, alleviate, abate, calm. 
ANT. Excite, inflame, pro- 
voke, aggravate, exasperate. 

Assume. Arrogate, feign, pre- 
tend, take, usurp, accept, affect, 
appropriate, claim. 

ANT. Waive, allow, surren- 
der; doff; concede, grant, aban- 
don, resign; demonstrate, prove, 

Assumption. Presumption, hy- 
pothesis, theory, postulate, con- 
jecture ; acceptance of, responsi- 
bility for; usurpation, arro- 
gance, haughtiness, conceit, 
lordliness, impudence, effront- 

ANT. Truth, fact; timidity, 
distrust, misgiving, consterna- 

Assurance. Confidence, effront- 
ery, presumption, assumption, 
arrogance, impudence, self-re- 
liance, boldness, assertion; 

ANT. Doubt, distrust, hesi- 
tancy, misgiving, timidity, con- 
fusion, dismay, shyness. 

Astonish. Amaze, startle, sur- 
prise, astound, stupefy, stagger. 
ANT. Encourage, embolden, 

Astute. Keen, discerning, acute, 
sagacious, shrewd, sharp, cun- 
ning, subtle, discriminating, 
knowing, perspicacious, crafty. 
ANT. Stupid, unintelligent, 
imbecile, dull, idiotic, short- 
sighted, shallow. 

Atrocious. Infamous, outra- 

geous, nefarious, villainous, dia- 
bolical, heinous, flagrant, hor- 

ANT. Humane, noble, honor- 
able, admirable, chivalrous, gen- 

Attachment. Adherence, friend- 
ship, regard, tenderness, love, 
esteem, affection, devotion, in- 
clination, union. 

ANT. A lienation, aversion, 
coolness, distance, estrange- 
ment, indifference, antipathy, 
animosity, dislike, enmity, di- 

Attack, v. Assault, storm, as- 
sail, invade, charge, rush upon, 
spring upon ; censure, criticize ; 
combat, besiege, beset. 

ANT. Withstand, defend, re- 
sist, support, shield, aid, up- 
hold, shelter, vindicate, protest. 

Attain. Achieve, accomplish, 
gain, master, secure, earn, ob- 
tain, win, acquire, accomplish. 
ANT. Lose, fail of, forfeit, 
give up, abandon, let go, miss. 

Attainment. Winning, getting, 
accomplishing, securing; eru- 
dition, acquirement, wisdom, 
accomplishment, mental re- 
sources, information, learning, 

ANT. Inspiration, intuition, 
genius; ignorance. 

Attempt. Try, undertake, seek, 
endeavor, essay, attack, strive. 
ANT. Abandon, shun, drop, 
dismiss, negleot. 

Attendance. Presence; persons 
present; train, retinue; minis- 
tration, service, waiting on. 

ANT. Absence; non-atten- 
dance; neglect, abandonment. 

Attention. Care, notice, obser- 
vation, consideration, watchful- 
ness, alertness; study, reflec- 
tion, application ; respect, cour- 
tesy, politeness, civility, regard j 
courtship, devotion, wooing. 

[ 30 




ANT. Indifference, careless- 
ness, heedlessness, abstraction, 
distraction, absence of mind; 
neglect, preoccupation, ignor- 

Attenuate. Rarefy, thin, reduce, 
diminish, make slender, slim, or 
spare, lessen. 

ANT. Amplify, dilate, swell, 
develop, enlarge, broaden, ex- 
pand, increase. 

Attest. Bear witness, certify, 
indorse, corroborate, support, 
authenticate; invoke, adjure; 
prove, show, manifest, exhibit. 

ANT. Controvert, contradict, 
disprove, deny, upset, refute; 
conceal; vitiate. 

Attire. Dress, apparel, robes, 
garments, habiliments, habit, 
raiment, uniform, costume, liv- 

ANT. Nudity, nakedness. 

Attitude. Position, pose, pos- 
ture, situation, standing, aspect. 
ANT. State, condition, es- 
sence; amorphism. 

Attraction. Drawing, allure- 
ment, lure, fascination, charm, 
enticement, witchery, grace. 

ANT. Repulsion, aversion, 
disinclination, repugnance. 

Attribute, n. Quality, property, 
characteristic, peculiarity, 

ANT. Essence, substance, na- 
ture, being. 

Attribute, v. Ascribe, assign, 
impute, refer, charge, connect, 

ANT. Separate, sever, sun- 
der, disconnect, deny, dissociate. 

Audacious. Bold, daring, fear- 
less, courageous, venturesome, 
intrepid, dauntless ; presumptu- 
ous, forward, assuming, impu- 
dent, impertinent, insolent, 

ANT. Timid, cowardly, cau- 
tious; unenterprising; retiring. 

Augur, v. Foretell, portend, pre- 

dict, presage, prophesy, divine, 
prognosticate, betoken. 

ANT. Demonstrate, estab- 
lish, settle, prove, warrant, cal- 

August. Awful, imposing, ma- 
jestic, stately, grand, regal, 
kingly, princely, noble, dig- 

ANT. Mean, common, vulgar, 
beggarly, commonplace, paltry. 

Auspicious. Successful, fortu- 
nate, lucky, happy, prosperous; 
propitious, promising, oppor- 
tune, favorable. 

ANT. Hopeless, abortive, un- 
promising, unsatisfactory, dis- 

Austere. Severe, hard, stiff,, 
stern, uncompromising, unre- 
lenting, ascetic, rigid, formal. 

ANT. Affable, kindly, indul- 
gent, genial, bland, mild, ten- 

Authentic. Genuine, trust- 
worthy, veritable, accepted, au- 
thorized, certain, accredited, 
sure, true, reliable, original, 

ANT. False, fictitious, spuri- 
ous, unauthorized, apocryphal, 
fabulous, counterfeit. 

Author. Creator, maker, con- 
triver, originator, inventor ; 
writer, composer. 

ANT. Destroyer, demolisher, 
spoiler, annihilator. 

Authority. Power, government, 
empire, dominion; supremacy, 
control, influence, interest; or- 
der, precept, sanction, liberty, 
warranty; expert, master, con- 

ANT. Anarchy, license, in- 
subordination, misrule, lynch 
law; embargo, restriction, hin- 
drance, proscription, prohibi- 
tion, injunction, interdiction; 
weakness, wrong, usurpation. 

Autocratic. Absolute, unlim- 

[ 31 ] 




ited, tyrannical, oppressive, 
disdainful, overbearing, arro- 

ANT. Subordinate, depend- 
ent, responsible, Constitutional. 
Automatic. Self-moving, self- 

ANT. Voluntary, free, op- 

Auxiliary, n. Assistant, helper, 
confederate, aid, ally, acces- 
sory, promoter, subordinate. 

ANT. Opponent, antagonist, 
hinderer, opposer. 
Available. Serviceable, useful, 
profitable, beneficial, advanta- 

ANT. Useless, inappropriate, 
irrelevant, inoperative. 
Avaricious. Grasping, sordid, 
greedy, covetous, miserly, 

ANT. Liberal, bountiful, ex- 
travagant, wasteful, prodigal, 

Avenge. Punish, retaliate, re- 
venge, vindicate. 

ANT. Forgive, pardon, over- 
look, condone, waive, forego, 

Avenue. Access, entrance, entry, 
approach, passage; alley, walk, 
street, road; route, channel. 
Aver. Assert, declare, say, pro- 
test, affirm, asseverate, allege. 

ANT. Deny, contradict, dis- 

Average. Medium, medial, mid- 
dling, ordinary, tolerable, mod- 
erate, mediocre, passable. 

ANT. Extreme, excessive, per- 
fect, extraordinary, excellent. 
Aversion. Dislike, hatred, re- 
pugnance, disgust, loathing, an- 
tipathy, abhorrence, detesta- 
tion, unwillingness. 

ANT. Sympathy, congenial- 
ity, ardor, eagerness, avidity, 
love, desire, affection. 
Avidity. Eagerness, longing, de- 

sire, yearning; rapacity, crav- 
ing, greediness. 

ANT. Apathy, indifference, 
coldness, aversion, loathing. 

Avoid. Quit, shun, abandon, es- 
cape, elude, withdraw, forsake, 

ANT. Seek, court, approach, 
accost, address, affect. 

Avouch. Assert, affirm, declare, 
protest, profess, asseverate. 

ANT. Deny, contradict, gain- 

Avow. Confess, own, acknowl- 
edge, admit, profess, proclaim, 

ANT. Disavow, repudiate, 
deny, contradict, disclaim, ig- 

Awaken. Rouse, kindle, excite, 

ANT. Allay, quiet, subdue. 

Award. Grant, allot, accord, dis- 
tribute, assign, decree, deter- 

ANT. Refuse, withhold, re- 
tain, misappropriate, deny. 

Aware. Conscious, sensible, cog- 
nizant, knowing, apprised, 

ANT. Unconscious, ignorant, 

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence, 
veneration, terror, wonder. 

ANT. Contempt, familiarity, 
irreverence, disrespect, inso- 

Awful. Dread, grand, imposing, 
majestic, noble, portentous, ap- 
palling, august, alarming, hor- 
rible, frightful, shocking, ter- 

ANT. Commonplace, contemp- 
tible, despicable, vulgar, undig- 

Awkward. Clumsy, bungling, 
ungainly, uncouth, rough, un- 

ANT. Clever, skilful, handy t 
dexterous, adroit. 

[ 32 ] 




Awry. Oblique, slanting, twisted, 
crooked, distorted, athwart. 

ANT. Straight, direct, true, 

Axiom. Truism, postulate, self- 

evident proposition, necessary 

ANT. Paradox, sophism, con- 
tradiction, nonsense, absurdity. 
Azure. Blue, sky-color, cerulean. 


Babble. Chatter, prattle, jibber; 
prate, gossip, tattle; tell se- 
crets, blab, blurt out; murmur. 
ANT. Rush, suppress; enun- 

Babel. Tumult, disorder, clamor, 
confusion, discord, din, pother. 
ANT. Silence; articulation, 
distinctness, enunciation; mo- 

Back, a. and ad. Remote, hind- 
most, in the rear; again, re- 

ANT. Near, foremost, in ad- 

Back, v. Support, aid, second, 
sustain, assist; retire, retreat, 
withdraw; move backward, 
cause to go backward. 

ANT. Fail, disappoint; ad- 
vance, push. 

Backbiter. Slanderer, defamer, 
traducer, calumniator, de- 
tractor, cynic. 

ANT. Advocate, upholder, 
defender, vindicator. 

Backslider. Recreant, apostate, 
renegade, deserter, abjurer. 

ANT. Confessor, zealot, bigot, 

Backward. Averse, indisposed, 
reluctant, loath, unwilling, hes- 
itating, wavering; dull, slow, 
stupid, stolid; late, tardy. 

ANT. Forward, eager, will- 
ing, ready, prompt; quick, 
bright; previous, antecedent, 

Bad. Evil, wicked, depraved, 
abandoned, corrupt, immoral, 

unfair, unprincipled, villainous ; 
pernicious, mischievous, hurt- 
ful, injurious, detrimental, un- 
wholesome ; unlucky, unfortu- 
nate ; sad, unwelcome, distress- 
ing, disappointing; sorry, mean, 
shabby, vile, wretched, abomi- 
nable; poor, imperfect; serious, 
hard, severe. 

ANT. Good, perfect, right, 
holy, beautiful, pleasant. 

Baffle. Frustrate, thwart, defeat, 
circumvent, checkmate, under- 
mine; bewilder, perplex, con- 
found, disconcert. 

ANT. Aid, assist, advance, 
encourage, promote. 

Balance. Poise, hold in equilib- 
rium; weigh, compare, esti- 
mate; neutralize, counteract, 
compensate ; equalize, square, 

ANT. Upset, cant, tilt, over- 
balance, subveri. 

Bald. Bare, hairless; treeless, 
unsheltered, naked, verdure- 
less; unadorned, prosaic, dull, 
vapid, tame, inelegant; literal, 
unvarnished ; mere, unsup- 
ported, uncorroborated. 

ANT. Adorned, periwigged; 
forested, shaded; bright, ele- 
gant, rhetorical; ornate, pol- 
ished, ivitty, scintillating. 

Baleful. Harmful, hurtful, in- 
jurious, baneful, pernicious, 
deadly, ruinous. 

ANT. Innocent, beneficial, 
salutary, advantageous. 

Balk. Frustrate, defeat, foil. 

[ 33 ] 




ANT. Aid, promote, insti- 

Banish. Dismiss, drive out, 
eject, expel, exile, ostracize, 
evict, expatriate. 

ANT. Welcome, admit, pro- 
tect, domesticate, harbor. 

Banquet. Feast, treat, regale- 
ment, entertainment, festiv- 
ity, carousal, cheer. 

ANT. Fast, starvation, ab- 

Banter, n. Badinage, irony, rail- 
lery, ridicule, satire, chaff, 
mockery, jeering, derision. 
ANT. Discourse, discussion. 

Barbarous. Brutal, atrocious, 
cruel, inhuman, merciless, sav- 
age, barbaric, barbarian. 

ANT. Civilized, humane, po- 
lite, refined, tender, delicate, 
cultured, elegant, nice, courtly. 

Bare. Nude, naked, unclothed, 
exposed; sheer, simple, mere; 
bald, unadorned, meager; poor, 
destitute, indigent, empty. 

ANT. Dressed, protected; 
rich, luxurious, costly. 

Bargain. Agreement, contract, 
stipulation, transaction ; pur- 
chase, speculation, haggling, 
getting, proceeds; cheap pur- 

ANT. Loss, misprofit; cheat. 

Barren. Sterile, childless, un- 
prolific ; unfertile, unproduc- 
tive; uninstructive, ineffectual. 
ANT. Productive, fertile, lux- 
uriant, fecund; profitable, use- 

Barrier. Obstruction, hindrance, 
obstacle, bar, barricade, ram- 
part; restraint, restriction. 

ANT. Thoroughfare, en- 
trance, admittance, opening, 

Base. Cheap, worthless, inferior ; 
vulgar, humble, unknown; 
mean, contemptible, servile ; 
shameful, scandalous, vile. 

ANT. Noble, honored, ex- 
alted, pure, valued, lofty, es- 
teemed, refined. 

Bashful. Modest, shy, retiring, 
reserved, diffident. 

ANT. Bold, forward, pert, 
impudent, confident, conceited, 

Basis. Base, foundation, ground- 

ANT. Apex, top, superstruc- 

Bathe. Wash, lave, cover, flood, 
immerse, suffuse. 
ANT. Dry, expose. 

Battle, n. Fight, contest, skir- 
mish, combat, encounter, bout, 
engagement, strife, action, con- 

ANT. Armistice, truce, con- 

Bauble. Trifle, toy, plaything, 
trinket, gimcrack, knickknack. 
ANT. Valuable, jewel, orna- 
ment, decoration, gem, posses- 

Bays. Crown, wreath, garland, 
chaplet; honors, renown, plau- 
dits, praise, glory, applause. 

ANT. Disgrace, contumely, 
stigma, brand. 

Beach. Shore, strand, margin, 
sands, marge, rim, coast, sea- 
shore, seaboard. 

ANT. Ocean, sea, deep, main. 

Beacon, n. Signal fire, mark, 
sign, guide, light, flame. 

ANT. Shadow; dark; icill- 
o'-the-urisp, ignis fatuus. 

Beam, v. Shine, emit rays, bea- 
con, gleam, glitter, be radiant. 
ANT. Die out, grow dark, go 

Bear. Support, sustain, hold up, 
carry; have, hold, possess; suf- 
fer, undergo, endure, tolerate, 
submit to; permit, allow; main- 
tain, cherish, harbor; be re- 
sponsible for; produce, yield, 
give birth to; generate. 




ANT. Drop, drag; release, 
give up; protest, resist, rebel, 
resent, reject. 

Bearing. Behavior, deportment, 
demeanor, appearance, aspect, 
position, carriage, mien, air; 
relation, connection; patience, 
endurance ; direction, course, 
aim; effect, force, meaning, 
scope; producing; bed, socket. 
ANT. Misbehavior; disconnec- 
tion, independence, irrelevancy; 
pendency, suspension; diver- 
sion, deflection; inanity, ab- 

Beat. Strike, thrash, flog, cud- 
gel, pound, scourge, whip, bat- 
ter, smite, pommel, overcome, 
chastise, conquer, defeat, casti- 
gate, bruise, bastinado, belabor, 
switch, spank, worst, vanquish. 
ANT. Soothe, stroke, caress, 
pat, shield, protect, mollify, 

Beatific. Ravishing, enrapturing, 
enchanting, transporting, ec- 

ANT. Tormenting, disgust- 
imj, obnoxious. 

Beatitude. Bliss, felicity, bles- 

ANT. Suffering, tribulation, 
pain, dolor. 

Beautiful. Handsome, lovely, 
charming, fair, pretty, graceful, 
exquisite, beauteous, bewitch- 
ing, attractive, picturesque, 

ANT. Hideous, repulsive, 
.ugly, deformed, frightful, 
ghastly, grim. 

Because. Since, inasmuch as, 
for, as. 

ANT. Yet, notwithstanding, 
however, although, nevertheless. 

Beckon. Signal, sign, call by 
gesture, nod. 

ANT. Ignore, repulse. 

Become. Suit, adorn, fit, set off, 
be appropriate to; get or grow 

to, turn to, change into; befall, 
bechance, happen to. 

ANT. Disagree, clash, mis- 

Becoming. Befitting, beseeming, 
fit, graceful, proper, neat, suit- 
able, congruous, worthy. 

ANT. Unseemly, indecent, 
derogatory, unsuitable. 

Befall. Happen, occur, chance, 

ANT. Impend, threaten, loom. 

Befitting. Decent, becoming, 
suitable, proper, appropriate, 

ANT. Compulsory, obliga- 
tory; improper, inexpedient. 

Before. Preceding, in front of; 
prior to, previous; in advance 
of, ahead of; hitherto; above, 
in a former place or previous 
passage; formerly, of old, al- 
ready; under the judgment or 
control of. 

ANT. Behind, after, subse- 
quently, later. 

Beg. Beseech, pray, ask, request, 
supplicate, solicit, sue, implore, 

ANT. Require, demand, ex- 
tort, exact, insist; refuse. 

Beggar. Mendicant, supplicant, 
pauper, suitor, applicant. 

ANT. Bestower, giver, bene- 

Beggary. Want, penury, indi- 
gence, destitution. 

ANT. Riches, wealth, afflu- 
ence, abundance, plenty. 

Beginning. Origin, commence- 
ment, fountain, source, spring, 
start, opening, initiation, aris- 
ing, outset, rise, inception, in- 

ANT. End, finish, fulfilment, 
outcome, conclusion, termina- 
tion, result, effect, expiration, 

Beguile. Cheat, deceive, befool ; 
amuse, entertain, cheer, solace. 

[ 35 > 




ANT. Enlighten, advise; 
weary, Lore. 

Behavior. Conduct, deportment, 
manners, breeding, carriage, 
bearing, action, demeanor, life. 
ANT. Misconduct, misde- 

Behest. Command, injunction, 
charge, precept. 

ANT. Option, liberty. 

Behind. Back, astern, rear- 

ANT. Before, in front of. 

Behold. See, look, discern, gaze, 
scan, observe, contemplate. 

ANT. Ignore, miss, wink, 
overlook, disregard, connive. 

Behoof. Advantage, profit. 

ANT. Loss, detriment, disad- 

Being. Reality, existence, actu- 
ality; essence, inmost nature, 
substance, life, vital principle, 
root, heart. 

ANT. Nonentity, nullity, non- 

Beleaguer. Besiege, beset, block- 
ade, invest; compass, block up, 
surround, obstruct, environ. 

ANT. Abandon; conquer, sub- 

Belief. Trust, confidence, con- 
viction, credence, persuasion, 
reliance, assurance ; dogma, 
creed, tenets, opinion, view; 
credit, acceptance, assent, cur- 

ANT. Distrust, denial, dis- 
credit, dissent, rejection, dis- 

Belligerent. Warlike, contend- 
ing, conflicting, hostile, rival, 
opposed, adverse, antagonistic, 
pugnacious, contentious, quar- 

ANT. Peaceful, friendly, for- 
bearing, pacific, neutral. 

Belonging, n. Quality, gift, en- 
dowment, attribute ; property, 
goods, estate, chattel, posses- 

sion; appendage, appurtenance, 

Belonging, a. Related, connected, 
appertaining, congenial, cog- 
nate, accompanying. 

ANT. Alien, optional, inde- 
pendent, irrelevant. 

Below. Under, beneath, under- 
neath, hereinafter. 

ANT. Above, beforementioned, 

Bend. Curve, twist, crook, bow, 
deflect, deviate, diverge, twine; 
influence, persuade, incline, 

ANT. Straighten, stiffen, di- 
rect; resist, break, crush. 

Beneath. Below, under, under- 
neath; unworthy of, unbefit- 

ANT. Above, superior to; 
over, aloft. 

Benediction. Benison, blessing, 
beatitude ; gratitude, thanks, 
praise ; benefit, grace, boon. 

ANT. Curse, censure, execra- 
tion, ingratitude. 

Benefactor. Patron, supporter, 
upholder, friend, contributor. 

ANT. Destroyer, enemy, op- 
pressor, brute. 

Beneficence. Charity, bounty, 
liberality, benevolence. 

ANT. Malevolence, hatred f 
stinginess, miserliness, niggard- 

Benefit. Boon, service, advan- 
tage, profit, favor, blessing. 

ANT. Evil, loss, damage, ca- 
lamity, injury, privation. 

Benevolence. Kindness, humane- 
ness, charitableness, good will, 
altruism, beneficence, liberality, 
philanthropy, benignity, bounty, 
humanity, sympathy, munifi- 
cence, generosity, unselfishness, 

ANT. Malevolence, malig- 
nity, selfishness, stinginess, 
unkindness, brutality, churlish- 

[ 36 ] 




ness, barbarity, illiberality, self- 
seeking, niggardliness, harsh- 

Benign. Kind, gracious, amiable, 
gentle, friendly, benevolent, hu- 
mane, obliging, good. 

ANT. Hateful, harsh, brutal, 

Bequeath. Will, leave, devise; 
hand down, transmit, impart. 

ANT. Withhold, alienate, dis- 

Bereavement. Deprivation, loss, 
destitution, affliction, forlorn 
condition, desolation. 

ANT. Blessing, compensation, 
reparation, consolation, resti- 
tution, restoration, substitu- 

Bereft. Stripped, despoiled, de- 

ANT. Endowed, blessed, en- 
ricJied, compensated. 
Beseech. Beg, implore, pray, ask, 
solicit, entreat, petition, impor- 

ANT. Grant, requite, confer; 
disdain, defy. 

Beset. Surround, circle, hem in, 
besiege, beleaguer; embarrass. 

ANT. Defend, defy, repel. 
Beside. Near, close together; 
aside from ; out of. 

ANT. Far, distant. 
Besides or Beside. Except, save, 
distinct from; moreover, fur- 
thermore, else, beyond that. 

ANT. Apart, separate from; 
exclusively ; finally. 
Bestow. Give, present, award, 
grant, confer; place, stow, store. 
ANT. Receive; seize, appro- 
priate, usurp; disperse, throw 
Bet. Stake, wager, pledge. 

ANT. Plan, calculate, dispose. 

Betide. Happen, bechance, befall, 

come to pass, occur, take place. 

ANT. Result, be destined or 


Betimes. Seasonably, in good 
time or season. 

ANT. Inopportune, late, tardy, 

Betoken. Signify, denote, indi- 
cate, represent, imply, prove, 
show, augur ; presage, prefigure, 
foretell, portend. 

ANT. Mask, hide, mislead, be- 
lie, misrepresent. 

Betray. Reveal, expose, divulge, 
deliver up, deceive; manifest, 
show, indicate; lure, ensnare, 
entrap, beguile; seduce, ruin, 

ANT. Protect, preserve, fos- 
ter, cherish, conceal, suppress, 

Betrothal. Engagement, plight- 
ing, affiancing. 

Better. Amend, ameliorate, im- 
prove, correct, advance, reform. 
ANT. Make worse, degrade, 
wreck, weaken, cripple, impair, 

Between. Amid, among, be- 

ANT. Outside, beyond, with- 

Bewail. Bemoan, lament, sor- 
row, grieve. 

ANT. Rejoice, joy, exult. 

Beware. Take care, be cautious, 
be wary, look out, mind. 

ANT. Be reckless, careless; 
neglect, ignore. 

Bewilderment. Confusion, em- 
barrassment, daze, maze, per- 
plexity, mystification. 

ANT. Enlightenment, self- 
possession, calmness, discern- 
ment, perspicacity. 

Bewitch. Charm, enchant, fasci- 
nate, captivate. 

ANT. Repulse, avoid, recoil, 
annoy, harass. 

Beyond. Over, across, remote, 
farther than, before; yonder, 
above, exceeding. 

ANT. Beside, near, at hand, 

[ 37 ] 




close; behind, back; below, less 

Bias. Bent, inclination, tendency, 
leaning, proneness, proclivity, 
propensity, partiality, predilec- 

ANT. Repulsion, reaction, 

Bicker. Wrangle, quarrel, dis- 
pute, squabble. 

ANT. Agree, sympathize, un- 
derstand, harmonize. 

Bidding. Command, order, di- 
rection, appointment, mandate ; 
offer, bid, proposal. 

ANT. Request, solicitation; 
refusal, rebuff. 

Bide. Dwell, stay, reside, wait, 
tarry, remain ; endure, bear. 

ANT. Depart, go, move, mi- 
grate; resist, rebel, protest. 

Big. Large, great, wide, bulky, 
huge, gross, fat; proud, arro- 
gant, haughty, pompous. 

ANT. Small, little, least, 
thin, narroio; humble, subservi- 
ent, unassuming. 

Bigot. Zealot, fanatic, dogma- 
tist, devotee. 

ANT. Skeptic, liberal, apos- 
tate, proselyte, doubter, agnos- 

Bigoted. Intolerant, opinion- 
ated, prejudiced, dogmatical, 
narrow-minded, one-sided. 

ANT. Liberal, broad-minded, 
open to conviction. 

Bill. Account, charge, score, 
amount due, reckoning; draft of 
law; poster, placard, advertise- 

Bind. Fetter, tie, fasten, shackle, 
restrict, restrain, secure; com- 
pel, oblige, engage. 

ANT. Free, loose, set free, 

Birth. Family, parentage, origin, 
source, lineage, nativity, de- 
scent, extraction, race ; rise. 
ANT. Death, extinction. 

Bit. Part, piece, fragment, morsel. 
ANT. Whole, mass, aggrega- 

Biting. Gnawing, sharp, severe, 
sardonic, censorious, piercing, 
sarcastic, trenchant. 

ANT. Pleasant, gentle, sooth- 
ing, genial, flattering. 

Bitter. Harsh, caustic, cutting, 
savage, acidulous, acrimonious, 
irate, sharp, sour, stinging, 
pungent, virulent. 

ANT. Sweet, honeyed, nee- 
tared, luscious, dulcet, saccha- 

Blacken. Slander, malign, de- 
fame, daub, bespatter, befoul, 
asperse, traduce, vilify, decry, 

ANT. Clear, eulogize, vindi- 
cate, whiten, whitewash. 

Blackguard. Rascal, scoundrel, 

ANT. Gentleman. 

Blame. Censure, rebuke, chide, 
reprove, reproach, condemn, vi- 
tuperate, reprobate, reprehend, 

ANT. Approve, praise, exon- 
erate, acquit, exculpate. 

Blameless. Pure, innocent, irre- 
sponsible, without fault. 

ANT. Guilty, implicated, 
blameworthy, faulty. 

Blanch. Bleach, whiten, white- 

ANT. Blacken, stain, dye, 
darken, color. 

Bland. Soft, gentle, mild, af- 
fable, gracious, tender, benign, 
courteous, complaisant. 

ANT. Harsh, abrupt, rough, 
biting, savage, severe, impolite. 

Blandishment. Flattery, coax- 
ing, fascination, wheedling, at- 
traction, charm, fawning, cajol- 

ANT. Bluntness, unmanner- 
liness, roughness, scolding, se- 
verity, sternness. 

[ 38 




Blank. Bare, drear, bleak, void, 
empty; utter, pure, simple, 
mere, unqualified, unmitigated ; 
amazed, astonished, confused, 

ANT. Full, replete; complex; 
modified, qualified; composed, 
controlled, self-possessed, cog- 
nizant, intelligent. 

Blasphemy. Profanity, sacri- 
lege, impiety, swearing. 

ANT. Reverence, godliness, 

Blast. Shrivel, destroy, blight, 
kill, ruin, wither, annihilate; 
explode, rend, burst. 

ANT. Restore, expand, swell. 

Blazon. Exhibit, show off, 
blaze, blare, trumpet, proclaim, 

ANT. Conceal, hush, cover, 
hide, suppress, shroud, bury. 

Bleach. Blanch, whiten. 

ANT. Blacken, darken, soil, 

Bleak. Windy, exposed, bare; 
cold, chill, raw, desolate, com- 
fortless, cheerless. 

ANT. Sheltered, protected, 
warm, balmy, cheerful, com- 

Blemish. Blot, spot, flaw, fault, 
imperfection, stain; deface- 
ment, tarnish, disfigurement, 
disgrace, defect, dishonor, 
stigma, taint. 

ANT. Purity, unsulliedness, 
honor, integrity, wholeness. 

Blend. Mix, unite, fuse, merge, 
mingle, amalgamate, combine, 
coalesce, harmonize. 

ANT. Separate, run, dissoci- 
ate, divide. 

Bless. Delight, gladden, make 
happy, thank, glorify, exalt, 
praise, extol, felicitate, cheer. 

ANT. Curse, anathematize, 
sadden, grieve. 

Blessing. Benediction, benison; 
good, benefit, happiness, profit, 

boon, gain ; glory, praise, grati- 

ANT. Malediction, curse; be- 
reavement, impoverishment, ca- 
lamity, deprivation, disaster, 
damage, detriment. 

Blight. Pestilence, withering, 
blast, destruction, 

ANT. Development, matur- 

Blind. Sightless, unseeing, eye- 
less, undiscerning, ignorant, un- 
conscious, uninformed. 

ANT. Clear-sighted, far-see- 
ing, discerning, penetrating, 
conscious, keen, aware, sensi- 

Blink. Wink, ignore, connive, 

ANT. Notice, note, mark. 

Bliss. Blessedness, happiness, 
joy, ecstasy, rapture, felicity, 

ANT. Torment, woe, suffer- 
ing, misery, accursedness. 

Blithe. Merry, joyous, cheer- 
ful, gay, lively, airy, sportive, 
blithesome, mirthful, jocund, 
elated, vivacious, joyful. 

ANT. Dejected, heavy, dull, 

Block. Obstruct, arrest, stop, 

ANT. Free, open, clear. 

Blockhead. Dunce, dolt, stupid 
fellow, numskull, ninny, simple- 
ton, ignoramus, dullard, booby. 

ANT. Sage, adept, savant, 
philosopher, schoolman, lumi- 

Blood-thirsty. Cruel, savage, 
ferocious, murderous, bloody, 
bloody-minded, gory, barbarous, 
inhuman, ruthless, sanguinary. 
ANT. Humane, kind, merci- 
ful, mild, tender, compassionate. 

Bloom, n. Blossom, flower, 
flowering, efflorescence; flush, 
freshness, prime, vigor, glow; 
delicacy, innocence. 

[ 39 ] 




ANT. Decay, decadence, 
blight, blast, roughness, tough- 
ness, ghastliness, superannua- 
tion, cadaver ousness, coarse- 

Bloom, v. Blossom, bud, flower, 
germinate, sprout, blow, de- 

ANT. Blight, be blasted, 

Blooming. Flourishing, flower- 
ing; young, beautiful, fair, 

ANT. Fading, waning, old, 
unsightly, deformed, blasted, 

Blot. Sully, spot, tarnish, spoil, 
discolor, pollute, stain, erase, 
blur, blotch, smear, smutch, 

ANT. Cleanse, clear, whiten, 
blanch: perpetuate, preserve. 

Blot out. Erase, cancel, ex- 
punge, obliterate, efface, de- 
stroy, wipe out. 
ANT. Restore, replace. 

Blow, n. Knock, thump, stroke, 
box, buffet, calamity, cuff, cut, 
concussion, disaster, lash, mis- 
fortune, rap. shock, stroke, 
wound, affliction, blast, gale, 
gust; disappointment. 

ANT. Kelief, comfort, bless- 
ing, consolation, assuagement. 

Bluff. Abrupt, blunt, inconsid- 
erate, open, rough, unmannerly, 
uncivil, blustering, bold, 
brusque, coarse, discourteous, 
frank, impolite, plain-spoken, 

ANT. Bland, courteous, ge- 
nial, polite, refined, reserved, 
urbane, polished. 

Blunder. Error, mistake, mis- 
understanding, fault, slip, over- 
sight, inaccuracy, delusion. 

ANT. Accuracy, correctness, 
truthfulness, exactness, ratifi- 
cation, foresight, achievement, 
success, correction. 

Blunt, a. Obtuse, dull, pointless, 
edgeless, brusk, abrupt, plain, 
informal, stupid, stolid. 

AXT. Sharp, keen, acute, 
sensitive, polished, courteous, 

Blunt, v. Subdue, numb, hard- 
en, dull, make dull, deaden, 
paralyze, stupefy ; moderate, 
allay, mitigate, assuage. 

ANT. Quicken, sharpen, in- 
stigate, excite, stimulate, ani- 
mate, vitalize. 

Blush, n. Bloom, color, redden- 
ing, carnation, complexion; 
shame, confusion, guiltiness. 

ANT. Pallor ; innocence, pu- 
rity, unconsciousness; boldness, 

Bluster. Storm, rage, insult, 
roar, swagger, vaunt, boast. 

ANT. Cringe, whine, ivhim- 

Boast. Vaunt, brag, swagger, 
magnify, make much of, swell, 
bluster, triumph, glory, vapor. 
ANT. Whine, cringe; mini- 
mize, apologize. 

Bodily. Corporeally; completely, 
wholly, altogether, entirely, col- 
lectively, unitedly. 

ANT. Spiritually, ghostly; 
piecemeal, partially, gradually, 

Body. Material or physical sub- 
stance; carcass, corpse; trunk, 
stem, bulk, main part; person, 
individual, mortal, creature, 
being; company, society, cor- 
poration ; system ; consistency, 
substance; ashes, form, dust, 
frame, remains, clay. 

ANT. Intellect, intelligence, 
soul, spirit, mind; branch, 
limb; world, iiniverse; mass, 

Boil. Bubble, rage, effervesce, 
explode, fume. 

ANT. Calm, subside, cool, re- 

I 40 ] 




Boisterous. Loud, unrestrained, 
stormy, noisy, furious, violent, 

ANT. Quiet, silent, unosten- 
tatious, mild, gentle, peaceful, 
calm, serene, self-possessed. 
Bold. Courageous, fearless, ad- 
venturous, brave, intrepid, 
dauntless, audacious, daring, 

ANT. Timorous, fearful, re- 
tiring, shy, bashful. 
Bolster. Support, prop, help, 
sustain, aid, buoy, patch, de- 
fend, maintain. 

ANT. Depress, fail, relax. 
Bombast. Bluster, pomposity, 
fustian, braggadocio, rhodo- 

ANT. Modesty, humility, ve- 
racity, moderation, temperance. 
Bond. Tie, fastening, manacle, 
fetter; compact, obligation, se- 

ANT. Option, freedom, pa- 
role, honor, discretion. 
Bondage. Servitude, slavery, 
imprisonment, captivity, incar- 
ceration, subjection, serfdom, 
confinement, thraldom. 

ANT. Liberty, freedom, man- 
umission, independence. 
Bondsman. Slave, serf, captive, 
vassal, prisoner. 

ANT. Freeman, gentleman, 
master, lord. 

Bonny. Fair, pretty, pleasant, 
handsome, shapely, buxom. 

ANT. Homely, ufjly, un- 
seemly, deformed, ill-favored. 
Bonus. Premium, douceur, boon, 

ANT. Fine, penalty, dis- 
count, mulct. 

Booby. Dunce, idiot, numskull. 
ANT. Wiseacre, solon, oracle. 
Bookish. Pedantic, studious, 
learned, erudite, educated. 

ANT. Illiterate, ignorant. 
Boor. Rustic, clown, lout, peas- 

ant, countryman, plowman, 
swain, bumpkin. 

ANT. Gentleman, courtier. 

Boorish. Rude, rustic, clownish,, 
loutish, ungainly, awkward, 
coarse, rough, gawky. 

ANT. Polite, civil, polished, 
urbane, courtly, affable, gra- 

Bootless. Useless, unavailing,, 
unprofitable, profitless, vain. 

ANT. Effectual, profitable, 
useful, effective. 

Booty. Plunder, prey, spoil, pil- 
lage, loot. 

ANT. Restitution, fine, for- 
feiture, confiscation, penalty. 

Border. Edge, limit, boundary, 
brink, rim, verge, enclosure, 
confine, band. 

ANT. Land, tract, interior, 
center, space, substance. 

Bore. Pierce, perforate, pene- 
trate, drill ; weary, plague, 
trouble, vex, worry, annoy. 
ANT. Delight, gratify, please. 

Bosom. Breast, heart, affection; 
hollow, depths, midst, inmost 
recesses ; retreat, retirement, 
quiet, privacy. 

ANT. Surface, exterior, ex- 
panse; manner, deportment, de- 

Both. Twain, two. 

ANT. Either, each, every, 
neither, none, not any, no one. 

Bother. Worry, pester, perplex, 
harass, plague, tease, vex, mo- 
lest, annoy, excite. 

ANT. Aid, assist, calm, quiet, 

Bottom. Deep, profound, base,, 
foot ; foundation, basis, ground- 
work; valley, meadow; ship, 
vessel; seat; grounds, lees, sedi- 
ments; stamina, power of en- 

ANT. Top, height, acme r 
apex, summit, crown, brow; sur- 




Bound, v. Skip, leap, frisk, jump, 
spring; confine, limit, circum- 
scribe, terminate, restrict, re- 

ANT. Hobble, limp, crawl, 
creep, shamble; enlarge, open, 
extend, spread out. 

Boundary. Margin, limit, con- 
fines, border, bound, frontier, 
line, marge, verge, termination, 
term, barrier, bourn, edge, en- 
closure, landmark ; circumfer- 

ANT. Land, region, estate, 
interior, territory; center, cita- 
del; inside. 

^Boundless. Unlimited, illimit- 
able, unbounded, measureless, 

ANT. "Narrow, restricted, 
confined, circumscribed. 

Bountiful. Liberal, generous, 
benevolent, unselfish, munifi- 

ANT. Miserly, selfish, stingy, 

Bounty. Liberality, gift, gener- 
osity, charity, benefaction, be- 
nignity, benevolence, munifi- 
cence, donation; premium, re- 
ward, bonus. 

ANT. Closeness, stinginess, 
niggardliness, miserliness. 

Bower. Recess, arbor, retreat, 
alcove, summerhouse. 
ANT. Open place. 

Brag. Boast, vaunt, bully, swag- 

ANT. Cringe, whine, whim- 

Braid. Bind, weave, plait, tie. 
ANT. Unbind, dishevel. 

Branch. Member, bough, limb, 
shoot, arm, twig, scion, offshoot, 
ramification ; section, depart- 
ment, division; article, part, 
portion; tributary; derivative 
line, cognate stock. 

ANT. Trunk, stock, stem; 
race, family, house. 

Brand, v. Denounce, mark, stig- 
matize, disgrace. 

ANT. Honor, decorate, dis- 

Brandish. Flourish, wield, whisk, 
shake, wave. 

ANT. Suspend, stay, arrest. 

Bravado. Boasting, bragging, 

ANT. Diffidence, reserve, con- 
cealment, modesty. 

Brave. Fearless, heroic, un- 
daunted, undismayed, adventur- 
ous, bold, courageous, daring, 
dauntless, gallant, intrepid, 
valiant, venturesome, doughty, 
chivalrous, chivalric, splendid, 

ANT. Afraid, cringing, fear- 
ful, shrinking, timid, timorous, 
frightened, cowardly, faint- 
hearted, pusillanimous, churl- 
ish, discourteous, fearsome. 

Brawny. Muscular, strong, 
powerful, athletic, sinewy, her- 
culean, robust, stout. 

ANT. Weak, fragile, deli- 
cate, feeble, effeminate, lean. 

Breach. Break, rupture, open- 
ing, fracture, flaw, fissure, rent; 
violation, infringement, non- 
observance; quarrel, difference, 
variance, dissension, schism, ali- 

ANT. Integrity, wholeness, 
fiawlessness, completeness; rec- 
onciliation, healing; conserva- 
tion, observance; inviolat eness ; 
union, fidelity, amalgamation. 

Break. Fracture, rend, part, 
sever, shatter, smash, shiver; 
weaken, impair, enfeeble, ener- 
vate; tame; make bankrupt; 
dismiss, discard, degrade, cash- 
ier; mitigate, assuage; inter- 
rupt, stop, cut short; open, un- 
fold; destroy, sunder, burst, 
rive, crack, crush, demolish, 
rupture, split, transgress. 
ANT. Fasten, join, mend, se- 

[ 42 ] 




cure, unite, weld, attach, bind, 
solder, heal, piece, conjoin, re- 
join; protect, conserve; en- 
courage, strengthen, preserve; 
observe, obey. 

Breast. Bosom, heart, affection, 

Breathless. Out of breath ; life- 
less, dead ; exhausted, eager, ab- 
sorbed, attentive, fascinated ; 
astonished, astounded, bewil- 

ANT. Calm, collected, cool, 
composed; indifferent, uninter- 

Breed, n. Lineage, race, pedigree, 
progeny, stock, line, family, ex- 
traction, strain. 

ANT. Ancestor, source, orig- 
inal, origin. 

Breed, v. Bring forth, bear, be- 
get, produce; nurture, foster, 
nourish; discipline, educate, in- 
struct, train, teach, school; oc- 
casion, originate, generate, pro- 
create, propagate, cause, evolve. 
ANT. Destroy, extirpate, 
stifle, extinguish. 

Breeding. Discipline, instruc- 
tion, education, nurture, train- 
ing, schooling; manners, de- 

ANT. Ill manners, misbe- 
havior; ignorance, illiteracy. 

Brevity. Shortness, terseness, 
conciseness, compression, pithi- 
ness, succinctness, pointedness; 
abbreviation, abridgment. 

ANT. Prolixity, diffuseness, 
verbosity, length, protraction, 
elongation, extension, tedious- 

Brew. Concoct, compound, mix, 
hatch, foment, excite; prepare, 
collect, gather, grow; threaten, 
impend; form. 

ANT. Disperse, break, spoil, 
mar, miscompound. 

Bridle, v. Restrain, curb, control, 
govern, check; bristle, ruffle; 

master, moderate, compress, re- 

ANT. Relax, loosen, give vent, 
liberate, discharge; soothe, 

Brief. Short, concise, succinct. 
ANT. Long, tedious, diffuse. 

Bright, Shining, resplendent, lu- 
minous, glowing, lustrous, 
beaming, gleaming, glistening, 
blazing, naming, flashing, radi- 
ant, ruddy, refulgent, brilliant, 
dazzling, sparkling, scintillat- 
ing, burnished; lucid, clear, 
transparent, pellucid, lambent, 
cloudless, limpid; glorious, fa- 
mous, illustrious ; intelligent, 
acute, discerning, keen, ingeni- 
ous ; auspicious, promising, pro- 
pitious, favorable, inspiring ; 
cheerful, merry, lively, happy, 

ANT. Opaque, dull, dark, 
gloomy, black, ebon, shadoioy-, 
rayless, sunless, murky, cloudy, 
overcast, pitchy, lurid; obscure, 
mysterious, enigmatical, mystic, 
unintelligible, occult, recondite, 
abstruse, cabalistic, transcen- 
dental; disheartening, discour~ 
aging, dismal, cheerless; igno- 
rant, unlettered, untaught, im- 
becile, rude, benighted; foul, 
infamous, horrible, damnable, 
vile, infernal, wicked, sullen, 
atrocious, dejected. 

Brilliant. Bright, radiant, flash- 
ing, lustrous, glorious, lumi- 
nous, effulgent, beaming, spark- 
ling; illustrious, distinguished, 
celebrated, famous, renowned, 

ANT. Dark, dull, stupid, 
gloomy; notorious, infamous; 
obscure, insignificant. 

Bring. Bear, fetch, convey; con- 
duct, guide, lead, attend, ac- 
company, convoy; obtain, gain, 
procure, produce; induce, pre- 
vail upon. 

[ 43 ] 




ANT. Remove, export, send, 
exclude, debar, transport, ab- 
stract, subtract. 

Brisk. Lively, quick, vivacious, 
active, alert, animated, prompt, 
sprightly, nimble, spry, agile. 

ANT. Slow, heavy, dull, slug- 
gish, indolent, inactive, unener- 
getic, stagnant. 

Bristling. Full, crowded, 
swarming, stocked, multifari- 
ous, multitudinous ; bristly, 
standing on end like bristles; 
ruffled, roughened, corrugated, 
bespined; bridled, angered, of- 

ANT. Smooth, soothed, al- 
layed; prone; bare, nude, scant, 
devoid, vacant. 

Brittle. Fragile, crumbling, 
shivery, frail, easily broken. 

ANT. Tough, stout, strong, 

Broach.. Open, pierce, tap; sug- 
gest, hint, approach, break; 
utter, publish, proclaim, give 
out ; originate, propound. 

ANT. Repress, cork, bottle, 
secrete, conceal, hide. 

Broad. Wide; large, ample, ex- 
tensive, vast, spacious, capa- 
cious; liberal, tolerant, free, 
hospitable ; spread, diffused, 
open; gross, vulgar, indecent, 

ANT. Narrow; contracted, 
restricted, confined, limited; 
prejudiced, illiberal, bigoted, re- 
served; veiled, enigmatical, 
shrouded, shaded; refined, deli- 
cate, sketchy; specific, pointed. 

Broil. Affray, quarrel, conten- 

Brook. Tolerate, bear, suffer, en- 
dure, abide, submit to, undergo, 

ANT. Resist, resent, reject. 

Brotherhood. Fraternity, fel- 
lowship, association, sodality, 

Browbeat. Bully, intimidate, 
bulldoze, overawe. 

ANT. Rally, support. 

Bruise. Pommel, crush, squeeze, 
break, pound, batter, deface. 
ANT. Heal, soothe. 

Brunt. Shock, attack, impulse, 
onslaught, onset, assault. 

ANT. Repulse, resistance, en- 

Brutal. Brutish, animal, beastly, 
bestial ; savage, ferocious, cruel, 
harsh, uncivil, rude, rough, 
gruff, impolite, brusque j sen- 
sual, carnal. 

ANT. Humane, self-con~ 
trolled, civilized, enlightened, 
elevated, noble, refined, intelli- 
gent, grand. 

Bubble. Toy, trifle, fancy, con- 
ceit, dream, vision, froth, trash. 
ANT. Prize, treasure, real- 
ity, substance, jewel, good, ad- 

Buffoon. Wag, clown, jester, 
mountebank, harlequin, droll, 
punch, fool. 

ANT. Wit, genius, pedant, 

Build. Make, form, shape, figure, 
model; construct, erect, raise. 
ANT. Demolish, overthrow, 

Building. Architecture, edifice, 
structure, fabric, pile, erection. 
ANT. Ruin, demolition, di- 
lapidation, dismantlement. 

Bulk. Magnitude, size, volume, 
mass; greatness, amplitude, 
massiveness ; majority, major 
part, most, principal part; di- 

ANT. Portion, section, atom, 
particle; diminution, tenuity, 
contraction, dismemberment, 

Bulwark. Rampart, fortress, 
fortification, stronghold, in- 
trench ment, bastion, parapet, 

[ 44 ] 




ANT. Siefe, bombardment, 
cannonade, boarding, storm- 

Bungler. Botcher, clown, fum- 
bler, clumsy workman, novice. 

ANT. Adept, adroit, master, 
artist, proficient workman, pro- 

Buoy, v. Float, support, sus- 
tain; elevate, inspire, assure, 
animate, cheer. 

ANT. Kink, droicn, depress, 
swamp; crush, betray, fail, de- 
ject, overcome. 

Buoyant. Light; cheerful, hope- 
ful, sprightly, vivacious, joyous, 
blithesome, jocund, sportive, 
jubilant, elastic, floating. 

ANT. Heavy, defected, de- 
pressed, moody, joyless, cheer- 
less, desponding. 

Burden. Load, weight; cargo, 
freight; capacity, tonnage: im- 
pediment, incubus, grievance, 
trial, trouble, affliction, sor- 
row; chorus, refrain; topic, 
drift, tenor, point, substance. 

ANT. Ease, lightness; facil- 
ity, airiness, light-heartedness; 
consolation, assuagement, alle- 
ri<:lion, liberation, mitigation. 

Burial. Interment, sepulture, 
entombment, burying. 

ANT. Exhumation, disinter- 

Burlesque. Parody, travesty, 
caricature, ridicule, farce. 
ANT. Classic, history, fact. 

Burn. Char, consume, cremate, 
scorch, set on fire, singe, ignite, 
incinerate, kindle, blaze, cau- 
terize, glow, smolder. 

ANT. Smother, stifle, subdue, 
extinguish, cool, put out; sub- 
side, glimmer, lower, pale. 

Burnish. Brighten, polish, make 
to glisten, glaze, gloss. 

ANT. Dull, bedim, cloud, 
scratch, abrade. 

Burst. Break, open, explode, 

blow up, rend, split, crack, dis- 
charge, shatter, disrupt. 

ANT. Cohere, hold, stand, 
stick, together, adhere. 

Bury. Inter, cover up, entomb, 
inearth, inhume, inurn; shroud, 
conceal, secrete, hide; immure, 
confine; cancel, compose, hush, 
cover with oblivion. 

ANT. Resurrect, exhume, dis- 
inter, excavate, expose, resusci- 
tate; publish, announce, adver- 

Business. Employment, craft, 
trade, commerce, handicraft, 
trallic, transaction, work, voca- 
tion, job, affairs, avocation, pro- 
fession, occupation, culling, con- 
cern, duty, office, interest. 

AXT. Stagnation, leisure, in- 

Bustle. Activity, stir, commo- 
tion, excitement, haste, hurry, 
energy, eagerness, flurry. 

ANT. Idleness, inactivity, 
vacation, stagnation, quiet, in- 
dolence, indifference, unconcern. 

Busy. Engaged, employed, occu- 
pied; diligent, industrious, ac- 
tive, working, sedulous; brisk, 
stirring, bustling, agile, spry, 
nimble; meddling, officious. 

ANT. Idle, lazy, indolent, 

But. Save, except, furthermore, 
barely, besides, however, just, 
only, notwithstanding, though, 
unless, yet, still, merely, never- 
theless, provided, moreover. 

Buxom. Bonny, blithe, shapely. 
ANT. Lean, slend er, ill-shaped. 

Buy. Purchase, bargain, ac- 
quire ; bribe, corrupt, pervert, 
suborn, subsidize. 

ANT. Sell, hawk, retail, vend. 

By. Through, with; at, on; 
from, according to; near, close 
by; past; along, over; before, 
in the sight of, in the name of; 
per, at. 



Cabal. Confederacy, conspiracy, 
conclave, combination, faction, 
crew, junto, gang, coterie, plot, 
political intrigue, league. 
Cadaverous. Bloodless, pallid, 
pale, wan, ghastly, deathlike, 

ANT. Rosy, blushing, san- 
guine, incarnadine. 
Cage, v. Imprison, immure, con- 
fine, incarcerate. 

ANT. Liberate, free, dismiss, 

Caitiff. Rascal, miscreant, vil- 
lain, wretch, coward, sneak, 
traitor, scoundrel, vagabond. 

ANT. Gentleman, patriot, 

Cajole. Coax, wheedle, flatter, 
fawn upon, blandish; deceive, 
entrap, beguile, inveigle, im- 
pose upon. 

ANT. Scold, chide, warn. 
Calamitous. Disastrous, unfor- 
tunate, unlucky, adverse, un- 
toward, deplorable, ruinous, in- 
auspicious, wretched, distress- 
ing, grievous, ill-starred, troub- 
lous, hapless, ill-omened. 

ANT. Fortunate, auspicious, 
felicitous, propitious, favorable, 

Calamity. Disaster, misfortune, 
catastrophe, mishap, trial, 
trouble, affliction, adversity, 
distress, hardship, ill luck, vis- 

ANT. Blessing, boon, advan- 
tage, good fortune, benefaction. 
Calculate. Number, reckon, sum 
up, count, compute, account, 
estimate, enumerate, rate; con- 
sider, deem, apportion, investi- 

ANT. Guess, risk, chance, 
conjecture, stake. 

Calculating. Wary, cautious, 
scheming, crafty, cool, hard, 
selfish; careful, circumspect, sa- 
gacious, farsighted. 

ANT. Shortsighted, improvi- 
dent, rash, careless. 

Calculation. Reckoning, compu- 
tation; expectation, anticipa- 
tion, prospect; foresight, fore- 
thought, caution, wariness, dis- 
cretion, prudence, deliberation. 
ANT. Omission, carelessness, 
imprudence, indiscretion, in- 

Caliber. Diameter, gage, capac- 
ity; faculty, scope, talent, abil- 
ity, gifts, parts, endowment. 

ANT. Smallness, thinness; 
imbecility, incapacity, pueril- 

Call. Cry, bellow, clamor, ejacu- 
late, scream, roar, shout, shriek, 
bawl, yell, exclaim, vociferate; 
invite, summon, send for, bid; 
assemble, convene, muster; 
elect, ordain, appoint; invoke, 
appeal to. 

ANT. Be silent, hush, list, 
listen, harken, be still; ignore; 
disperse; disdain, defy. 

Calm. Composed, peaceful, pla- 
cid, quiet, still, tranquil, self- 
possessed, serene, undisturbed, 
dispassionate, sedate, collected, 
imperturbable, unruffled. 

ANT. Frantic, frenzied, pas- 
sionate, furious, raging, stormy, 
violent, boisterous, agitated, ex- 
cited, fierce, turbulent, icild, 
heated, wrathful, disturbed. 

Calumniate. Slander, traduce, 
defame, vilify, revile, asperse. 
ANT. Praise, commend, vin- 
dicate, laud, honor, eulogise; 

Calumny. Slander, aspersion, 




defamation, detraction, abuse, 

ANT. Vindication, justifi- 
cation; eulogy, panegyric. 

Camp. Encampment, bivouac. 

Cancel. Obliterate, scratch out, 
erase, efface, expunge, cross off ; 
abolish, abrogate, nullify, an- 
nul, revoke, rescind, make void, 

ANT. Confirm, enact, perpet- 
uate, approve, enforce, uphold, 
sustain, maintain, establish, 
record, write. 

Candid. Honest, open, straight- 
forward, transparent, unbiased, 
artless, frank, guileless, ingenu- 
ous, naive, sincere, impartial, 
innocent, unprejudiced, above- 
board, simple, truthful, unso- 
phisticated, fair. 

ANT. Deceitful, designing, 
foxy, sharp, shrewd, crafty, art- 
ful, sly, tricky, subtle, adroit, 
cunning, insincere, diplomatic, 
intriguing, wily. 

Candidate. Aspirant, solicitant, 
petitioner, canvasser, claimant, 

ANT. Non-competitor; re- 
signer, abandoner, abjurer. 

Canvass. Debate, discuss, dis- 
pute, agitate; examine, investi- 
gate, scrutinize, sift, study, con- 
sider; solicit votes from, apply 

ANT. Admit, pass, misexam- 
ine, allow, ignore, disregard. 

Capability. Capacity, ability, 
skill, power, competency, effi- 
ciency, caliber, force, faculty, 
scope, brains, talent. 

ANT. Dulness, inability, in- 
aptitude, difficulty, awkward- 

Capacity. Space, magnitude, vol- 
ume, dimensions, extent, size, 
tonnage, caliber; faculty, gift, 
talent, genius, competency, ca- 
pability, discernment, clever- 

ness, skill, aptitude; sphere, 
office, province, character, func- 

ANT. Restriction, narrow- 
ness, contractedness, incapac- 
ity; vncompetency, inefficiency, 

Capital, n. Metropolis; large 
letter; stock, sum invested; head 
of a column or pillar; mental, 
physical, or financial resources. 

Capital, a. Chief, principal, es- 
sential, leading, cardinal ; fatal, 
forfeiting life ; excellent, prime, 
first-class, first-rate, consum- 
mate, high, important. 

ANT. Subordinate, inferior, 
unimportant, minor; defective, 

Capitulate. Surrender, yield, 
submit, stipulate. 

ANT. Resist, contend, strug- 

Caprice. Vagary, freak, whim y 
fancy, crotchet. 

ANT. Purpose, plan, deter- 
mination, conviction, serious- 

Capricious. Wayward, fanciful, 
freakish, whimsical, inconstant, 
uncertain, fitful, fickle, change- 

ANT. Firm, inflexible, un- 
sicerving, constant, decided, se- 

Captious. Carping, hypercriti- 
cal, censorious; crabbed, snap- 
pish, touchy, cross, snarling, 
acrimonious, contentious; in- 
sidious, ensnaring. 

ANT. Appreciative, commen- 
datory, complimentary, encour- 
aging, flattering, laudatory, ap- 

Captivate. Charm, enchant, fas- 
cinate, enamor, bewitch, please 
highly, lead captive, win, catch. 
ANT. Disenchant, disillu- 
sionize; disgust. 

Captivity. Thraldom, confine- 

[ 47 ] 




ment, duress, imprisonment, 
bondage, subjection, slavery, 
servitude, durance. 

ANT. Freedom, liberty, in- 

Capture. Seize, catch, arrest, 
apprehend, make captive ; prize. 
ANT. Liberate, free, release; 

Care. Anxiety, trouble, solici- 
tude, concern, vigilance, worry, 
charge, caution, attention, heed, 
forethought, management, per- 
plexity, watchfulness, wariness, 
precaution, oversight, prudence. 
ANT. Indifference, heedless- 
ness, negligence, oversight, re- 
missness, slight, recklessness, 
disregard, carelessness, inatten- 

Career. Course, line of achieve- 
ment, passage, race, flight, pro- 
cedure, conduct, progress, ac- 
tive life, success. 

Careful. Thoughtful, provident, 
considerate, reflective, heedful, 
diligent, pensive, regardful, con- 

ANT. Careless, thoughtless, 
improvident, unthinking, heed- 
less, inconsiderate, rash, wan- 
ton, idle, dreamy, trifling. 

Caress, v. Embrace, fondle, kiss, 
pet, pamper, coddle, court, flat- 

ANT. Vex, tease, affront, an- 
noy, provoke, persecute. 

Cargo. Freight, load, goods, lad- 
ing, consignment, merchandise. 

Caricature. Imitation, mimicry, 
parody, travesty, burlesque, ex- 
aggeration, extravaganza, take- 
off, farce, monstrosity. 

ANT. Portraiture, resem- 
blance, representation, repro- 

Carnage. Massacre, bloodshed, 
slaughter, havoc, butchery. 

ANT. Deliverance, ransom, 
Quarter, redemption. 

Carnal. Sensual, fleshly, lustful, 
lascivious ; natural, unregener- 
ate, earthly, temporal. 

ANT. Spiritual, ethereal, re- 
fined, pure, exalted, temperate, 

Carnival. Festival, revel, mas- 
querade, rout. 

ANT. Fast, retirement, Lent, 
penance, mortification. 

Carol. Sing, warble, chirp, twit- 
ter, chant, whistle, hum; hymn. 
ANT. Whine, lament, dirge, 
cry, croak, weep, groan, moan. 

Carousal. Feast, festival, ban- 
quet, revel, debauch, wassail, 

ANT. Fast, abstinence, star- 
vation; temperance, modera- 
tion; self-denial. 

Carp. Cavil, find fault, object to, 
pick flaws, challenge, censure, 

ANT. Concede, admit, com- 
pliment, approve, applaud, ac- 
quiesce, assent. 

Carpet. Covering for floor; table 
or board (metaphorical), con- 
sideration, consultation. 

ANT. Shelf (metaphorical), 
rejection, oblivion, disposal. 

Carry. Convey, move, transport, 
lift, bring, bear, transmit, sup- 
port, sustain, take; impel, urge, 
push forward ; signify, infer, in- 
volve, implicate. 

ANT. Drop, let go, throw 
down, fall under, shake off; re- 
tard, impede; leave, be separate 

Case. Box; covering, sheathe; 
state, condition, plight, predica- 
ment; instance, example, occur- 
rence ; circumstance, event, con- 
tingency; suit, action, process, 
trial, cause; question, subject 
of discussion; form, inflec- 

ANT. Hypothesis, supposi- 
tion, fancy, theory, conjecture; 

t 48 ] 




generalisation, principle, uni- 

Cash. Coin, money, specie, cur- 
rency, capital. 

ANT. Paper money, green- 
backs, bills. 

Cast. Hurl, throw, pitch, fling, 
drive, thrust, sling, toss; shed, 
lay aside; calculate, compute, 
reckon; found, form; direct, 
turn; assign, appoint, allot; 
impart, shed, diffuse, communi- 

ANT. Raise, elevate, erect; 
accept, approve, retain, carry; 
miscalculate; break, dismember, 

Caste. Grade, rank, order, line- 
age, dignity, respect. 

ANT. Abasement, degrada- 
tion, disrepute, taboo, reproach, 

Castigate. Whip, flagellate, cane. 
ANT. Reward, encourage, ca- 
ress, pat. 

Casual. Accidental, incidental, 
fortuitous, chance, contingent. 

ANT. Regular, certain, fixed, 
ordinary, pc-riorlir, systematic. 

Casuistry. Sophistry, fallacy, 
quibble; refinement. 

ANT. Reason, common sense, 

Catalogue. List, register, index, 
enrolment, entry, record, roll, 
inventory, schedule. 

ANT. Non-registration, oblit- 
eration, oblivion, forgetfulness; 
non-entry, oversight, omission. 

Catastrophe. Revolution, disas- 
ter, mishap, misfortune, calam- 
ity, cataclysm, blow, visitation. 
ANT. Victor;/, triumph, ben- 
efit, ovation, success, felicita- 
tion, blessing. 

Catch. Grasp, seize, clutch, cap- 
ture, clasp, secure, snatch, take, 
arrest, ensnare, entrap, grip, 
lay hold; comprehend, appre- 
hend, understand. 

ANT. Lose, miss, fail of, let 
go, give up, release, restore. 
Categorical. Plain, absolute, 
distinct, positive, declaratory, 

ANT. Obscure, ambiguous, 
dubious, hypothetical, contin- 
gent, mystical, enigmatical. 
Category. Class, division, order, 
rank; universal aspect, primi- 
tive relation. 

ANT. Essence, truth, being, 
substance, nature. 
Causality. Causation, potenti- 
ality, eventuality, operative- 

ANT. Counteractivity, bar- 
renness, sterility; finality. 
Cause. Agent, origin, source, cre- 
ator, spring; reason, power; 
designer, antecedent, origina- 
tor, author, producer; condi- 
tion, principle. 

ANT. Effect, result, end, pro- 
duction, issue, accomplishment, 
development, consequence, cre- 
ation, fruit, event, outcome, 

Caution. Care, heed, wariness, 
circumspection, forethought, 
discretion; warning, admoni- 
tion, advice, counsel. 

ANT. Temerity, heedlessness, 
unguardedness, improvidence, 

Cavalier, a. Arrogant, haughty, 
overbearing, insolent, disdain- 

ANT. Courteous; subservi- 
ent, servile; civil, polite. 
Cavil. Carp, object, censure. 

ANT. Approve, allow, con- 

Cavity. Opening, gap, aperture, 
hole, fissure. 

ANT. Obstruction, filling. 
Cease. End, finish, desist, leave 
off, quit, stop, refrain, abstain, 
discontinue, pause, terminate. 

ANT. Begin, commence, con- 

[49 ] 




tinue, originate, inaugurate, 
start, set going, set in opera- 

Celebrated. Famous, renowned, 
distinguished, famed, illustri- 
ous, eminent, glorious, notable, 

ANT. Obscure, unknown, un- 
notable, mean, insignificant, in- 

Celebration. Solemnization, ob- 
servance, commemoration, lau- 
dation, praise, commendation. 

ANT. Oblivion, desuetude, 

Celebrity. Fame, renown, repu- 
tation, glory, honor, repute, 
eminence, distinction; person of 
note, " lion." 

ANT. Obscurity, ignominy, 
disgrace, contempt, meanness; 
infamy; oblivion. 

Celerity. Rapidity, speed, haste, 
velocity, swiftness, fleetness, 

ANT. Slowness, tardinets, in- 

Celestial. Heavenly, angelic, su- 
pernal, ethereal, atmospheric, 
immortal, seraphic, divine, god- 

ANT. Earthly, terrestrial; 
human, mortal; infernal. 

Censure. Blame, disapproval, re- 
proach, disapprobation, repri- 
mand, condemnation, remon- 
strance, rebuke. 

ANT. Praise, approval, eu- 
logy, commendation, encourage- 

Center. Middle, midst. 

ANT. Perimeter, rim, bound, 
circumference, boundary. 

Central. Convenient, medial, ac- 

ANT. Remote, inaccessible, 

Centralize. Concentrate, collect, 
ANT. Disperse, distribute. 

Ceremonial, n. Ritual, rites, 
formalities, etiquette. 

Ceremonial, a. Ritualistic, for- 
mal, official, ministerial, pom- 
pous, sumptuous, scenic, func- 

ANT. Private, unostenta- 
tious, undramatic, unimposing, 

Ceremonious. Stately, lofty, 
courtly; formal, studied, punc- 
tilious; prim, precise. 

ANT. Brush, blunt, super- 
cilious, plain, simple. 

Certain. Sure, infallible, posi- 
tive, undeniable, unfailing; as- 
sured, fixed, regular, estab- 
lished; true, accurate, unmis- 

ANT. Dubious, irregular, un- 
decided, doubtful, exceptional, 

Certainty. Assurance, convic- 
tion, confidence, positiveness. 

ANT. Hesitation, doubt, mis- 
giving, conjecture, indecision. 

Certify. Acknowledge, avow, de- 
clare, prove, inform, assure, at- 

ANT. Disavow, misinform, 

Cessation. Stop, pause, abey- 
ance, suspension, lull, respite. 

ANT. Incessancy, continuity, 

Chafe. Vex, irritate, gall, rub, 
chagrin, tease, worry, harass, 
annoy, fret; rage, fume; nettle, 
exasperate, anger. 

ANT. Soothe, coax, calm, con- 
sole, humor; submit, endure, 

Chaff. Banter, badinage, non- 
sense, frivolity; refuse, trash. 

ANT. Sense, reason, pith, 
gist, seriousness, substance. 

Chagrin. Humiliation, shame, 
mortification, confusion, dis- 
composure, dismay, disappoint- 

C 50 ] 




ANT. Delight, glory, exulta- 
tion, triumph, rejoicing. 

Challenge, v. Dare, brave, de- 
fy; demand, require, claim; ob- 
ject to, take exceptions. 

ANT. Pass, allow, grant, 
concede, permit; retract, re- 

Champion. Defender, protector, 
vindicator; hero, winner, chief, 
victor, combatant. 

ANT. Renegade, traitor, de- 
serter, coward; adversary, op- 

Chance. Hazard, casualty, acci- 
dent, luck, fortune. 

ANT. Law, sequence, pur- 
pose, design, intention, causa- 
tion, certainty. 

Change, n. Transformation, va- 
riation, transition, conversion, 
innovation, diversion, novelty, 
variety, vicissitude, alteration, 

ANT. Fixity, identity, con- 
stancy, uniformity, firmness, 
permanence, persistence, steadi- 

Change, v. Alter, transform, 
vary, turn, veer, shift, qualify, 
modify, exchange, diversify, 
convert, metamorphose, substi- 

ANT. Continue, endure, stay, 
hold, keep, retain, abide, re- 
main, persist. 

Changeless. Stationary, undevi- 
ating, immovable, reliable, con 

ANT. Fluctuating, vacillat- 
ing, capricious, variable, plas- 

Character. Mark, figure, sign, 
symbol, emblem, letter; consti- 
tution, nature, disposition, turn, 
cast, bent; temperament, moral 
qualities, personality, traits, 
habits; person, individual; re- 
pute, reputation. 

ANT. Anonymousness ; dis- 

repute; vagueness; indefinite- 

Characteristic. Attribute, pe- 
culiarity, trait, sign, indication, 
mark, feature, distinction, sin- 
gularity, property, idiosyn- 

ANT. "Nondescript, general" 
ity, miscellany, commonness. 
Charge, v. Load, freight, bur- 
den; intrust; impute, ascribe; 
accuse, impeach, incriminate, 
arraign, indict; command, or- 
der, require, bid; attack, as- 

ANT. Free, acquit, liberate, 

Charitable. Benign, bountiful, 
liberal; lenient, mild, consider- 

ANT. Selfish, harsh, exact- 
ing, revengeful, churlish, cen- 
Charity. Benevolence, liberal- 
ity, bounty, generosity, philan- 

ANT. Harshness, ill will, 
malignity, malevolence. 
Charlatan. Quack, mountebank, 
impostor, pretender, humbug, 

ANT. Victim, dupe, gull. 
Charm. Spell, incantation, en- 
chantment; fascination, attrac- 
tion, allurement; witchery, sor- 
cery, magic, necromancy. 

ANT. Fear, repulsion, dis- 
enchantment, disillusion. 
Chary. Careful, cautious, wary; 
frugal, sparing, saving, reluc- 

ANT. Liberal, lavish, pro- 
fuse, extravagant. 
Chase. Pursue, track, hunt, fol- 
low, prosecute ; emboss, enchase. 
ANT. Flee, shun, elude, 
evade; abandon, relinquish. 
Chaste. Pure, spotless, immac- 
ulate, modest, virtuous, simple j 
refined, classic, elegant. 




ANT. Corrup t, impure, 

flashy, gaudy; coarse, inelegant. 

Chasten. Discipline, chastise, 

subdue, afflict, punish, soften, 


ANT. Indulge, pamper, spoil, 

Chattels. Goods, wares, effects, 

ANT. Freehold. 

Cheap. Common, inexpensive, 
mean, worthless, vile, paltry, 
low-priced, poor, indifferent. 

ANT. Rare, costly, expen- 
sive, high, precious. 
Cheat, 11. Fraud, trick, artifice, 
swindle, deceit, fiction, impos- 

ANT. Truth, reality, fact, 
"honesty, authenticity, certainty, 
openness, sincerity. 
Check, v. Restrain, curb, stop, 
bridle, hinder, impede, inhibit; 
reprove, chide, reprimand, re- 

ANT. License, indulge, allow, 
loose, liberate, abet, instigate. 
Cheer, n. Gladness, joy, gaiety, 
mirth, merriment, cheerfulness, 
happiness, hope, conviviality, 
plenty, hospitality. 

ANT. Gloom, dearth, sullen- 
ness, niggardliness, unsociable- 

Cheerful. Glad, lively, mirth- 
ful, animated, jocund, jolly, 
blithe, buoyant, merry, joyous. 

ANT. Oloomy, dejected, un- 
happy, lifeless, dull, depressing, 
melancholy, joyless, dispiriting. 
Cherish. Foster, nurture, pro- 
tect, shelter, treasure, comfort, 

ANT. A bandon, afflict, check, 

Chief, a. Head, important, ex- 
cellent, high, principal, consum- 

ANT. Subordinate, minor, in- 

Chieftain. Captain, commander, 
general, leader, chief. 

ANT. Vassal, minion, adher- 
ent, retainer, attendant, fol- 

Childish. Puerile, weak, infan- 
tine; silly, foolish, trivial, tri- 

ANT. Manly, strong, wise, 
sagacious; important, momen- 

Chimerical. Visionary, imagi- 
nary, unreal, dreamy, fanciful, 

ANT. Real, actual, substan- 
tial, veritable. 

Chivalrous. Knightly, gallant, 
gentlemanly, heroic, valiant, 

ANT. Dastardly, recreant, 

Choice, n. Option, preference, 
alternative, selection, election, 
free will. 

ANT. Necessity, compulsion; 
refusal; force; fate, predestina- 

Choice, a. Select, dainty, rare, 
valuable, cherished, exquisite, 

ANT. Common, ordinary, des- 
picable, cheap, inferior. 

Choose. Select, pick out, cull, 
prefer, elect. 

ANT. Cast away, reject, de- 
cline, refuse, leave, throw 

Chronicle. Annals, records, reg- 
ister, memorials, archives, his- 

ANT. Legend, romance, tra- 

Cipher. Zero, nothing, nonen- 
tity, naught; character, symbol, 
device, monogram ; secret char- 
acter, private alphabet; nobody, 
person of no account. 

ANT. Infinity ; somebody, ce- 
lebrity, star, notability, colos- 

t 52 



Circular. Round, annular, spher- 
ical, ring-shaped. 

ANT. Linear, direct, straight. 

Circulate. Move in a circle ; dif- 
fuse, spread, disseminate, pro- 
mulgate, propagate, publish, no- 
tify; travel. 

ANT. Suppress, hush, cease, 
stagnate; center, monopolize, 
appropria te. 

Circumference. Periphery, cir- 
cuit, boundary, outline, enclo- 

ANT. Center, interior. 

Circumlocution. Verbosity, pro- 
lixity, wordiness, diffuseness, 
periphrasis, redundance, tautol- 

ANT. Brevity, compression, 
condensation, shortness, suc- 
cinctness, terseness, compact- 
ness, conciseness, directness, 

Circumscribe. Define, limit, de- 
lineate, enclose, confine, re- 

ANT. Distend, dilate, ex- 
pand, amplify, enlarge, extend. 

Circumspect. Cautious, wary, 
heedful, attentive, careful, pru- 
dent, watchful, scrupulous, vig- 

ANT. Careless, reckless, in- 
cautious, heedless, unwary. 

Circumstance. Event, situa- 
tion, occurrence, position, de- 
tail, incident, feature, accom- 
paniment, particular, point, 
item, condition. 

ANT. Deed, case, transac- 
tion, business, affair. 

Cite. Call, summon, name, se- 
lect, refer to, quote, mention. 

ANT. Discard, dismiss, dis- 
pute, contradict, reject, chal- 
lenge, disprove. 

Citizen. Inhabitant, dweller, 
townsman, burgher, resident, 
subject, denizen. 

Ajf" Foreigner, alien, exile, 

visitor, tramp, transient, tour- 
ist, sight-seer. 

Civilization. Culture, cultiva- 
tion, refinement, amelioration, 

ANT. Demoralization, sav- 
agery, barbarism, rudeness. 

Claim, n. Assertion, requisition, 
demand, call; title, privilege, 
right, pretension. 

ANT. Disclaimer, surrender, 
abjuration, waiver. 

Claim, v. Demand, ask, require, 
call for, assert, insist, request, 
maintain, pretend. 

ANT. Repudiate, waive, con- 
cede, forego, abjure. 

Clamor, n. Noise, uproar, hub- 
bub, outcry, vociferation, ex- 

ANT. Silence, reticence, ac- 
quiescence; repression, stifling. 

Clandestine. Secret, private, 
furtive, stealthy, underhand, 
sly, surreptitious, hidden. 

ANT. Open, aboveboard, sin- 
cere, frank. 

Class. Company, grade, order, 
rank, caste, clan, circle, associ- 
ation, club, clique, coterie, set. 

Classical. Refined, elegant, pol- 
ished, chaste, pure. 

ANT. Corrupt, barbarous, 
uncouth, debased, inelegant. 

Classification. Grouping, dis- 
position, arrangement, distri- 
bution, category, genus, desig- 
nation, order, species, nature, 
character; homogeneity. 

ANT. Individuality, special- 
ity, singularity, distinction, 

Clause. Portion, section, pas- 
sage, paragraph, stipulation, 
article, chapter, provision. 

ANT. Document, instrument, 

Clean, a. Pure, neat, clear, spot- 
less, cleansed, untarnished, up- 

[ 53 ] 




ANT. Foul, impure, untidy, 
hampered, unclean. 

Cleanse. Purify, wash, clean, 
disinfect, lave, scour, sponge, 
scrub, sweep, wipe, rinse, dust, 

ANT. Defile, pollute, stain, 
deprave, sully, taint, "befoul, 
contaminate, corrupt, vitiate. 

Clear, a. Pure, bright, transpar- 
ent, free, serene, unclouded, ob- 
vious, manifest, pellucid, un- 
adorned, plain, distinct, evi- 
dent, lucid, intelligible, explicit, 
straightforward, perspicuous. 

ANT. Mysterious, unintelli- 
gible, vague, opaque, foggy, dim, 
cloudy, dubious, turbid, ambig- 

Clever. Gifted, expert, capable, 
apt, bright, ingenious, quick- 
witted, skilful, adroit, dexter- 
ous, intellectual, happy, smart, 
talented, keen, knowing, intel- 
ligent, quick, sharp. 

ANT. Foolish, slow, stupid, 
idiotic, thickheaded, witless, 
bungling, awkward, dull, igno- 
rant, clumsy, senseless. 

Climax. Acme, top, summit, cul- 
mination, height, consumma- 
tion, zenith, head. 

ANT. Base, floor, nadir, anti- 
climax, depth; bathos. 

Cling. Stick, cleave, fasten, hold, 

ANT. Drop, relax, swerve, 
let go. 

Close. Packed, condensed, com- 
pressed, narrow, restricted, 
solid; secret, reserved; nig- 

ANT. Ample, wide, open, spa- 
cious, patent, public, adver- 
tised: open-handed, free, liberal. 

Clownish. Rude, rustic, boorish, 
awkward, clumsy, bucolic, clod- 

ANT. Polite, affable, civil, 

Clumsy. Awkward, inexpert, un- 
couth, bungling, unskilful, un- 

ANT. Neat, skilful, clever, 
expert, adroit, dexterous, work- 

Coalesce. Blend, mix, harmon- 
ize, unite, consolidate, combine, 

ANT. Disagree, sunder, sep- 
arate, sever. 

Coalition. League, union, al- 
liance, confederacy, combina- 
tion, compact, amalgamation. 

ANT. Disruption, rebellion, 
disagreement, sedition, mutiny. 

Coarse. Of large fibers, crude, 
rough, gross; indecent, indeli- 
cate, unrefined, unpolished, vul- 
gar, common, ordinary. 

ANT. Fine, choice, delicate, 

Coax. Wheedle, flatter, cajole, 
fawn, allure, seduce, circum- 

ANT. Coerce, impel, drive, 

Coerce. Impel, restrain, inhibit, 
force, compel, drive, check, in- 

ANT. Persuade, coax, per- 
mit, urge, induce, tempt. 

Coexistent. Contemporary, con- 
current, coincident, simultane- 

ANT. Preceding or succeed- 

Cogent. Forcible, powerful, ef- 
fective, irresistible, convincing, 
conclusive, persuasive, potent, 

ANT. Weak, feeble, poicer- 
less, ineffectual. 

Cogitate. Meditate, think, re- 
flect, consider, ponder, contem- 

ANT. Dream, idle, wish. 

Cognizance. Knowledge, obser- 
vation, notice, recognition, ex- 

[ 54 ] 




ANT. Ignorance, oversight, 

Coherent. Compact, consecutive, 
close, logical, consistent. 

ANT. Rambling, loose, dis- 
cursive, aberrant. 

Coincidence. Chance, fortuity, 
harmony, agreement, casualty, 
concurrence, contemporaneous- 

ANT. Design, purpose, asyn- 
chronism, anachronism, differ- 

Cold. Frigid, chilly, frosty, icy, 
polar, wintry; dull, lifeless, un- 
impassioned, sluggish, apa- 
thetic, indifferent, spiritless. 

ANT. Hot, warm, ardent, im- 
passioned, fiery, burning, fer- 
vid, vehement, passionate. 

Colleague. Associate, coadjutor, 
collaborator, helper, companion, 
partner, assistant, ally, confed- 

ANT. Opponent, rival, antag- 
onist, competitor. 

Collect. Gather, glean, amass, 
garner, muster, congregate, as- 
semble, convoke, accumulate. 

ANT. Distribute, dispense, 
divide, assort, deal. 

Collision. Clash, shock, impact, 
concussion, encounter, contact, 
opposition, conflict. 

ANT. Divergence; concord, 
harmony, agreement, coinci- 
dence, concert, unity, amity, 

Colloquy. Dialogue, conversa- 
tion, talk, discourse, consulta- 
tion, conference. 

ANT. Babel, tumult, outcry, 
clamor; silence, taciturnity. 

Collusion. Connivance, accom- 
pliceship, confederacy. 

ANT. Frustration, betrayal, 

Color. Hue, tint, tinge, shade, 
complexion; pigment, paint; 
pretense, speciousness, varnish, 

appearance, semblance, excuse, 

ANT. Paleness; transpar- 
ency, openness. 

Combat. Conflict, encounter, 
battle, struggle, contest, con- 

ANT. Truce, surrender, medi- 

Combination. Association, con- 
nection, union; alliance, league; 
mixture, compound. 

ANT. Division, disruption, 
analysis, dissolution. 
Comfortable. Agreeable, satis- 
factory, pleasant, convenient, 
commodious, snug, genial. 

ANT. Miserable, distressed, 
forlorn, icretched, cheerless. 
Comic. Laughable, droll, funny, 
comical, farcical, ludicrous, ri- 

ANT. Serious, solemn, grave, 
tragic, melancholy. 
Command. Order, direct, bid, 
instruct, charge, enjoin; rule, 

ANT. Beg, petition, suppli- 
cate, entreat; obey, yield, com- 

Commemorate. Celebrate, ob- 
serve, perpetuate. 

ANT. Forget, abolish, ignore. 
Commence. Begin, start, inau- 
gurate, undertake. 

ANT. Finish, conclude, ter- 

Commend. Approve, encourage, 
applaud, praise. 

ANT. Blame, condemn, cen- 
sure, denounce. 

Comment. Remark, observe, ex- 
plain, note, expound, interpret, 

ANT. Confuse, obscure, mys- 
tify, confound, misrepresent. 
Commerce. Trade, traffic, busi- 
ness, exchange. 

ANT. Embargo, inactivity, 

[ 55 ] 




Commit. Assign, confide, trust, 
relegate, entrust, consign. 

ANT. Omit, let pass, disre- 
gard, misconsign. 
Commodious. Ample, spacious, 
convenient, comfortable, suit- 

ANT. Narrow, cramped, ill- 

Commodity. Staple, ware, stock, 
produce, article. 

ANT. Drug, refuse. 
Common. Ordinary, habitual, 
everyday, familiar, frequent ; 
coarse, vulgar, mean, low. 

ANT. Exceptional, scarce, re- 
fined, rare. 

Commotion. Excitement, dis- 
turbance, agitation, turmoil, tu- 
mult, disorder. 

ANT. Quiet, tranquillity, 
calm, subsidence, pacification. 
Communicate. Divulge, impart, 
disclose, tell, announce, publish. 
ANT. Secrete, suppress, con- 
ceal, withhold, reserve; re- 
press; disavow. 

Communion. Fellowship, inter- 
course, participation. 

ANT. Alienation, exclusion, 
deprivation, ostracism. 
Community. Aggregation, soci- 
ety, commonwealth, neighbor- 
hood; fraternity, similarity, 
sympathy, homogeneity. 

ANT. Hostility, animosity, 
"heterogeneity . 

Commute. Exchange, replace, 
barter, compensate, mitigate, 
modify, lessen, diminish. 

ANT. Disallow; charge; in- 
crease, enlarge. 

Compact, n. Agreement, bond, 
contract, treaty, covenant. 

ANT. Promise, intention. 

Compact, a. Dense, close, solid, 

firm, compressed; concise, terse. 

pithy, short, brief, laconic, con- 

pendious, succinct, sententious. 

ANT. Diffuse; sparse, strag- 

gling; broadspread, unshapely; 
prolix, verbose. 

Companion. Associate, partner, 
mate, comrade, colleague. 

ANT. Rival, antagonist, ad- 

Companionable. Sociable, pleas- 
ant, affable, genial, friendly, 

ANT. Reserved, haughty, dis- 
tant, cold, solitary, inaccessible. 

Company. Concourse, gathering, 
crowd, throng, meeting, multi- 
tude, assembly, conclave, con- 
ference, congregation, conven- 
tion, convocation. 

ANT, Privacy, retirement, 
solitude, dispersion, loneliness, 

Compare. Collate, estimate, de- 
clare similar, liken, parallel. 

ANT. Contrast, disconnect, 
pit, distinguish. 

Compass. Surround, enclose ; ef- 
fect, achieve, consummate, com- 

ANT. Expand, liberate; fail, 
bungle, mismanage. 

Compassion. Pity, sympathy, 
condolence, kindness, clemency, 

ANT. Cruelty, antipathy, re- 
taliation, vindictireness. 

Compatible. Consistent, accor- 
dant, congruous, congenial, har- 

ANT. Hostile, adverse, im- 
possible, destructive, contradic- 

Compel. Force, oblige, make nec- 
essary, coerce, constrain, neces- 

ANT. Hinder, prevent, delay, 
block, hamper, encumber. 

Compensation. Recompense, re- 
ward, requital, satisfaction, 
reparation, amends, indemni- 

ANT. Damage, injury, depri- 

[ 56 ] 




Compete. Contend, rival, strive, 

ANT. Share, participate. 

Competence. Ability, capable- 
ness; sufficiency, enough, ade- 

ANT. Inability, weakness; 
poverty, want, indigence. 

Competition. Rivalry, emula- 
tion, contest. 

ANT. Alliance, co-partner- 

Complacent. Pleased, satisfied, 
contented, amiable, pleasant, af- 

ANT. Morose, austere, un- 

Complain. Murmur, grumble, 
remonstrate, find fault, repine, 
lament, grieve, expostulate. 

ANT. Approve, commend, ap- 
plaud, congratulate, rejoice. 

Complement. Fulfilment, total- 
ity, counterpart, supply, cor- 

ANT. Deficit, abatement, de- 

Complete, a. Perfect, finished, 
total, whole, entire; concluded, 
consummated, ended; adequate, 
exhaustive, thorough. 

ANT. Partial, inadequate, 
imperfect, unfinished. 

Complex. Confused, involved, 
mixed, entangled, complicated, 
composite, manifold, mingled, 
intricate, obscure. 

ANT. Direct, obvious, plain, 
uniform, simple, homogeneous, 

Complexion. Face, feature, ap- 
pearance, look, hue, character, 

ANT. Heart, core; reticence, 
concealment, inexpression. 

Compliance. Yielding, submis- 
sion, acquiescence, docility, obe- 

ANT. Resistance, repulsion, 

Compliment. Flattery, praise, 
homage, commendation, enco- 

ANT. Insult, contempt, dis- 

Complimentary. Commenda- 
tory, flattering, laudatory. 

ANT. Disparaging, abusive, 
defamatory, denunciatory 

Component. Constituent, fae- 
tor, element, ingredient. 

ANT. Compound, entirety, 
sum, aggregate. 

Comport. Conduct, behave, de- 
mean ; accord, agree, harmonize. 
ANT. Contrast, militate, dif- 
fer; misdemean, misconduct. 

Compose. Compile, construct* 
constitute; soothe, allay, calm; 

ANT. Analyze, dissect; irri- 
tate, excite; criticize. 

Composition. Formation, mak- 
ing; compound, mixture; ar- 
rangement, union, combination; 
writing, invention; agreement, 

ANT. Examination, analy- 
sis, criticism; disturbance; seg- 

Composure. Tranquillity, calm, 
repose, self-possession, serenity. 
ANT. Restlessness, perturba- 

Compound, n. Mixture, combi- 
nation, amalgamation, coales- 
cence, synthesis. 

ANT. Analysis, dissolution, 

Comprehend. Understand, con- 
ceive, grasp; include, enclose, 

ANT. Misunderstand, mis- 
construe; except, exclude. 

Comprehension. Conception, un- 
derstanding, perception, appre- 
hension, capacity, intellect, rea- 
son, mind, intelligence. 

ANT. Idiocy, nescience, mi*- 
understanding, misconception. 

\ 67 1 




Comprehensive. Ample, wide, 
inclusive, extensive, capacious, 

ANT. Narrow, shallow, re- 

Compress. Condense, squeeze, 
contract, epitomize, abridge. 

ANT. Expand, diffuse, di- 

Comprise. Include, involve, con- 
tain, comprehend, embrace, im- 


ANT. Except, "bar out, omit, 

Compromise. Adjust, arbitrate, 
settle; engage, pledge, commit; 
implicate, involve, endanger. 

ANT. Contend, fight; repu- 
diate, disallow; exonerate, ex- 

Compulsion. Force, coercion, 
constraint, control. 

ANT. Coaxing, persuasion, 

Compunction. Regret, remorse, 
contrition, penitence. 

ANT. Assurance, self-com- 
placency, satisfaction. 
Compute. Number, calculate, 
reckon, count; value, estimate, 

ANT. Guess, conjecture, sur- 

Comrade. Companion, compeer, 
colleague, associate, partner, 

ANT. Opponent; stranger, 

Concatenation. Connection, con- 
tinuity; series, chain, succes- 

ANT. Intermission, sever- 
ing, disconnection. 
Concave. Hollow, depressed, ex- 

ANT. Convex, protuberant, 

Conceal. Hide, suppress, se- 
crete, disguise. 
ANT. Reveal, expose, make 

manifest, lay tare, confess, pub- 
lish, divulge. 

Concede. Surrender, admit, re- 
sign, yield, allow. 

ANT. Refuse, claim, contend, 
contradict, deny, contest. 

Conceit. Notion, whim, vagary, 
idea, abstraction, affectation, 

ANT. Reality, fact, sub- 
stance; simplicity, humility. 

Conceited. Egoistical, opinion- 
ated, vain. 

ANT. Simple, unassuming, 

Conceive. Imagine, apprehend, 
believe, design, think, under- 

ANT. Express, produce, exe- 

Concentrate. Convene, assemble, 
congregate, muster, centralize. 
ANT. Scatter, disperse, dis- 
pense, dismiss. 

Concern. Interest, anxiety, so- 
licitude; affair, matter, insti- 

ANT. Indifference, careless- 
ness, disregard. 

Concerning. About, regarding, 
in relation to, respecting, in 
respect to, relative to, of. 

ANT. Disregarding, omitting. 

Concert. Agreement, harmony, 
concord, concordance, combina- 
tion, union, association. 

ANT. Opposition, disagree- 
ment, discord. 

Concession. Surrender, grant, 
boon, acknowledgment, admis- 

ANT. Refusal, denial, toith- 

Conciliate. Win, gain, pacify, 
reconcile, propitiate. 

ANT. Alienate, irritate, es- 
trnnge, lose, antagonize. 

Concise. Succinct, condensed, 
terse, pregnant, pointed, brief, 
short, laconic. 

[ 58 




ANT. Prolix, verbose, diffuse, 
discursive, rambling, pointless. 
Conclave. Assembly, synod, cab- 
inet, council, bureau. 

ANT. Throng, mob, populace, 
concourse, crowd. 
Conclude. Close, end, terminate, 
finish; decide, determine. 

ANT. Begin, commence, un- 
dertake, initiate; prolong, pro- 

Conclusion. End, termination, 
finale, finis. 

ANT. Commencement, begin- 
ning, initiation. 

Conclusive. Final, decisive, pos- 
itive, definitive, indisputable. 

ANT. Dubious, vague, un- 
certain, problematical, theoret- 
ical, indeterminate. 
Concoct. Brew, prepare, com- 
pound, mix. 

ANT. Spoil, upset, overbrew. 
Concoction. Compound, brew, 
mixture; scheme, fiction. 

ANT. Rawness, crudity ; sim- 

Concomitant. Attending, coin- 
cident, attendant, synchronous. 
ANT. Antecedent; diverse, 
unconnected; subsequent. 
Concord. Harmony, agreement, 
friendship, unanimity, accord. 
ANT. Variance, animosity, 

Concourse. Assembly, throng, 
crowd, mob, assemblage, gath- 
ering, multitude. 

ANT. Conclave, cabal, cabi- 
net; desert, solitude. 
Concrete. Solid, firm, compact; 
complex, conglomerate ; indi- 
vidualized, specific, particular. 
ANT. Loose, shifting, yield- 
ing, unresisting; abstract, gen- 

doncur. Approve, harmonize, 
agree; help, combine, conspire. 
ANT. Disagree, dissent, part, 
differ, disapprove, separate. 

Concussion. Collision, encoun- 
ter, crash, impact, percussion. 
ANT. Inter-divergence; es- 
cape; tangency ; failure, miss- 

Condemn. Blame, censure, de- 
nounce, convict, sentence, re- 
prove, doom. 

ANT. Acquit, exonerate, ab- 
solve, pardon, justify, praise, 

Condense. Concentrate, abridge, 

ANT. Expand, amplify, en- 

Condescend. Deign, vouchsafe, 

ANT. Scorn, spurn, disdain. 

Condescension. Graciousness, fa- 

ANT. Arrogance, haughti- 
ness, pride. 

Condign. Adequate, deserved, 
merited, suitable, meet, just. 

ANT. Unmerited, inadequate ; 
excessive or scant. 

Condiment. Sauce, seasoning, 
preserve, pickle, relish, appe- 

Condition. Situation, case, cir- 
cumstances, plight; rank, es- 
tate, grade; proviso, considera- 
tion, stipulation. 

ANT. Concession, adapta- 
tion; relation, dependence. 

Conditionally. Provided, pro- 
visionally, hypothetically, con- 

ANT. Absolutely, positively, 

Condole. Console, commiserate, 

ANT. Congratulate, rally, ex- 

Condone. Pardon, overlook, for- 

ANT. Atone, expiate, satisfy. 

Conduce. Subserve, promote, 
forward, advance, contribute to, 




ANT. Defeat; counteract, 

Conduct. Lead, direct, guide, 
convoy, escort; command, gov- 
ern; manage, regulate; rule, 

ANT. Mislead; mismanage; 

Confection. Candy, cake, condi- 
ment, concoction, sweetmeat. 

Confederacy, Confederation. 
Alliance, league, treaty, union, 
coalition, federation, compact. 

ANT. Secession, disruption, 

Conference. Discourse, conver- 
sation, talk; interview, collo- 
quy, parley, consultation; con- 
vention, convocation, meeting. 

ANT. Silence; monologue; 

Confess. Acknowledge, admit, 
disclose, own, allow, grant, con- 
cede, avow. 

ANT. Deny, conceal, repudi- 
ate, disavow, hide, dissemble. 

Confession. Admission, avowal, 
acknowledgment ; creed, doc- 
trines, tenets, catechism, sub- 

ANT. Heresy, apostasy, pro- 
test, refutation, renunciation, 

Confide. Trust, rely, lean, hope, 
depend, believe, put confidence 

ANT. Doubt, mistrust, disbe- 
lieve, disprove, despair of. 

Confident. Assured, sure, posi- 
tive, certain; bold, presumptu- 
ous, impudent, sanguine. 

ANT. Dubious, doubtful, un- 
decided, vacillating. 

Confidential. Intimate, secret, 
private; trusty, faithful. 

ANT. Public, patent, open; 
treacherous, insidious, traitor- 

Configuration. Outline, shape, 
form, contour. 

ANT. Shapelessness, indeter- 
minateness; distortion, deform- 

Confine, v. Limit, bound, im- 
prison, restrict, circumscribe, 

ANT. Widen, expand, liber- 
ate, unfasten, loosen, extend, 

Confirm. Sanction, uphold, as- 
sure, establish, strengthen, sub- 
stantiate, settle, corroborate. 

ANT. Shatter, weaken, up- 
set, annul, abrogate, cancel, de- 
stroy, shake. 

Confiscate. Forfeit, seize, es- 
cheat, condemn, sequestrate. 

ANT. Release, restore, re- 

Conflagration. Fire, arson, ig- 
nition, incendiarism, combus- 

ANT. Extinction, quenching; 

Conflict. Contest, battle, strug- 
gle, encounter; clashing, inter- 
ference, disagreement, discord. 
ANT. Amity, reconciliation, 
pacification, arbitration. 

Conform. Agree, consent, har- 
monize, comply, correspond, 

ANT. Dissent, disagree; an- 
tagonize, secede; vary, differ. 

Confound. Confuse, perplex, be- 
wilder, mystify; surprise, as- 
tonish, astound, startle; de- 
stroy, ruin, overwhelm; discon- 
cert, abash, shame. 

ANT. Clear, set right, ar- 
range, enlighten; save, protect; 
calm, console, soothe, restore. 

Confront. Oppose, threaten, en- 
counter, challenge, face, intimi- 

ANT. Encourage, abet, coun- 

Confuse. Mingle, confound; de- 
range, disturb, perplex, em- 
barrass, obscure, mortify. 




ANT. Arrange; relieve, as- 
sist, allay; calm, restore. 
Congeal. Freeze, convert to ice, 

ANT. Melt, thaw, dissolve. 
Congenial. Kindred, similar, 
sympathetic, suited, natural, 
proper, agreeable. 

ANT. Disagreeable, abhor- 
rent, unnatural, alien, dissim- 
ilar, unxuited, unsympathetic. 
Congenital. Coeval, connatural, 
innate, inherent, ingenerate. 

ANT. Unnatural, assumed, 
extraneous, acquired, artificial, 

Congeries, Congestion. Con- 
glomeration, aggregation, accu- 
mulation, plethora, repletion. 

ANT. Dissipation, diffusion, 
clearance, dispersion. 
Congratulate. Felicitate, com- 
pliment, rejoice with. 

ANT. Console, condole with, 

Congregate. Assemble, collect, 
meet, convene, gather, throng. 
ANT. Disperse, disappear, 
separate, part, scatter. 
Congregation. Assembly, meet- 
ing, audience, conference. 

ANT. Dispersion, dismis- 

Congress. Parliament, conclave, 
cabinet, council, assembly, legis- 
lature, synod, convention, con- 

ANT. Cabal, sedition, upris- 
ing, mob; intrigue. 
Congruous. Accordant, agree- 
ing, harmonious, coherent, suit- 
able, consistent, proper, appro- 

ANT. Discordant, heterogene- 
ous, inharmonious, improper, 

Conjecture, n. Supposition, sur- 
mise, guess, hypothesis, theory, 
notion, divination. 
ANT. Calculation, inference, 

deduction, proof; fact, surety, 
certainty, security. 

Conjuncture. Combination, con- 
currence; emergency, crisis, ex- 
igency, juncture. 

ANT. Provision, prepara- 
tion, arrangement. 

Connection. Conjunction, com- 
bination, union, association, de- 

ANT. Independence, disjuno- 
tion, dissociation, dissolution. 

Conquer. Overcome, subjugate, 
master, vanquish, subdue, rout, 
defeat, overpower, overthrow, 
prevail over, reduce, win, sur- 
mount, worst, checkmate, beat, 
crush, down, discomfit. 

ANT. Surrender, capitulate, 
cede, forfeit, fly, yield, retreat, 
withdraw, retire, submit, suc- 
cumb, fall, lose, resign, fail. 

Conquest. Victory, subjugation, 

ANT. Defeat, failure, surren- 
der, submission. 

Conscience. Moral sense, intui- 
tion, integrity, principle. 

ANT. Irresponsibility, lax- 
ity, undutifulness, unscrupu- 

Conscientious. Scrupulous, ex- 
act, upright, high-principled, 
honest, honorable, equitable, in- 
corruptible, fair, faithful. 

ANT. Lax, unprincipled, un- 
scrupulous, reprobate, dishon- 
orable, faithless. 

Conscious. Sensible, cognizant, 
aware, intelligent, advised, ap- 
prised, assured, sure, certain, 
informed; thinking, reflecting, 
rational, intellectual. 

ANT. Insensible, unaware, 
ignorant, dead, cold, deaf; ir- 
rational, thoughtless. 

Conscription. Drafting, im- 

ANT. Volunteering, enlist- 

[ 81 ] 




Consecrate. Dedicate, ordain ; 
sanctify, hallow. 

ANT. Desecrate, defile. 

Consecutive. Sequent, continu- 
ous, orderly, following. 

ANT. Disordered, rambling, 
discursive, illogical. 

Consent. Assent, approve, agree, 
yield, comply, acquiesce. 

ANT. Refuse, resist, decline, 

Consequence. Result, issue, se- 
quel, effect, outgrowth, event, 
end, upshot; importance, dig- 
nity, moment. 

ANT. Cause, occasion, ori- 
gin; axiom, postulate, premise, 
antecedence; insignificance, pal- 

Consequential. Following, re- 
sulting, coherent, cogent, con- 
nected ; pompous, self-conceited, 
arrogant, vainglorious. 

ANT. Incoherent, illogical; 
affable, accessible, humble, con- 

Conservation. Protection, per- 
petuation, preservation, main- 

ANT. Neglect, exposure, de- 
struction, abolition. 

Conservative. Stationary, tra- 
ditional, opposed to change. 

ANT. Radical, progressive, 
changeable, transitional, modi- 
fiable, innovating. 

Consider. Think, ponder, medi- 
tate, reflect, investigate, weigh, 
deliberate, observe, attend, re- 

ANT. Guess, conjecture, ig- 
nore, chance, hazard. 

Considerate. Kindly, thought- 
ful, reflective, careful, prudent, 
deliberate, serious, charitable, 
forbearing, cautious. 

ANT. Rash, careless, impru- 
dent, thoughtless, rude, selfish, 
overbearing, injudicious. 

Consignment. Custody, com- 

mission, delegation ; sending, 

ANT. Miscommitment. 

Consistency. Density, solidity, 
compactness, coherence; agree- 
ment, congruity, correspond- 
ence, uniformity, harmony, in- 

ANT. Tenuity, subtility, vol- 
atility; incoherence, incongru- 
ity, contrariety, contradiction. 

Console. Comfort, condole with, 
sympathize, encourage, soothe, 
assuage, solace. 

ANT. Distress, grieve, dis- 
turb, annoy, sadden, trouble, 
wound, hurt. 

Consolidate. Solidify, harden, 
condense, compress, compact; 
thicken, strengthen, solder, ce- 
ment, fuse; conjoin, combine. 

ANT. Dissolve, melt, vapor- 
ize, iceaken, dissipate, subli- 
mate, pulverize; dissect, disjoin. 

Conspicuous. Visible, apparent, 
discernible, plain, clear, percep- 
tible, noticeable; eminent, dis- 
tinguished, prominent, famous, 
noted, manifest. 

ANT. Invisible, microscopic, 
hidden, imperceptible, unseen; 
ordinary, mediocre, common- 

Conspiracy. Intrigue, treason, 
cabal, plot, machination, combi- 
nation; sedition. 

ANT. Legislation, congress, 
parliament, synod. 

Constant. Fixed, immutable, in- 
variable, unchanging, perma- 
nent, perpetual; resolute, firm, 
steady; persevering, assiduous; 
incessant, unbroken, continu- 
ous; faithful, true, loyal, de- 

ANT. Irregular, exceptional, 
casual, incidental, fickle, faith- 
less, broken, treacherous, un- 
trustworthy, false. 

Consternation. Amazement, ter- 




ror, alarm, dismay, panic, be- 

ANT. Fearlessness, boldness, 
composure, presence of mind. 

Constituent. Elector, patron, 
voter, supporter, sender; ingre- 
dient, component, element. 

ANT. Representative, nom- 
inee; constitution, system, com- 
pound, whole. 

Constitution. Organization, for- 
mation ; quality, character, tem- 
perament, peculiarity, charac- 
teristic; charter, law. 

ANT. Conspiracy, rebellion, 
tyranny, anarchy, despotism, 
destruction, disorganization; 
disposition, mood, frame of 
mind, temper. 

Construct. Build, erect, invent, 
form, shape, combine. 

ANT. Demolish, overthrow, 
destroy, derange. 

Construction. Building, erec- 
tion, composition, fabrication; 
structure, formation, form, fig- 
ure; explanation, version, ren- 
dering, interpretation. 

ANT. Dislocation, dismem- 
berment, dissolution; misunder- 
standing, misconception. 

Consult. Deliberate, take coun- 
sel, confer, advise with, can- 
vass, question, consider, regard. 
ANT. Dictate, counteract, 

Consume. Eat up, devour; de- 
stroy, lavish, dissipate, waste, 

ANT. Discard, reject, throw 
aside; preserve, replenish, sup- 
ply, provide. 

Consummate, a. Perfect, excel- 
lent, supreme, finished, com- 

ANT. Common, faulty, defec- 
tive, ordinary/, mediocre. 

Consummation. Achievement, 
attainment, completion, termi- 
nation, accomplishment, fulfil- 

ment, realization, close, finish, 

ANT. Beginning, attempt, in- 
ception, initiation, source, ori- 

Consumption. Expenditure, use, 
waste, extinction, destruction. 

ANT. Development, increase, 
growth, enlargement, augmen- 

Contact. Touch, junction, con- 
tiguity, closeness, union. 

ANT. Adjacence, proximity; 
separation, distance, isolation. 
Contagion. Infection; contami- 
nation, taint, pestilence, cor- 

ANT. Prevention; antisepsis, 

Contain. Include, embody, com- 
prehend, comprise, embrace; re- 
strain, hold. 

ANT. Omit, exclude, drop, 
discharge; yield, give way. 
Contaminate. Taint, defile, cor- 
rupt, sully. 

ANT. Cleanse, purify. 
Contemn. Despise, scorn, dis- 
dain, slight. 

ANT. Venerate, respect. 
Contemplate. Meditate, study, 
ponder, survey, reflect; intend, 

ANT. Overlook, waive, aban- 
don; execute, complete, do. 
Contemptible. Despicable, ab- 
ject, base, worthless, mean, low. 
ANT. Respectable, venerable; 
worthy, estimable, important, 

Contend. Strive, fight, struggle, 
combat; debate, argue, dispute; 
affirm, assert, maintain, claim. 
ANT. Concede, allow, sur- 

Content. Satisfied, pleased, easy, 
willing, resigned, gratified. 

ANT. Reluctant, unwilling, 
unsatisfied, rebellious, discon- 

[ 63 J 




Contention. Strife, dissension, 
quarrel, rupture, dispute, de- 
bate, controversy, altercation. 

ANT. Peace, amity, harmony, 
concord, reconciliation. 
Contingent, a. Casual, happen- 
ing, fortuitous, dependent, inci- 
dental, provisional, uncertain. 

ANT. Independent, absolute, 
positive, uncontrolled, uninflu- 
enced, unaffected. 
Continual. Incessant, ceaseless, 
invariable, perpetual, constant, 
uninterrupted, unbroken, unre- 
mitting, continuous. 

ANT. Exceptional, irregular, 
casual, contingent, intermittent, 
interrupted, suspended. 
Continually. Constantly, per- 
petually, ever, always, repeat- 
edly, frequently, continuously. 

ANT. Occasionally, rarely, 

Continue. Remain, endure, per- 
sist; abide, stay, tarry; perse- 
vere, be constant or steadfast. 

ANT. Stop, cease, fail, pause. 
Contract, n. Compact, stipula- 
tion, agreement, arrangement, 
bargain, covenant, pact, obli- 
gation, pledge, engagement, 

ANT. Promise, parole, assur- 
anoe, understanding, assump- 

Contract, v. Narrow, abbreviate, 
abridge, lessen, reduce, com- 
press; shrivel, shrink; agree, 
stipulate, bargain. 

ANT. Expand, amplify, di- 
late; reverse, cancel, abandon. 
Contradict. Deny, gainsay, dis- 
pute, impugn, controvert; op- 
pose, counteract, annul, thwart, 

ANT. Maintain, argue, con- 
firm, state, affirm, endorse. 
Contrary. Opposite, opposed, ad- 
verse, counter; conflicting, con- 
tradictory, antagonistic, repug- 

nant ; perverse, obstinate, stub- 
born, headstrong. 

ANT. Compatible, agreeing, 
kindred, compliant, submissive; 

Contrast, v. Differentiate, dis- 
criminate, oppose, compare. 

ANT. Resemble, be like or 
similar, liken, harmonize. 

Contribute. Add, give, coSper- 
ate, assist, subscribe, supply. 
ANT. Refuse, icithhold, deny. 

Contribution. Donation, offer- 
ing, gift, subscription, subsidy, 
aid, assistance. 

ANT. Withholding, retention, 

Contrive. Plan, design, devise, 
invent, project, form, frame, 
scheme, plot, consider; manage, 
make out; concert, adjust. 

ANT. Bit, chance, venture, 
bungle, hazard; mismanage, 

Control, v. Direct, manage, rule, 
command, sway, superintend; 
hinder, repress, restrain, curb, 

ANT. License, free; neglect, 
abandon; mismanage, miscon- 

Controversy. Dispute, alterca- 
tion, contention, disagreement. 
ANT. Agreement, unanimity, 

Contumacy. Obstinacy, stub- 
bornness, perverseness, perti- 
nacity, obduracy; disobedience, 

ANT. Docility, tractableness, 
flattering, fawning, servility. 

Contumely. Obloquy, reproach, 
opprobrium, insolence, abuse, 
contempt, scorn, disdain, arro- 

AXT. Regard, consideration s 
adulation, obsequiousness. 

Convene. Assemble, meet, con- 
gregate, summon, master, col- 

r 34 \ 




ANT. Dismiss, disperse, dis- 
band, dissipate. 

Convenient. Suitable, fit, ap- 
propriate, proper, adapted; ad- 
vantageous, commodious, com- 
fortable, useful, serviceable. 

ANT. Inconvenient, useless, 
awkicard, superfluous; inop- 

Convention. Assemblage, con- 
ference, meeting, concourse, ses- 
sion, synod, congress, convoca- 
tion; treaty, compact. 

ANT. Recess, dissolution, 
prorogation; dispersion, scat- 
tering; promise, understand- 
ing, parole. 

Conventional. Usual, custom- 
ary, ordinary, habitual, regu- 
lar, wonted, prevalent, social, 
everyday; stipulated. 

ANT. Unusual, erratic, ex- 
traordinary; legal, compulsory. 

Conversant. Familiar, skilled, 
acquainted, proficient, versed. 
ANT. Strange, ignorant, un- 
versed, unlearned. 

Conversation. Converse, com- 
munion, intercourse, parley, 
talk, chat, conference, com- 
munication, discourse, colloquy, 

ANT. Speech, oration, ha- 
rangue, soliloquy, apostrophe, 
monologue, silenoe, tacitur- 

Converse, a. Opposite, reverse, 
contrary, counter, contradic- 

ANT. Identical, one, same, 
indistinguishable; direct, pri- 

Conversion. Alteration, trans- 
mutation, change, transforma- 

ANT. Permanence, identity, 
persistence, conservation. 

Convertible. Equivalent, inter- 
changeable, identical ; revers- 

I e 

ANT. Variant, contrary, in- 

Convey. Take, transfer, move, 
change, carry, shift, transmit, 
transport, remove, consign, rele- 

ANT. Retain, preserve, hold, 
cling to, possess. 
Conviction. Belief, assurance, 
persuasion ; confutation, refu- 
tation; proof, detection. 

ANT. Doubt, disbelief, mis- 
giving; vindication, justifies 

Convince. Persuade, satisfy, en- 
lighten, indoctrinate, inoculate. 

ANT. Mislead, mystify, per- 
plex, puzzle, unsettle, upset; 
turn, convert. 

Convivial. Social, festive, hoa- 
pitable, jovial, jolly, compan- 
ionable, gay. 

AXT. Inhospitable, unsocial, 
unneighborly, churlish; abste- 
mious, ascetic, austere. 
Convocation. Convention, con- 
gress, assemblage, council, 

ANT. Dispersion, disruption, 
dismission, dismissal. 
Convolution. Coil, involution, 
spiral, twist, contortion. 

ANT. Unfolding, evolution, 
unraveling, explication. 
Convoy. Escort, guard, attend- 
ance, protection. 

ANT. Capture, betrayal, on~ 
set, onslaught, hold-up. 
Convulse. Disturb, shake, agi- 

ANT. Calm, compose, soothe, 

Cool. Somewhat cold, chilling, 
frigid, freezing; unimpassioned, 
composed, collected, unruffled, 
self-possessed, sedate, placid, 
quiet; indifferent, unconcerned, 

ANT. Hot, uxirm, burning, 
heated, excitable, ardent, eager. 




Cooperate. Assist, abet, help, 
conspire, concur, colabor. 

ANT. Oppose, thicart, rival, 
counteract, conflict, hinder, de- 
feat, frustrate. 

Coordinate. Equal, equivalent, 
proportionate, commensurate, 
tantamount, equipollent. 

ANT. Subordinate; dispar- 
ate, extraneous; inferior, supe- 

Copy. Portraiture, facsimile, du- 
plicate, imitation, likeness, im- 
age, transcript, counterfeit. 

ANT. Model, original, pat- 
tern, example, prototype, arche- 
type, exemplar. 

Cordial. Earnest, warm, hearty, 
ardent, affectionate, sincere, in- 
vigorating, refreshing, pleasing, 

ANT. Cool, formal, ceremoni- 
ous, distant, reserved, disin- 

Corner. Angle, bend, crotch, 
knee; nook, recess, niche, re- 

ANT. Abutment, protrusion, 
prominence, convexity, projec- 

Corollary. Inference, conclusion, 
deduction, consequence. 
ANT. Problem, proposition. 

Corporal, Corporeal. Fleshly, 
bodily, material, physical. 

ANT. Spiritual, mental, in- 
tellectual, moral, ethereal, im- 

Corps. Body of troops, division 
of army, squadron, band, com- 

ANT. Aggregate, army, host, 
mass, force, organization. 

Corpse. Remains, dead body, ca- 
daver, carcass, dust. 

ANT. Soul, spirit, individual, 
personality, mentality. 

Corpulent. Fat, fleshy, plump, 
obese, portly, round, stout. 
ANT. Lean, thin, attenu- 

ated, emaciated, slight, slender, 

Correct. True, exact, accurate, 
proper, faultless, right. 

ANT. False, untrue, wrong, 
inexact, inaccurate, fallacious, 

Corrective. Regulative, preven- 
tive, alterative, preservative, 
rectifying, modifying, improv- 
ing, reformatory. 

ANT. Confirmative, stimula- 
tive, intensltive, provocative, 

Correlation. Interrelation, cor- 
respondence, apposition, inter- 
dependence, mutuality, recipro- 
cation, interchange, reciprocity. 
ANT. Contradiction, inde- 
pendence, opposition, inconsis- 
tency, incongruity. 

Correspond. Agree, suit, match, 
fit, tally, harmonize, answer, 
correlate, stand counter; com- 
municate, write. 

ANT. Vary, disagree, clash, 
jar; ignore, disregard, neglect. 

Correspondence. Adaptation, 
agreement, congruity; writing, 
letter, despatches, communica- 

ANT. Conversation; with- 
draioal, non-intercourse; incon- 
gruity, discord, disagreement. 

Corroborate. Strengthen, estab- 
lish, sustain, support, confirm. 
ANT. Weaken, confute, re- 
but, invalidate, shake, enfeeble, 

Corrode. Consume, eat away, 
waste, impair, rust, canker, 
wear, crumble. 

ANT. Renew, restore. 

Corrupt, v. Defile, pollute, in- 
fect, taint, vitiate, demoralize, 
contaminate, debase, spoil, de- 

ANT. Cleanse, purify, better, 
correct, ameliorate. 

Corruption. Decay, decomposi- 

[ 66 ] 




tion, pollution, defilement, in- 
fection, contamination, adulter- 
ation; depravity, immorality, 
laxity, wickedness; dishonesty, 

Cost. Price, worth, expenditure, 
expense, charge, disbursement, 
outlay; preciousness, richness, 
splendor; loss, damage, pain. 

Costume. Dress, livery, robes, 

ANT. Disguise, incognito; 
nudity, nakedness. 

Council. Cabinet, bureau, cham- 
ber, conclave, synod, convoca- 
tion, meeting, conference, par- 
liament, consultation, conven- 

ANT. Cabal, league, conspir- 
acy; multitude, mob. 

Counsel. Advice, consultation, 
opinion, suggestion, recommen- 
dation, instruction, caution, ad- 
monition ; deliberation, fore- 
thought; plan, design, scheme; 
purpose; lawyer, barrister, at- 

Count. Compute, reckon, add, 
tell, estimate, number, enumer- 
ate, sum, calculate. 

ANT. Guess, conjecture, sur- 
mise, think, fancy. 

Countenance, v. Approve, sup- 
port, sanction, help, aid, abet, 
encourage, patronize, befriend, 
assist, favor. 

ANT. Oppose, confront, dis- 
courage, browbeat, face, com- 
pare, disparage. 

Counter. Contrary, opposed, op- 
posite, against. 

ANT. Accordant toith, co- 
incident, consonant. 

Counteract. Oppose, foil, baffle, 
thwart, hinder, rival, resist, de- 
feat, cross, frustrate, neutral- 

ANT. Aid, cooperate, sub- 
serve, promote, advance, assist. 

Counterfeit, n. Forgery, fraudu- 

lent copy, cheat, artifice, pre- 
tense, sham, fabrication. 

ANT. Exposure, detection) 
verity, fact, truth, reality. 

Countermand. Abrogate, annul, 
revoke, rescind, recall, make 

ANT. Order, command, bid, 
charge, enjoin, direct, instruct. 

Counterpart. Duplicate, copy; 
correlative, complement, supple- 
ment, obverse; match, mate, 
tally, twin. 

ANT. Antithesis, contradic- 
tion, contrast. 

Countervail. Balance, compen- 
sate, make up, counterbalance, 

ANT. Overthrow, unbalance, 
weigh dou>n. 

Countryman. Rustic, agricul- 
turist, farmer, swain, yeoman, 
laborer, peasant, husbandman; 
clown, boor. 

ANT. Citizen, townsman; 

Couple, v. Link, unite, connect, 
join, clasp, tie, yoke, buckle, 
pair, splice, button; marry, 

ANT. Loose, part, separate, 
detach, isolate, unclasp; di- 

Courage. Bravery, valor, fear- 
lessness, spirit, heroism, forti- 
tude, hardihood, boldness, dar- 
ing, mettle, pluck, resolution, 

ANT. Cowardice, timidity, 
fear, dread, terror, dismay, con- 

Course. Route, way, road, track, 
race; direction, bearing, prog- 
ress, process; career; succes- 
sion, order, regularity; deport- 
ment, conduct; series, system. 

ANT. Deviation; disorder, 
discursion ; hindrance, error. 

Court, v. Woo, flatter, seek, in- 
vite, solicit. 

r 67 ] 



ANT. Avoid, shun, repudiate, 
repel, antagonize. 

Courtesy. Politeness, affability, 
urbanity, civility, complaisance. 
ANT. Rudeness, incivility, 
churlishness, ungraciousness. 

Courtly. Polished, elegant, JXH. 
lite, ceremonious, formal, re- 

ANT. Undignified, unrefined, 
coarse, awkward, boorish, ple- 

Covenant. Agreement, stipula- 
tion, bond, compact, contract, 
bargain, arrangement, concor- 
dant, pact, treaty. 

ANT. Promise, understand- 
ing, assurance, parole. 

Cover, v. Hide, conceal, over- 
spread, overlay, secrete, cloak, 
veil, screen, mask, shroud, dis- 
guise; invest, clothe, wrap; 
protect, shelter, shield, guard, 
defend; comprehend, comprise, 
embrace; balance, compensate, 

ANT. Expose, reveal, pro- 
duce, exhibit; betray, divulge; 
omit, exclude. 

Covet. Desire, long for, wish 
for, aim after, aspire to. 

ANT. Dislike, despise; un- 

Covetous. Eager, avaricious, 
desirous, greedy, grasping, ac- 
quisitive, rapacious. 

ANT. Liberal, unselfish, gen- 
erous, bountiful. 

Coward. Craven, recreant, das- 

ANT. Hero, champion; dare- 
devil, desperado. 

Coy. Bashful, shy, modest, re- 
served, retreating, shrinking. 

ANT. Bold, forward, imper- 
tinent, pert, brazen, flippant. 

Crack. Split, break, chop, rend, 
cleave, snap ; craze, madden. 

ANT. Mend, unite, repair; 
restore, heal. 

Craft. Skill, ability, power, tal- 
ent, dexterity, aptitude, tact; 
artifice, shrewdness, guile, de- 
ception, cunning, deceit; ai% 
trade, employment, vocation, 
calling; vessel. 

ANT. Inaptitude, tactless- 
ness; fairness, openness, can- 
dor, sincerity, frankness, in- 
genuousness, straightforward' 

Cramp. Restrain, hinder, check, 
confine, hamper, clog, fetter, 

ANT. Free, liberate, loose, 
expand, ease, relieve, extricate. 

Crash. Jar, uproar, clash, rend- 
ing, noise, clang, resonance. 

ANT. Murmur, whisper; si- 

Crassitude. Crossness, thick- 
ness, density, corpulence, obes- 

ANT. Tenuity, agility, oo 
tivity; spareness, slightness. 

Crave. Intreat, beg, beseech, im- 
plore, supplicate, desire, long 
for, hunger for, yearn. 

ANT. Demand, insist, re- 

Crazy. Shattered, broken, tot- 
tering; distracted, mad, luna- 
tic, insane, delirious, cracked, 
demented, deranged. 

ANT. Sound, robust, vigor- 
ous, sane, whole. 

Create. Form, produce, make, 
originate, cause, occasion, ap- 
point, constitute; beget, engen- 
der, generate; imagine, com- 
pose, fashion, design. 

ANT. Destroy, demolish, an- 

Creature. Created being, being, 
animal, man, person ; depend- 
ent, vassal, parasite; wretch, 

ANT. Chimera, ghost, hallu- 
cination, fantasy, phantom, con- 
ceit, crotchet. 





Credence. Belief, trust, faith, 
acceptance, confidence, reliance. 
ANT. Denial, distrust, dis- 
belief, doubt, skepticism. 

Credentials. Diploma, missive, 
title, warrant, vouchers, certi- 
ficates, testimonials. 

Credible. Probable, possible, re- 
liable, trustworthy, likely. 

ANT. Improbable, unlikely, 
incredible, unreliable, untrust- 

Credit. Trust, belief, faith, con- 
fidence, credence, reliance; rep- 
utation, influence, power; es- 
teem, regard; loan, securities. 

ANT. Insecurity; distrust; 
shame, disgrace, censure. 

Credulity. Gullibility, credu- 
lousness, simplicity. 

ANT. Skepticism, suspicious- 
ness, incredulity, shrewdness. 

Creed. Belief, catechism, con- 
fession, articles of faith, tenets, 
dogmas, doctrines. 

ANT. Protest, abjuration, 
disbelief, recantation, retrac- 

Crestfallen. Downcast, dispir- 
ited, dejected, disheartened, de- 
pressed, desponding, low-spir- 
ited, down-hearted. 

ANT. Exuberant, elated, con- 
fident, inspirited. 

Crew. Gang, set, band, horde, 
crowd, mob, throng. 

ANT. Supercargo; bevy, ga- 
laxy, cream, elite. 

Crime. Offense, misdeed, wrong, 
felony, sin, iniquity, misde- 
meanor, enormity, transgres- 
sion, wickedness, delinquency. 
ANT. Good deed, well-doing, 
exploit, achievement, duty, ser- 
vice, Benefit, benefaction, hero- 

Criminal, a. Immoral, iniqui- 
tous, sinful, unlawful, wicked, 
wrong, vile, nefarious, culpable, 
abominable, illegal, vicious. 

ANT. Virtuous, moral, inno- 
cent, just, honorable, praise- 
worthy, lawful, legal, right, 

Criminate.^ Charge, accuse, ar- 
raign, impeach. 

ANT. Acquit, absolve, extri- 

Cripple, v. Weaken, disable, im- 
pair, break down, cramp, cur- 

ANT. Renovate, strengthen, 
augment, liberate, ease, expe- 

Criterion. Standard, test, rule, 
touchstone, measure, canon, 

ANT. Eye, glance; intention, 

Critic. Judge, censor, reviewer, 
connoisseur ; caviller, carper ; 
arbiter, savant. 

ANT. Artist, author, writer, 
performer, maker, poet, com- 

Critical. Accurate, nice, exact; 
decisive, crucial, determining, 
important; dangerous, hazard- 
ous, imminent, momentous, du- 
bious, precarious. 

ANT. Inexact, loose, und>is- 
criminating; unimportant, in- 
conclusive; safe, sure, settled, 
decided, retrieved, redressed. 
Criticism. Censure, stricture, 
animadversion, review, critique. 

ANT. Approbation, praise, 

Criticize. Examine, estimate, 
judge, discuss, analyze, anato- 
mize, scan, animadvert. 

ANT. Survey, overlook, slur, 
skim, slight, neglect. 
Crooked. Bent, curved, bowed; 
distorted, twisted, wry, askew, 
deformed, disfigured; perverse, 
contumacious, capricious; dis- 
honest, unfair, unscrupulous, 
knavish, deceitful, tricky. 

ANT. Straight, linear, wp~ 

[ 69 




right, direct, honest, straight- 

Cross. Fretful, petulant, peev- 
ish, snappish, touchy, morose, 
ill-natured, sullen, snarling, 
cynical, sour, out of humor, 
captious, crabbed, sulky. 

ANT. Amiable, genial, good- 
tempered, good-natured, blithe- 
some, charming, winsome, at- 
tractive, benign. 

Crowd. Throng, multitude, con- 
course, press, horde, herd, host, 
rabble, mob, populace. 

ANT. Cream, elite, bevy, con- 
stellation, galaxy; solitude, 

Crown, n. Diadem, coronet, gar- 
land, chaplet, wreath, laurel, 
bays; reward, honor, distinc- 
tion, dignity; summit, crest, 
top, head, brow, apex. 

ANT. Base, bottom, floor, 
foot, pedestal, foundation, sole; 
infamy, shame. 

Crown, v. Complete, consum- 
mate, conclude, seal, achieve, 

ANT. Mar, spoil, frustrate, 

Crucial. Severe, trying, search- 
ing, decisive, critical, momen- 
tous, strategic. 

ANT. Superficial, indifferent, 
mild, lenient, lax, unimpor- 

Crude. Raw, immature, unripe; 
coarse, unrefined; undigested, 
unconsidered, unpolished, un- 
couth, awkward. 

ANT. Mature; refined, sensi- 
tive; well-considered, finished, 
classical, highly wrought, elab- 

Cruel. Inhuman, merciless, un- 
feeling, dire, ruthless, pitiless, 
relentless, savage, brutal, fero- 
cious, blood-thirsty, sangui- 
nary; severe, sharp, bitter, 

ANT. Gentle, mild, merciful, 
Jiumane, forbearing, generous. 

Crush. Pound, crumble, demol- 
ish, overpower, squeeze, com- 
press, bruise, shatter, raze, pul- 

ANT. Consolidate, compact, 
amalgamate, solidify, stabili- 

Culmination. Zenith, success, 
consummation, acme, comple- 
tion, apex. 

ANT. Failure, downfall, de~ 
feat, descent, decline. 

Culpable. Blameworthy, blam- 
able, censurable, reprehensible, 
faulty, wrong. 

ANT. Innocent, blameless, 
laudable, praiseworthy. 

Culprit. Criminal, delinquent, 
felon, malefactor, offender. 

ANT. Hero, example, pat- 
tern, model, saint, upright man. 

Cultivate. Till; fertilize; im- 
prove, refine, train, discipline, 
develop; study, pursue, inves- 
tigate; nourish, foster, cherish, 

ANT. Neglect, blight, blast; 
uproot, eradicate, extirpate; 
stifle, abandon, prevent, dis- 

Cunning. Craft, artifice, deceit, 
intrigue, subtlety, chicane. 

ANT. Candor, guilelessness, 

Cupidity. Longing, greed, lust; 
covetousness, avarice, acquisi- 
tiveness, stinginess. 

ANT. Prodigality, liberality, 
generosity, extravagance. 

Curb. Restrain, check, control, 
repress, bridle. 

ANT. Indulge, emancipate, 
loose, release, free, liberate. 

Cure, n. Remedy, antidote, re- 
storative, corrective, help, spe- 
cific; healing, restoration, con- 
valescence, alleviation, renova- 

[ 70 ] 



ANT. Complaint, contagion, 
disease, ailment; aggravation, 
confirmation; inoculation. 
Curiosity. Inquisitiveness, won- 
der, marvel, rarity, celebrity; 
inquiry, investigation, scrutiny, 

ANT. Indifference, heedless- 
ness, disregard, abstraction; 

Curious. Prying, meddling, in- 
quisitive, searching, scrutiniz- 
ing; rare, singular, strange; 
elegant, finished. 

ANT. Indifferent, uninter- 
ested; trite, common, usual. 
Current. Common, general, prev- 
alent, present, floating, popular, 
ordinary, vulgar. 

ANT. Obsolete, rejected, ex- 
ploded; private, secret; con- 

Curse, n. Execration, maledic- 
tion, anathema, denunciation; 
scourge, plague, torment, afflic- 
tion, trouble ; imprecation, ban, 

ANT. Blessing, benediction, 
joy, crown; prosperity, welfare, 
luck, success. 

Cursory. Hasty, superficial, de- 
sultory, careless, slight, rapid. 
A XT. Elaborate, searching, 
nte, profound. 

Custody. Care, keeping, protec- 
tion; confinement, duress, im- 

ANT. Neglect, betrayal, ex- 
posure, desertion; liberation, 

Custom. Usage, habit, fashion, 
practice, rule; form, formality, 
observance; patronage; duty, 

ANT. Law, regulation, com- 
mand; disuse, non-observance, 

Cutting. Sharp, keen; sarcas- 
tic, severe, satirical, wounding, 
piercing, trenchant, stinging, 
sardonic, cruel. 

ANT. Mild, soothing, flatter- 
ing, indulgent, consoling, grati- 

Cynical. Censorious, churlish, 
carping, cross, peevish ; deri- 
sive, contemptuous, scornful, 
pessimistic, misanthropic. 

ANT. Genial, lenient; opti- 
mistic, philanthropic. 

Dainty. Exquisite, choice, rare, 
refined ; savory, palatable, de- 
licious, toothsome, tasty, epi- 
curean; fastidious, luxurious. 

ANT. Common, dirty, vul- 
gar, coarse, defiled, nasty, foul, 
filthy . 

Damage. Hurt, injury, detri- 
ment, loss, mischief, impair- 

ANT. Benefit, compensation, 
advantage, blessing, reparation. 

Danger. Peril, risk, hazard, ven- 
ture, insecurity, liability, jeop- 

ANT. Safety, security, pre- 
caution, defense. 

Daring. Adventurous, fearless, 
risky, brave, courageous, daunt- 
less, intrepid, valorous. 

ANT. Cautious, timid, wary, 

Dark. Black, swarthy, opaque, 
obscure, shadowy, lurid, sun- 
less, murky, cloudy, overcast, 
ebon, pitchy, secret; mysteri- 
ous, enigmatical, unintelligible, 
occult, abstruse; gloomy, dis- 
heartening, cheerless, dismal ; 
ignorant, rude, untaught, be- 

t 71 ] 




flighted; wicked, foul, horrible, 
damnable, vile, artocious, infer- 
nal; joyless, mournful, sad, sor- 

ANT. White, fair, light, ra- 
diant, bright, clear, buoyant, 
plain, brilliant, glaring, crys- 
talline, transparent, dazzling, 
luminous, illumed; happy, joy- 
ful, festive. 

Darling. Sweetheart, love, pet, 
favorite, idol, dear. 

Dash. Strike, hurl, cast, throw, 
drive, send, speed, dart; alloy, 
adulterate ; suffuse, overspread, 
color; disappoint, ruin, frus- 
trate; surprise, abash. 

ANT. Raise, erect, reinstate ; 
creep, crawl; fulfil, realize, ef- 

Dastard. Coward, craven, recre- 

ANT. Hero, champion; dare- 

Data. Facts, basis, grounds, pos- 
tulates, premises, given condi- 

ANT. Conjectures, assump- 
tions, inferences, deductions. 

Date. Time, era, epoch, period, 

ANT. Non-duration; eternity. 

Daub. Smear, plaster, sully, be- 
grime, soil, deface, defile. 

ANT. Embellish, decorate; 
cleanse, whiten. 

Daunt. Terrify, alarm, intimi- 
date, appal, frighten off, tame. 
ANT. Rally, inspirit, encour- 

Dauntless. Valiant, fearless, in- 
trepid, bold, indomitable, un- 
conquerable, valorous, chival- 
rous, heroic, brave, daring. 

ANT. Cowardly, timid, cau- 
tious, fearful, afraid, faint- 
hearted, shrinking. 

Dawn. Appear, begin, open; 
break, grow light, rise. 
AKT. Wane, set, *tnfc, close. 

Dazzle. Daze, blind; astonish, 
surprise, overpower, bewilder, 

ANT. Enlighten, illumine, il- 
luminate ; make clear, instruct. 

Dead. Lifeless, breathless, inan- 
imate; deceased, defunct, de- 
parted; dull, cold, frigid, inert, 
indifferent ; tasteless, insipid, 
flat; insensible, heavy, uncon- 
scious, spiritless, still, torpid. 

ANT. Quick, live, living, ani- 
mate, alive, stirring, vivacious. 

Deadly. Mortal, fatal, destruc- 
tive, noxious, murderous, malig- 
nant, pernicious, baneful, ven- 

ANT. Vital, wholesome, life- 

Deaf. Hard of hearing; dull, in- 
sensible, heedless ; inexorable, 
averse, disinclined; inaudible. 

ANT. Acute, listening, atten- 
tive, willing, susceptible. 

Deal. Bargain, chaffer, trade, 
traffic, do business; distribute, 
allot, divide, share, mete out. 

ANT. Close, stop, fail; col- 
lect, gather, glean, muster. 

Dear. Costly, high-priced, expen- 
sive, precious; beloved, valued. 
ANT. Cheap, common, inex- 
pensive; hated, abhorred. 

Dearth. Lack, want, scarcity, 

ANT. Plenty, abundance, lux- 

Death. Decease, dying, dissolu- 
tion, departure, exit, expiration. 
ANT. Life, birth, rise, vital- 
ity, growth, activity. 

Debar. Exclude, bar out, stop, 
prevent, prohibit, restrain, hin- 

ANT. Admit, enclose, em- 
brace; allow, indulge, permit, 

Debase. Degrade, deprave, cor- 
rupt, alloy, deteriorate, lower, 

I 72 J| 




ANT. Raise, enhance, exalt, 
honor, purify, improve, amelio- 

Debate, n. Discussion, dispute, 
controversy, contention, alter- 
cation, contest. 

ANT. Compliance, surrender, 
withdrawal of opposition. 
Debatable. Dubious, doubtful, 
uncertain, disputable, proble- 

ANT. Sure, certain, incon- 
testable, self-evident. 
Debauch. Seduce, corrupt, viti- 
ate, defile. 

ANT. Purify, elevate. 
Debility. Infirmity, weakness, 
languor, exhaustion, feebleness. 

ANT. Vigor, strength, nerve, 
energy, tone, vitality. 
Debt. Liability, obligation, de- 
fault, claim, score. 

ANT. Liquidation, assets, ac- 
commodation, credit. 
Debtor. Borrower, mortgagor. 

ANT. Creditor, lender, mort- 

Decay, v. Corrupt, putrefy, de- 
compose, rot, spoil, molder, 
wither, perish. 

ANT. Flourish, luxuriate, ex- 
pand, vegetate, grow, increase. 
Deceit. Fraud, deception, cheat- 
ing, artifice, imposition, guile. 

ANT. Honesty, openness, fair 
dealing, frankness, truth, ver- 

Deceive. Cheat, dupe, delude, be- 
guile, fool, trick, impose upon, 
disappoint, mislead, circum- 
vent, entrap. 

ANT. Enlighten, guide, dis- 
abuse, deliver. 

Deception. Craft, cunning, ly- 
ing, fraud, hypocrisy, trickery, 
delusion, duplicity, deceitful- 
ness, falsehood, prevarication. 

ANT. Candor, honesty, sin- 
cerity, truth, veracity, guile- 
lesmtss, frankness, simplicity. 

Decide. Determine, settle, con- 
clude, close, terminate, end, re- 

ANT. Waver, hesitate, vacil- 
late, fluctuate, be irresolute. 
Decipher. Reveal, explain, un- 
ravel, unfold. 

ANT. Puzzle, mystify. 
Decision. Determination, sen* 
tence, conclusion, judgment; 
firmness, resolution. 

ANT. Vacillation, vaguene89 t 

Decisive. Conclusive, positive, 
final, definitive, indisputable. 
ANT. Vague, hypothetical^ 
indeterminate, dubious, prob- 

Deck. Adorn, dress, ornament. 
ANT. Btrip, despoil; deform, 

Declaim. Recite, speak, debate, 

ANT. Study, compose, elab- 

Declamation. Harangue, effu- 
sion, debate, oratory, elocution. 
ANT. Hesitation, stammer' 

Declaration. Assertion, affir- 
mation, avowal ; publication, 
proclamation, official announce- 

ANT. Denial; concealment; 
recantation, disavowal, retrao- 

Declare. Announce, publish, ad- 
vertise, reveal, proclaim. 

ANT. Suppress, unthhold, 

Decline. Fall, decay, decadence, 
degeneration ; refusal, rejeo- 
tion, repudiation. 

ANT. Rise, advancement, im- 
provement ; acceptance. 
Declivity. Fall, slope, descent. 

ANT. Ascent, rise. 
Decoction. Concoction, mixture, 

ANT. Rawness, crudity. 

[ 73 ] 



Decompose. Analyze, dissolve, 
resolve; decay, putrefy, become 

ANT. Compound, mix, organ- 
ise, compose. 

Decorate. Adorn, embellish, im- 

ANT. Spoil, mar, denude, de- 

Decorum. Dignity, order, pro- 
priety, seemliness. 

ANT. Disorder, disturbance, 

Decrease. Lessen, diminish, sub- 
side, want, dwindle, curtail, re- 
trench, reduce, loAver. 

ANT. Increase, grow, aug- 
ment, expand. 

Decree. Decision, determination, 
law, edict, mandate, manifesto. 
ANT. Suggestion, request, 

Decrepit. Weak, infirm, totter- 
ing, aged. 
ANT. Strong, youthful. 

Decry. Disparage, detract, de- 
preciate, denounce, abase, tra- 

ANT. Extol, praise, eulogize, 

Dedicate. Devote, hallow, sanc- 
tify, consecrate; address, in- 
scribe; assign, apply, set apart. 
ANT. Desecrate, misuse, ali- 

Deduce. Infer, draw, derive, con- 

ANT. Induce, state, conjec- 
ture, guess, anticipate, fore- 

Deed. Performance, act, action, 
exploit; reality, fact, truth; 
document, instrument. 

ANT. Omission, failure, in- 
validation, reversal, recall; un- 

Deep. Profound; difficult, mys- 
terious, hard, intricate ; pene- 
trating, sagacious, astute, in- 
telligent, discerning, shrewd ; 

heartfelt, intense, thorough. 

ANT. Shallow; superficial, 
artless, undcsigning; indiffer- 

Default. Neglect, failure, omis- 
sion; want, destitution, lack; 
lapse, forfeit, delinquency, ab- 

ANT. Satisfaction; appear- 
ance, plea; maintenance, sup- 
ply; presence. 

Defeat. Overthrow, frustration, 

ANT. Success, triumph, vic- 

Defect. Fault, flaw, imperfec- 
tion; omission, want, shortcom- 

ANT. Emendation, perfec- 
tion; supply, sufficiency. 

Defense. Apology, justification, 
vindication; shelter, shield, 
protection, guard, resistance, 
rampart, fortress, safeguard, 

A>'T. Surrender, betrayal, ex- 
posure, hazard; challenge. 

Defer. Delay, postpone, procras- 
tinate, adjourn, put off; yield 
to, respect. 

ANT. Hasten, hurry, expe- 
dite, quicken, overdrive; slight, 

Deference. Respect, considera- 
tion, esteem, veneration, hom- 

ANT. Disrespect, contumely, 
impudence, defiance, disobedi- 

Defile. Contaminate, spoil, pol- 
lute, vitiate, infect, taint, be- 

ANT. Purify, cleanse, disin- 
fect, uxish, hallow, sanctify. 

Definition. Description, exposi- 
tion, comment, explanation, in- 
terpretation, rendering, trans- 

ANT. Misstatement. 

Deformity. Ugliness, malforma- 

[ 74 




tion, distortion, disfigurement, 
abnormity, hideousness. 

ANT. Grace, beauty, regu- 
larity, symmetry. 

Defrayment. Payment, settle- 
ment, liquidation, discharge. 

ANT. Failure, insolvency, re- 
pudiation, embezzlement, non- 

Defy. Challenge, dare, provoke, 
scorn, brave. 

ANT. Dread, cower, shrink, 

Degeneracy. Degradation, dete- 
rioration, growing worse, decay, 
decline ; inferiority, meanness. 

ANT. Improvement, advance- 

Degree. Grade, rank, step, sta- 
tion, stage, quality, standing; 
measure, interval, space. 

ANT. Mass, magnitude, size, 

Dejected. Disheartened, discour- 
aged, depressed, downcast, des- 
pondent, gloomy, melancholy, 

ANT. Cheerful, elated, gay, 
blithe, inspirited, joyous, jovial, 

Delay. Postponement, procrasti- 
nation ; hindrance, impediment. 
ANT. Hurry, despatch, quick- 
ening, urgency ; assistance, fur- 

Delegate, n. Substitute, proxy, 
representative, legate, deputy. 

Delegate, v. Depute, commis- 
sion, appoint, empower, consti- 
tute, ordain. 

ANT. Relegate, recall, super- 
sede, remove. 

Deleterious. Destructive, nox- 
ious, deadly, poisonous; hurt- 
ful, harmful, injurious, perni- 
cious, unwholesome. 

ANT. Wholesome, healthy, 
beneficial, sanitary, salubrious, 

Deliberate, v. Meditate, ponder, 

debate, confer, consider, reflect, 
consult, weigh, cogitate. 

ANT. Shelve, dismiss, dis- 
card, put aside; hazard, cluince, 

Deliberate, a. Cautious, care- 
ful, wary; well-advised, pur- 
posed, studied; slow, leisurely; 
intentional, earnest, unbiased. 
ANT. Facetious, playful; ir- 
resolute, hesitant, faltering, va- 
cillating ;impulsive,rash,hasty ; 

Delicacy. Dainty, morsel, tid- 
bit, relish; refinement, luxury, 
nicety, elegance; frailty, weak- 
ness ; fastidiousness, scrupu- 
lousness; purity, sensibility. 

ANT. "Necessaries, commons, 
fare; coarseness, roughness, 
rudeness; vigor, strength; gross- 

Delicious. Dainty, savory, de- 
lightful, luscious, exquisite. 

ANT. Nauseous, repulsive, 
bitter, loathsome, unpalatable, 

Delight. Joy, gladness, charm, 
rapture, transport, satisfaction, 
pleasure, ecstasy, happiness, en- 
joyment, bliss. 

ANT. Pain, suffering, sorrow, 
misery, discomfort, dejection, 
melancholy, discontent, trouble, 
distress, depression. 

Delightful. Agreeable, congen- 
ial, grateful, pleasant, refresh- 
ing, welcome, satisfying, deli- 
cious, acceptable, pleasurable. 

ANT. Miserable, depressing, 
disappointing, horrible, melan- 
choly, painful, woful, wretched, 
mournful, saddening. 

Delineate. Describe, figure, rep- 
resent, sketch, draw, portray, 
depict, paint. 

ANT. Caricature, misrepre- 
sent, exaggerate. 

Delinquent. Offender, culprit, 
criminal, miscreant, malefactor. 

[ 75 ] 




ANT. Worthy, model, para- 
gon, pattern, beau ideal. 
Deliver. Free, liberate, release; 
save, rescue; give, hand over, 
transfer; yield, grant, resign, 
surrender; pronounce, declare, 
speak; discharge, deal. 

ANT. Confine, capture; sup- 
press, retain; withdraio, be- 
tray; appropriate. 
Deluge. Inundation, flood, over- 
flow, rush, cataclysm. 

ANT. Drought, dearth, arid- 
ity; mist, moisture; subsidence, 
ebb, abatement. 

Delusion. Error, fallacy, illu- 
sion, hallucination, trick, snare, 
fraud, deception, imposture. 

ANT. Fact, certainty, verity, 
actuality, truth, reality. 
Demand. Require, ask, call for, 
insist, exact, challenge. 

ANT. Request, petition, sup- 
plicate; disclaim, forego, waive. 
Demarcation. Outline, sketch, 
limit, boundary, division, en- 
closure, separation, distinc- 

ANT. Openness, space, ex- 
panse, extent. 

Demean. Behave, comport, act, 
conduct one's self. 

ANT. Misbehave. 
Demerit. Fault, delinquency, 
misdeed, failure. 

ANT. Credit, merit, worth, 
excellence, desert. 
Democratic. Popular, representa- 
tive, republican, radical. 

ANT. Imperial, aristocratic, 
regal, oligarchical, autocratic, 
despotic, tyrannical, constitu- 
tional, conservative. 
Demolish. Overthrow, destroy, 
overturn, raze, ruin. 

ANT. Restore, repair; build, 
construct, make. 

Demonstration. Exhibition, ex- 
emplification ; manifestation, il- 
lustration ; evidence, proof, cer- 

tainty, conclusion, consequence, 
induction, inference, deduction. 
ANT. Concealment, secrecy; 
theory, supposition. 
Demoralize. Corrupt, deprave, 
vitiate, undermine, subvert. 

ANT. Stimulate, impel, pro- 
mote, incite, reassure, animate, 

Demure. Sedate, staid, modest, 
prudish, discreet. 

ANT. Lively, vivacious, face- 
tious, wanton, wild. 
Denial. Refusal; contradiction, 
negation, disavowal. 

ANT. Affirmation, avowal, 
admission, concession. 
Denizen. Citizen, subject, in- 
habitant, dweller, sojourner. 

ANT. Foreigner, alien, trav- 
eler, stranger, transient. 
Denomination. Name, designa- 
tion, description, appellation, 
class, sect, school. 
ANT. Misnomer. 
Denounce. Brand, defame, stig- 
matize, decry ; accuse ; menace, 
threaten ; proscribe, vituperate. 
ANT. Eulogize, applaud, up- 
hold, vindicate. 

Dense. Thick, slow, compact, 
solid, close, thickset. 

ANT. Sparse, thin, scattered; 
quick, intelligent, clever, alert, 

Denunciation. Censure, ar- 
raignment; threat, menace; ex- 

ANT. Vindication, defense, 
apology, plea, excuse. 
Deny. Refuse, withhold ; contra- 
dict, gainsay ; renounce, abjure, 

ANT. Affirm, grant, accept, 
concede; indulge, yield, admit. 
Depart. Leave, go, start, sally, 
retire, disappear, vanish, bid 
farewell; die, decease. 

ANT. Arrive, alight; stay, re* 
main, cling. 

I 76 




Department. Division, section, 

portion; function, office, duty, 

station; province, branch, line. 

ANT. Organization, whole, 


Dependent. Hanging, resting, 
contingent, conditioned, relying, 
subject, relative. 

ANT. Independent, free, ab- 
solute, irrespective. 

Depict. Portray, draw, paint, 
ANT. Caricature, parody. 

Deplorable. Lamentable, piti- 
able, sad, mournful, disastrous, 
calamitous, grievous, distress- 
ing, melancholy. 

ANT. Acceptable, felicitous, 
happy, welcome, glad, joyous, 
beneficent, pleasing. 

Deportment. Conduct, carriage, 
behavior, demeanor, character. 
ANT. Misbehavior, miscon- 

Depose. Dethrone, debase, de- 
grade, dismiss, oust, displace. 

ANT. Enthrone, install, initi- 
ate, elevate, exalt, invest with 

Deprecate. Regret, disapprove, 
lament; intercede, expostulate. 
ANT. Rejoice in, approve; in- 
voke, imprecate, curse. 

Depreciate. Disparage, decry, 
undervalue, detract, underesti- 

ANT. Appreciate, value, es- 

Depredation. Robbery, pillage, 
plunder, spoliation, theft, inva- 
sion, trespass, havoc, encroach- 

ANT. Restitution, compensa- 
tion, restoration, amends, repa- 

Depression. Lowering, degrada- 
tion, abasement, perversion, de- 
preciation, dejection, discour- 
agement; hollow, valley, de- 

ANT. Elevation, raising, eto- 
altation, promotion, ameliora- 
tion, preferment, prominenoe t 

Deprive. Bereave, rob, divest, 
strip, despoil, dispossess, de- 
pose; prevent, hinder. 

ANT. EKdow, enrich, invest, 
compensate, present, indem- 

Deputy. Lieutenant, agent, rep- 
resentative, envoy, legate, sub- 
stitute, vicegerent, proxy, dele- 

ANT. Master, principal, gov- 
ernor, chief, sovereign, ruler. 
Derangement. Disorder, confu- 
sion, disarrangement; disturb- 
ance, discomposure; madness, 
lunacy, insanity, mania, delir- 
ium, alienation, aberration. 

ANT. Order, arrangement, 
regulation; calmness; sanity, 
poise, rationality. 
Derision. Scorn, contempt, ridi- 
cule, mockery, contumely, scoff- 

ANT. Admiration, respect, 
reverence, regard, esteem, ven- 

Derivation. Source, origin, gen- 
esis, fountain, descent, root, 

ANT. Result, issue, termina- 
tion, effect, application, use. 
Derogate. Detract, depreciate, 
disparage, compromise, lessen. 

ANT. Esteem, value, over~ 
estimate, enhance, extol. 
Descendant. Offspring, poster- 
ity, progeny, stock, family, lin- 
eage, scion, branch, issue. 

ANT. Ancestry, progenitor, 
origin, root, source, founder, 

Describe. Trace, draw, portray, 
mark out, represent, depict, re- 
count, narrate, illustrate, de- 
fine, explain, characterize. 

ANT, Caricature, misrepre* 

[ 77 ] 




sent, distort; mystify, perplex, 

Descry. Perceive, discern, recog- 
nize, discover, espy, see, behold, 
detect, find out. 
ANT. Overlook, miss, neglect. 

Desecrate. Profane, pollute, per- 
vert, abuse, secularize, prosti- 

ANT. Hallow, sanctify, re- 
spect, esteem, dedicate, devote. 

Desert. Solitude, wild, wilder- 
ness, waste. 

ANT. Oasis, pasture, meadow. 

Deserter. Renegade, turncoat, re- 
. canter, backslider, abjurer, trai- 
tor, apostate. 

ANT. Adherent, devotee, sup- 
porter, bigot, disciple, ally. 

Deserve. Merit, earn, win, be 
entitled to. 

ANT. Forfeit, lose, miss, fail 

Desideratum. Very desirable 
thing, requisite, want, essential. 
ANT. Superfluity, surplus, 

Design, n. Intention, purpose, 
aim, end, scheme, proposal, pro- 
ject, object, plan, device, pur- 
port, meaning, drift, scope, 
mark; delineation, sketch, arti- 
fice, drawing, draft; invention, 
contrivance ; cunning, guile. 

ANT. Execution, perform- 
ance, structure, construction, is- 
sue, result; candor, openness, 
sincerity; chance, accident. 

Design, v. Intend, plan, prepare, 
project, contrive, scheme, pur- 
pose, mean, propose; draw, de- 
lineate, sketch ; contemplate, 
outline, plot. 

ANT. Risk, guess, conjecture, 
chance; misconceive, misinter- 
pret, misrepresent. 

Designate. Specify, particular- 
ize; describe, define, denomi- 
nate, name, call, style, christen, 
dub ; appoint, allot. 

ANT. Misname, miscall; gen- 
eralize; misrepresent. 

Desirable. Eligible, expedient, 
advantageous, beneficial, advis- 
able, valuable, profitable, envi- 
able, proper, judicious. 

ANT. Inexpedient, disadvan- 
tageous, harmful, inadvisable, 

Desire. Appetite, inclination, 
longing, proclivity, craving, im- 
pulse, hankering, coveting, pro- 
pensity, wish; aspiration, wilL 
ANT. Loathing, disgust, aver- 
sion, hate, repugnance, horror. 

Desolate, a. Bereaved, comfort- 
less, forlorn, cheerless, lonely, 
solitary; uninhabited, forsaken, 
unfrequented, waste, dreary, 

ANT. Peopled, colonized, de- 
veloped, cultivated; populous, 
crowded, frequented. 

Despair. Desperation, discour- 
agement, hopelessness, despon- 

ANT. Courage, hope, expecta- 
tion, anticipation, assurance, 
confidence, elation, cheer, trust, 
hopefulness, encouragement. 

Despatch, v. Expedite, speed, ac- 
celerate, quicken, hasten; kill, 

ANT. Delay, retard, impede, 
obstruct; preserve, save, spare. 

Desperate. Wild, reckless, des- 
pondent, hopeless, wretched, 
forlorn, lost; heroic, extreme, 
defiant; precipitate, headlong, 

ANT. Cautious, timid, shy; 
hopeful, promising, propitious. 

Despise. Contemn, scorn, slight, 
disdain, spurn. 

ANT. Respect, esteem, ven- 
erate, regard, revere. 

Despoil. Strip, denude, ravage; 
rob, plunder, pillage, devastate. 
ANT. Adorn, enrich, rehabili- 

[ 78 ] 




Despotic. Tyrannical, absolute, 
imperious, autocratic, arrogant. 
ANT. Conciliatory, humane, 
merciful; constitutional, demo- 
cratic, representative. 

Destination. Aim, end, object, 
purpose, design; goal, harbor. 
ANT. Action, movement; ini- 
tiation, project, effort. 

Destiny. Fate, lot, doom, star, 
fortune, necessity, end, predes- 

ANT. Choice, will, freedom, 
volition, free will. 

Destructive. Ruinous, injurious, 
pernicious, deleterious, bane- 
ful, detrimental, hurtful, nox- 

ANT. Constructive, restora- 
tive, beneficial, wholesome, pre- 

Desuetude. Disuse, non-observ- 
ance, obsolescence. 

ANT. Use, custom, practice, 
exercise, operation. 

Desultory. Rambling, irregu- 
lar, capricious, wandering, rov- 
ing, discursive, cursory, erratic, 
spasmodic, unsystematic. 

ANT. Methodical, continuous, 
periodical, diligent, exact, un- 
tiring, persevering, earnest, se- 
rious, settled, consecutive. 

Detail. Account, narrative, re- 
cital; detachment; individual, 
particular, item, specialty, ele- 
ment, point, component. 

ANT. Totality, whole, gener- 
ality, aggregation, mass, bulk. 

Detention. Hindrance, retain- 
ing, restraint, stopping. 

ANT. Relinquishment, aban- 
donment, letting go, release, lib- 

Deter. Hinder, discourage, pre- 
vent, restrain, withhold, terrify, 
scare, dishearten, dissuade. 

ANT. Incite, provoke, allure,, seduce, prompt, per- 

Deteriorate. Impair, degrade,, 
debase; decline, degenerate. 

ANT. Ameliorate, promote, 
advance, rectify. 

Determine. Settle, adjust, de- 
cide; ascertain, verify; influ- 
ence, lead, incl ine ; resolve. 

ANT. Vacillate, waver, un- 
settle, doubt. 

Detest. Abominate, abhor, exe- 
crate, loathe, shrink from. 

ANT. Like, approve, appre- 
ciate, praise, love. 
Dethrone. Depose, uncrown, 
drive out of power, cause to 

ANT. Crown, enthrone, ex- 

Detract. Depreciate, disparage, 
lessen, derogate, calumniate, 
slander, defame, decry, vilify. 

ANT. Enhance, augment, in- 
crease, flatter, compliment. 
Detriment. Loss, damage, in- 
jury, harm, evil, prejudice, dis- 
advantage, impairment, incon- 

ANT. Enhancement, rem- 
edy, augmentation, improve- 
ment, repair, reinstatement. 
Develop. Evolve, unfold, educe, 
disclose, unravel, exhibit, ex- 
pand, enlarge; open, grow, ma- 

ANT. Envelop, wrap, con- 
ceal, contract, compress ; stunt T 
duvtrf, hinder, prevent. 
Deviate. Digress, wander, de- 
flect, veer, diverge; depart, err, 
stray, swerve ; differ, vary. 

ANT. Cohere, coincide; ac- 
company, continue, remain; ad- 
vance; converge; agree, assimi- 

Device. Contrivance, invention, 
design, project, plan, scheme, 
expedient, resource; wile, arti- 
fice, stratagem, evasion, fraud; 
emblem, symbol, type. 

ANT. Fortune, luck, hazard? 

t 79 ] 




hit; openness, frankness, can- 

Devious. Erratic, wandering, 
deviating, crooked, circuitous, 
misleading, treacherous, round- 

ANT. Direct, plain, straight- 
forward, frequented. 
Devise. Plan, design, contrive, 
imagine, scheme, project, con- 
coct; bequeath, leave. 

ANT. Mismanage, miscon- 
trive; inherit. 

Devoid. Void, wanting, empty, 
destitute, vacant, unprovided 

ANT. Full, supplied, pro- 
vided, replete, furnished, abun- 
dant, plentiful, sufficient. 
Devolve. Transfer, consign, con- 
vey, demise, devise, deliver; 
impose, place, attach, commis- 
sion, charge, depute; fall, pass, 
be transferred. 

ANT. Deprive, vnthhold, re- 
call, cancel, alienate, skip, pass, 

Devotion. Dedication, consecra- 
tion, piety, religion, sanctity, 
holiness, worship, adoration; 
attachment, affection, love; ar- 
dor, earnestness, zeal, eager- 
ness, self-sacrifice. 

ANT. Impiety, profanity, 
sacrilege, irreverence; aversion, 
alienation, antipathy, indiffer- 
ence, apathy. 

Devour. Consume, gorge, eat 
ravenously, swallow ; destroy, 
annihilate, waste, swallow up, 

ANT. Disgorge, vomit; save, 

Dexterity. Aptitude, skill, ex- 
pertness, readiness, adroitness. 

ANT. Ineptitude, inability, 
weakness, awkwardness, clum- 

Diadem. Crown, chaplet, fillet, 
wreath, tiara, circlet. 

Diagnosis. Investigation, de- 
termination, analysis. 

ANT. Misjudgment, error. 

Diagnostic. Symptom, feature, 
sign, cue, indication, mark, in- 

ANT. Development, consum- 
mation, crisis, head, formation. 

Dialect. Language, phraseology, 
tongue, speech, provincialism, 
idiom, accent. 

Dialogue. Conversation between 
two people, colloquy, discourse, 

ANT. Monologue, soliloquy, 
apostrophe, oration. 

Dictate. Direct, ordain, com- 
mand, prescribe, order, bid, re- 
quire, decree; utter; prompt, 
suggest, enjoin, instruct. 

ANT. Follow, repeat, obey, 
answer; accept. 

Dictation. Injunction, precept, 
command, rule, maxim, direc- 
tion, utterance. 

ANT. Consultation, confer- 
ence, council; advice, recom- 

Dictatorial. Imperious, imper 
tive, domineering, arbitrary, 
absolute, unlimited, authori- 
tative, unrestricted, overbear- 

ANT. Condescending, suppli- 
catory, affable, suppliant, un- 
assuming, persuasive. 

Diction. Expression, language, 
phrase, phraseology, style, ver- 
biage, vocabulary, wording. 

ANT. Provincialism, barba- 
rism, solecifim. 

Dictionary. Lexicon, word-book, 
glossary, vocabulary. 

Didactic. Instructive, percep- 
tive, moral, directive, educative. 
ANT. Unsound, misleading, 
erroneous, uninstructive, perni- 

Die. Expire, decease, depart; 
wither, perish, decay, decline, 

[ 80 



fade; cease, vanish, disappear; 
sink, faint, fall; subside. 

ANT. Live, recover, be born; 
survive, exist; originate, de- 
velop, grow, strengthen, flour- 
ish, luxuriate, vegetate. 

Diet. Food, victuals, nourish- 
ment, aliment, nutriment, pro- 
vision, viands, rations, fare, 
subsistence ; assembly, parlia- 
ment, congress. 

ANT. Starvation, fasting, 
abstinence, fast; gluttony, om- 

Difference. Contrast, diversity, 
variation, variety, discrepancy, 
disagreement, disparity, dis- 
tinction, divergence, unlikenesa. 
ANT. Agreement, uniform- 
ity, unity, consonance, identity, 
likeness, resemblance, harmony, 
sameness, similarity. 

Differentiate. Discriminate, in- 
dividualize, distinguish, par- 
ticularize, specify, segregate, 

ANT. Generalize, classify, 
confuse, amalgamate. 

Difficult. Arduous, exhausting, 
severe, onerous, trying, toil- 
some, hard, laborious; intri- 
cate, involved, obscure, enig- 
matical; unmanageable, re- 
served, opposed, unamenable. 

ANT. Easy, facile, trifling, 
slight, trivial, pleasant, light; 
simple, plain, clear, manifest ; 
approachable, amcn-nble, pliant. 

Diffident. Modest, doubtful, re- 
luctant, hesitating; bashful, 
timid, shy, self-distrustful. 

ANT. Bold, aggressive, for- 
irord, arrogant, self-conceited. 

Diffuse, a. Prolix, loose, copi- 
ous, rambling, verbose, long- 
winded, diluted. 

ANT. Epigrammatic, laconic, 
terse, condensed. 

Digest. Methodize, systematize, 
arrange, classify, cod'ify ; study, 

ponder, consider, contemplate, 
meditate, con; master, assimi- 

ANT. Confound, complicate, 
disorder, derange, disturb; re- 
ject, refuse. 

Dignified. Stately, noble, grand, 
majestic, self-respecting, impos- 
ing, decorous, august, lofty, ex- 
alted, pompous. 

ANT. Stunted, low, mean, un- 
imposing, depressed, ordinary, 

Dignify. Advance, promote, ex- 
alt, ennoble, prefer; grace, 
honor, adorn; elevate, aggran- 

ANT. Humiliate, debase, de- 

Digress. Deviate, ramble, wan- 
der; differ. 

ANT. Proceed, advance; har- 
monize, agree. 

Dilapidation. Ruin, decay, dis- 
integration, downfall, demoli- 

ANT. Construction, repara- 
tion; soundness, solidity; fab- 
rication, building. 
Dilate. Stretch wide, expand, 
enlarge, widen, distend. 

ANT. Compress, compact, re- 
strict, narrow, condense, con- 

Dilatory. Slow, loitering, tardy, 
procrastinating, dawdling, lag- 
ging, lingering, sluggish. 

ANT. Prompt, vigilant, alert, 
eager, earnest. 

Diligence. Industry, assiduity, 
activity, perseverance, applica- 
tion, attention, care, heed. 

ANT. Neglect, carelessness, 
idleness, inertness, inattention, 

Dim. Obscure, dark, covered, 
hidden, dusky, indistinct, un- 

ANT. Bright, clear, mani- 
fest, light. 

[ 81 ] 




Dimension. Measurement, bulk, 
mass, extent ; ( pi. ) size, ca- 
pacity, amplitude, massiveness, 

ANT. Segment, section, por- 
tion, part. 

Diminish. Lessen, reduce, de- 
crease, abate, subside, shorten, 
dwarf, retrench. 

ANT. Augment, amplify, in- 
crease, magnify, expand. 

Din. Racket, clamor, noise, up- 

ANT. Crash, explosion; si- 

Dingy. Dirty, dull, soiled, tar- 
nished, dim, obscure, somber. 

ANT. Bright, burnished, ra- 
diant, glittering, gleaming, lu- 

Dip. Immerse, plunge, inunda.te, 
soak, steep, drown, submerge. 

ANT. Dry, drain, parch; air, 
ventilate, evaporate, vaporize. 

Diplomacy. Negotiation, indi- 
rection, tact, artful manage- 
ment, contrivance, circumven- 
tion; embassage, ministry, am- 

ANT. Dismissal, conge, re- 
call; candor, naivete, ingenu- 
ousness; mismanagement, mal- 
administration; self-defeat. 

Diplomatic. Prudent, wise, tact- 
ful, astute, politic, sagacious, 
judicious, discreet. 

ANT. Blundering, tactless, 

Direct, o. Unswerving, straight, 
rectilinear, undeviating. 

ANT. Meandering, crooked, 
roundabout, circuitous. 

Direction. Course, tendency, 
aim, bearing; oversight, man- 
agement, control, superinten- 
dence, conduct; order, com- 
mand; address, superscription. 
ANT. Deviation, aberration; 

Directly. Straightly, immedi- 

ately, forthwith, soon, speed- 
ily, instantly, promptly, pres- 
ently, quickly, straightway, at 

ANT. Secondarily, by-and- 
by; remotely, obliquely, cir- 

Dirge. Requiem, elegy, lament, 
wake, threnody, coronach. 

ANT. Anthem, Te Deum, Ju- 
bilate, pcean, jubilee, halleluiah. 

Dirt. Filth, uncleanness, dung, 
foulness, meanness, filthiness, 

ANT. Cleanness, purity, ab- 
lution; innocence, spotlessness. 

Dis-. The prefix dis- has usually 
a negative, sometimes an inten- 
sive, force. Therefore, for words 
beginning with it look under 
the antonyms of the root words. 
When its force is intensive, 
however, they will be found un- 
der the synonyms of the root 
words. Only a few of derived 
significance are here given. 

Disability. Unfitness, inability, 
incompetence, incapacity, dis- 

ANT. Merit, fitness, recom- 
mendation, qualification, capa- 

Disabuse. Undeceive, set right, 
correct, enlighten, inform, rec- 

ANT. Deceive, delude, hood- 

Disappoint. Frustrate, foil, de- 
feat, baffle, disconcert, mortify, 
vex, betray, tantalize. 

ANT. Fulfil, realize, satisfy, 
gratify, encourage, verify, sup- 

Disaster. Misfortune, mishap, 
reverse, calamity, catastrophe. 
ANT. Blessing, benefit, good 
fortune, profit, gain, boon. 

Disburse. Spend, expend, con- 
sume, waste, use, lay out, 

[ 82 ] 




ANT. Save, economize, hoard, 

Discern. Observe, discriminate, 
distinguish, perceive, see, des- 
cry, behold, espy, discover, pen- 
etrate, differentiate. 
ANT. Overlook, neglect, miss. 

Discernible. Discoverable, per- 
ceptible, visible, apparent, con- 
spicuous, palpable, plain, mani- 
fest, evident. 

ANT. Obscure, minute, in- 
visible, microscopic, impalpable. 

Discernment. Sagacity, per- 
ception, discrimination, bright- 
ness, astuteness, insight, intel- 
ligence, perspicacity, penetra- 
tion, acuteness, judgment, in- 

ANT. Blindness, inattention, 
dulness, density. 

Discharge, v. Unburden, un- 
load; expel, eject; shoot, fire; 
release, exonerate, acquit, lib- 
erate, free ; dismiss, discard, 
cashier; remove, destroy; per- 
form, execute, observe. 

ANT. Confine, charge, load, 
burden, contain; detain, check, 
delay, stop; preserve; ignore. 

Disciple. Follower, student, be- 
liever, pupil, learner, scholar, 
supporter, adherent, votary. 

ANT. Master, teacher, pro- 
fessor, leader, rabbi. 

Discipline. Training, teaching, 
drill, exercise; control, regula- 
tion, subjection, government; 
punishment, correction, coer- 
cion, chastisement. 

ANT. Laxity, latitude, negli- 
gence; reward, encouragement; 
disorganization, mutiny, rebel- 
lion, confusion, disorder. 

Discomfit. Defeat, overpower, 
conquer; foil, disconcert. 

ANT. Encourage, rally, aid, 

Disconcert. Frustrate, balk, de- 
feat, thwart, baffle ; discompose, 

embarrass, disturb, upset, per- 
plex, abash, confuse, bewilder. 

ANT. Assist, countenance, 
encourage, compose, calm, ap- 
pease, pacify, tranquilize. 

Disconsolate. Inconsolable, sor- 
rowful, heant-broken, comfort- 
less, melancholy, desolate, for- 
lorn, sad. 

ANT. Joyous, cheerful, glad, 
merry, jovial, happy, blithe. 

Discordance. Disagreement, dis- 
cord, dissonance, conflict, oppo- 

ANT. Accordance, harmony, 

Discover. Find, detect, discern, 
ferret out, invent, expose, as- 
certain, descry, disclose, betray, 
indicate, manifest. 

ANT. Hide, conceal, cover, 
secrete, tury, suppress, with- 

Discreet. Discerning, wise, saga- 
cious, prudent, cautious, ju- 
dicious, considerate, circum- 

ANT. Foolish, heedless, reck- 
less, silly, imprudent, undis- 
cerning, unrestrained. 

Discrepancy. Dissonance, dis- 
cord, discordance, difference, 
variation, disagreement. 

ANT. Agreement, harmony, 

Discrimination. Acuteness, pen- 
etration, sagacity, discernment, 
shrewdness, insight. 

ANT. Dulness, shortsighted- 

Discursive. Reasoning, argu- 
mentative; roving, wandering, 
rambling, desultory, inconse- 

ANT. Orderly, coherent, con- 
tinuous; condensed, succinct, 
concise; strategic, 

Discuss. Debate, argue, reason, 
agitate, deliberate upon, con- 

[ 83 ] 




ANT. Confound, obscure; as- 
sert, dogmatize. 

Disdain, n. Contempt, scorn, dis- 
regard, haughtiness, arrogance. 
ANT. Reverence, respect, es- 
teem,, consider ateness, humil- 

Disease. Infirmity, ailment, dis- 
temper, complaint, illness, sick- 
ness, malady, indisposition, un- 
soundness, affection. 

ANT. Health, strength, ro- 
bustness, soundness, sturdiness, 
vigor; convalescence; sanity, 

Disgust, n. Distaste, loathing, 
dislike, repugnance, aversion, 

ANT. Partiality, desire, lik- 
ing, relish, fondness. 

Dismal. Dark, gloomy, cheer- 
less, dull, dreary, melancholy, 
lonesome, somber, sad, doleful, 
funereal ; horrible, terrible, 

ANT. Cheerful., bright, in- 
viting, cordial, gay, propitious, 

Dismay. Affright, terrify, ap- 
pal, alarm, intimidate, daunt. 
ANT. Rally, inspirit, assure, 
encourage, hearten. 

Dismember. Disintegrate, mu- 
tilate, separate, rend asunder, 

ANT. Integrate, incorpo- 
rate; constitute, construct. 

Dismiss. Banish, discard, dis- 
charge, remove. 

ANT. Recall, welcome. 

Disparage. Depreciate, decry, 
undervalue, underrate ; defame, 

ANT. Appreciate, overesti- 
mate, extol, praise, exaggerate. 

Dispel. Drive away, disperse, 
dissipate, banish, scatter. 

ANT. Collect, summon, ac- 

Dispensation. Apportionment, 

allotment, distribution; admin- 
istration ; exemption ; system, 
scheme, plan, regime. 

ANT. Retention, restriction, 
reservation, injunction, prohi- 
bition; enforcement. 
Disperse. Dispel, scatter, sepa- 
rate; diffuse, spread, dissemi- 

ANT. Gather, collect, con- 
centrate; recall, summon. 
Display. Expand, unfold, ex- 
tend, uncover, open, spread; ex- 
hibit, show, parade. 

ANT. Conceal, hide, wrap, 
dissemble, suppress. 
Disposition. Arrangement, lo- 
cation, placing, grouping; man- 
agement, control, regulation, 
direction; tendency, inclina- 
tion, propensity; temper, char- 
acter, nature, humor; willing- 
ness; distribution. 

ANT. Confusion, inversion, 
disorder; mismanagement, lax- 
ity; antipathy, repulsion; ob- 
stinacy; mood; agglomeration, 

Disputant. Litigant, debater, 
arguer, controversialist, com- 
petitor, claimant. 

ANT. Advocate, auxiliary, 

Dispute, v. Quarrel, wrangle; 
debate, argue, discuss, agitate, 
ventilate; impugn, deny, con- 
tradict, oppose, contest. 

ANT. Allow, concede, grant, 
forego, relinquish. 
Disquisition. Treatise, disser- 
tation, discourse, essay, discus- 

ANT. Effusion, tirade, dia- 
tribe, rhodomontade. 
Dissect. Anatomize, scrutinize, 
analyze, explore, investigate, 
examine, sift. 

ANT. Integrate, organize, 
compound, grasp; comprehend* 
discern, diagnose. 

I 84 1 




Dissemble. Conceal, disguise, 
cloak, hide, restrain, smother. 
ANT. Reveal, confess, mani- 
fest, expose, vaunt, profess. 

Dissent. Differ, disagree, de- 

ANT. Assent, consent, agree. 

Dissertation. Disquisition, dis- 
cussion, treatise. 

Dissipate. Scatter, vanish, dis- 
perse, disappear, waste, squan- 

AST. Hoard, save, gather, 

Dissociate. Separate, sever, dis- 
join, divide, part, sunder, dis- 
ANT. Associate, join, affiliate. 

Dissolute. Abandoned, corrupt, 
loose, profligate, reprobate, dis- 

ANT. Upright, honest, con- 
scientious, self-controlled. 

Distance. Remoteness, space, 
interval; absence, separation; 
reserve, coldness, stiffness. 

ANT. Proximity, contiguity, 
nearness, presence, neighbor- 
hood, contact. 

Distend. Dilate, extend, spread, 

ANT. Contract, narrow, con- 
strict, condense. 

Distil. Drop, extract, separate; 
percolate, emanate, drip. 

ANT. Condense, retain; suck; 

Distinct. Separate, definite, dif- 
ferent, clear, plain, unmistak- 

ANT. Blurred, dim, indefi- 
nite, confused, conjoined, ob- 

Distinguish. Discern, perceive, 
tell, discriminate; differenti- 
ate; characterize, mark; sepa- 
rate, divide; signalize, make 
famous or celebrated. 

ANT. Confound, miss, con- 

Distinguished. Illustrious, fa- 
mous, celebrated, noted, emi- 
nent, marked, conspicuous, su- 
preme, extraordinary, consum- 

ANT. Obscure, inconspicu- 
ous, hidden; infamous, notori- 

Distortion. Deformity, twist, 
perversion, falsification, mis- 
representation, sophistry, cor- 

ANT. Regularity, shapeli- 
ness, symmetry; right, truth, 
verification, rectification. 

Distract. Divert, perplex, con- 
fuse, disconcert, bewilder, con- 
found, derange, craze. 

ANT. Unite, fix, compose, 
concentrate, collect. 

Distraction. Confusion, perplex- 
ity, abstraction, disturbance, 
perturbation, agitation ; inat- 
tention; absence, frenzy, mad- 
ness ; alienation, aberration ; 
delirium, mania, derangement, 

ANT. Attention, composure, 
self-possession, tranquillity. 

Distress, n. Affliction, calamity, 
adversity, misery, perplexity, 
misfortune; agony, suffering, 
anguish ; privation, destitution, 
poverty, indigence. 

ANT. Consolation, relief, as- 
suagement, alleviation; boon, 
blessing, pleasure. 

Distribute. Dispense, scatter, 
allot, apportion, grant, appoint. 
ANT. Restrict, retain, col- 
lect, gather, hold, reserve, keep. 

District. Region, tract, terri- 
tory, province, circuit, quarter. 

Disturb. Agitate, shake, stir, 
disorder, confuse, derange; mo- 
lest, annoy, plague, trouble, 
vex, worry; interrupt, hinder. 

ANT. Soothe, quiet, assist, 
compose, pacify; arrange, or' 




Diversion. Detour, deviation, 
divergence; recreation, amuse- 
ment, enjoyment, pastime. 

ANT. Directness, business, 
procedure, continuity, task, la- 

Diversify. Vary, change, alter, 
modify; variegate, streak, spot. 
ANT. Settle, fix, stereotype, 

Diversity. Difference, dissimili- 
tude, variation, unlikeness, di- 
vergence, dissonance, heteroge- 
neousness, multiformity. 

ANT. Identity, similarity, 
uniformity, consonance, homo- 
geneousness, coincidence. 

Divest. Dismantle, strip, un- 
clothe, undress, unrobe, deprive. 
ANT. Clothe, invest, shroud, 
indue, encumber. 

Divide. Sever, part, separate, 
disunite, sunder; alienate, es- 
trange; distribute, allot, ap- 
portion, assign, share, dispense. 
ANT. Unite, commingle, col- 
locate, congregate, convene. 

Divination. Magic, foretelling, 
augury, prophecy, presage, pre- 

ANT. Investigation, study; 
information ; analysis. 

Divorce, v. Separate, part, sun- 
der, alienate, disunite. 

ANT. Marry, wed, betroth, 

Do. Accomplish, achieve, bring 
to pass, complete, effect, realize, 
discharge, perpetuate, perform, 
commit, consummate, actual- 
ize ; execute, finish, fulfil ; work 
out, transact. 

ANT. Neglect, ruin, spoil, 
defeat, destroy, mar, miscarry, 
fail, frustrate, baffle, omit, come 

Docile. Manageable, amenable, 
compliant, gentle, tame, sub- 
missive, yielding, tractable, pli- 
able, obedient. 

ANT. Obstinate, firm, inflex- 
ible, stubborn, self-willed, wil- 
ful, determined, dogged, reso- 
lute, opinionated. 

Doctrine. Tenet, dogma, opin- 
ion, belief, precept, principle, 
teaching, creed. 

ANT. Duty, practice, action, 
conduct, operations application. 

Dogmatic. Arrogant, authorita- 
tive, imperious, domineering, 
positive, self-opinionated, doc- 
trinal, magisterial, dictatorial. 
ANT. Practical, active, mod- 
est, diffident, vacillating, con- 

Domestic. Private, family, fa- 
miliar, homelike. 

ANT. Public, foreign, alien, 

Domicile. Home, abode, house, 
residence, mansion, dwelling. 

ANT. World, wilderness; es- 
trangement, migration, travel, 

Dominance, Domination. Su- 
periority, lordship, mastery, 
sway, supremacy, command, as- 
cendancy, government. 

ANT. Servility, subjection, 
inferiority, weakness, minority, 

Domineer. Lord, tyrannize, dic- 
tate, bully, swagger. 

ANT. Submit, yield, bow, de- 
fer, patronize, succumb; resist, 

Dominion. Government, domi- 
nation, supremacy, sway, dom- 
inance, control, authority, do- 
main, territory, sovereignty. 

ANT. Submission, subjuga- 
tion, servitude. 

Doom, n. Condemnation, fate, 
sentence, judgment, destiny, 

ANT. Liberation, respite, es- 
cape, acquittal, discharge. 

Dormant. Sleeping, latent, in- 
ert, quiescent. 

[ 86 ] 




ANT. Active, operative, vigi- 
lant, awake, alert. 

Doubt, n. Distrust, skepticism, 
disbelief, suspicion, suspense, 
hesitation, incredulity, irreso- 
lution, misgiving, unbelief, per- 
plexity, uncertainty. 

ANT. Conviction, certainty, 
assurance; belief, confidence; 
determination, resolution, re- 

Downwards. Below, beneath, 

ANT. Upwards, above, aloft. 

Drag. Draw, pull, haul, bring. 

ANT. Carry, push, propel, 

Drain. Empty, exhaust, draw, 
strain, dry. 

ANT. Fill, supply, replenish, 
moisten, drench. 

Draw. Haul, lead, pull, drag, 
lure, entice, attract, incline, in- 

ANT. Repel, repulse, rebuff, 
alienate, estrange, reject. 

Dread, n. Fear, terror, awe, ap- 
prehension, horror, alarm. 

ANT. Confidence, courage; 

Dream. Reverie, fancy, vision, 
delusion, conceit, hallucination, 
romance, trance, vagary. 

ANT. Fact, reality, realiza- 
tion, verity, certainty, sub- 

Dreary. Dismal, gloomy, dark, 
lonesome, solitary, cheerless. 

ANT. Cheerful, bright, prom- 
ising, inviting. 

Dress. Clothing, garments, ap- 
parel, garb, array, uniform, at- 
tire, costume, raiment, habili- 
ments, vesture, robes, habit, 

ANT. Nakedness, disarray, 
nudity, bareness, deshabille, ex- 
posure, undress. 

Drift, n. Direction, bearing, 
course; aim, purpose, inten- 

tion, scope, tendency, design; 
rush, impulse, current; heap, 

ANT. Aimlessness, vague- 
ness, aberrancy, indefiniteness. 
Drink. Swallow, imbibe, quaff, 
drain, absorb, suck in. 

ANT. Pour, exude, disgorge, 
water, moisten. 

Drive. Impel, propel, compel, 
push, thrust, urge; repulse, re- 
pel, resist; ride. 

ANT. Draw, attract, invite, 

Droll. Whimsical, comical, ludi- 
crous, funny, ridiculous, odd, 
queer, facetious. 

ANT. Sober, solemn, tragic, 

Droop. Languish, sink, decline, 
flag, pine, wither, fade, writ. 

ANT. Prosper, revive, rally, 
flourish, raise, luxuriate. 
Drown. Sink, immerse, swamp, 
overwhelm, overflow, inundate, 
deluge, flood, overcome, over- 

ANT. Dry, drain, air, venti- 
late, expose. 

Dry. Arid, parched; thirsty, 
craving drink; barren, meager, 
dull, dreary, tedious, plain ; se- 
vere, sarcastic, sharp, keen. 

ANT. Moist, fresh, juicy; 
lively, entertaining; fulsome, 

Due. Proper, fitting, suitable, 
appropriate, becoming; owing, 

ANT. Improper, unsuitable, 
independent; unfair, extrava- 
gant, deficient. 

Dull. Heavy, stupid, unintelli- 
gent, apathetic, insensible, cal- 
lous, dead; inert, lifeless, in- 
active, slow, torpid; blunt, ob- 
tuse ; gloomy, sad, dismal ; dim, 
obscure; wearisome, dreary, te- 

ANT. Bright, light, tpark- 

L 87 ] 




ling, brilliant, quick, interest- 
ing, lively, keen, witty, cheery, 
inviting, entertaining. 

Dumb. Speechless, mute, silent, 
still, inarticulate. 

ANT. Talkative, chatty, lo- 

Duplicate. Copy, counterpart, 
facsimile, imitation, likeness, 
replica, reproduction, double, 

ANT. Original, pattern, pro- 
totype, archetype, model, 

Duplicity. Deceit, deception, 
circumvention, guile, artifice, 
hypocrisy, fraud, dishonesty. 
ANT. Candor, straightfor- 

wardness, frankness, sincerity, 

Duration. Continuance, term, 
period, protraction, prolonga- 
tion ( in time ) . 

ANT. Brevity, momentari- 
ness; infinity, eternity. 

Duty. Office, responsibility, ob- 
ligation, function, business, ac- 
countability, right, righteous- 

ANT. Immunity, freedom, li- 
cense, exemption, dispensation. 

Dwell. Live, reside, rest, stop, 
stay, abide, lodge, sojourn. 

ANT. Visit, migrate, liasten, 
flit, roam, depart, travel. 

Eager. Impatient, anxious, de- 
sirous, longing, yearning, ar- 
dent, enthusiastic, earnest, ani- 
mated, fervent, impetuous, ve- 

ANT. Torpid, sluggish, slow, 
backward, belated, late, tardy. 

Earn. Acquire, merit, win, get, 
gain, procure, deserve, achieve, 
obtain, realize. 

ANT. Waste, lose, spend, for- 
feit, squander. 

Earnest. Eager, zealous, fer- 
vent; steady, intent, fixed; sin- 
cere, serious, true; important, 

ANT. Indifferent, irresolute, 
sportive, jesting, flippant. 

Ease. Facility, knack, readiness, 
expertness, easiness, satisfac- 
tion, contentment, comfort, re- 
pose, refreshment, relief. 

ANT. Perplexity, irritation, 
annoyance, constraint, disquiet, 
trouble, vexation, difficulty, un- 
easiness, awkwardness, worry. 

Easy. Quiet, comfortable, tran- 
quil, compliant, facile, compla- 
cent, submissive ; unaffected, 

natural, smooth; moderate, af- 

ANT. Disturbed, uncomfort- 
able, hard, difficult, anxious, ea- 

Ebb. Retire, recede, abate, de- 
crease, subside, wane, sink. 

ANT. Flow, swell, increase, 
flood, inundate, deluge. 
Eccentric. Irregular, abnormal, 
uncommon, peculiar, singular, 
wayward, strange, aberrant, er- 
ratic, whimsical. 

ANT. Normal, conventional, 
common, usual, regular, cus- 

Echo. Resonance, repetition, re- 
verberation, imitation, answer. 

ANT. Sound, voice, original, 
tone, noise, speech. 
Eclipse, n. Obscuration, dim- 
ming, obscurity, hiding, shroud- 
ing, concealment, vanishing, ex- 
tinction, obliteration, annihila- 
tion, destruction. 

ANT. Illumination, enlight- 
enment, revelation; perpetua- 
tion; radiation; unveiling, dia- 

[ 88 




Economics. Science of wealth, 
public or political economy; 
household management, house- 
hold economy, housewifery. 
Economize. Save, husband, re- 
trench, manage frugally, be fru- 
gal or prudent, practice econ- 
omy, avoid waste; develop re- 
sources, utilize. 

ANT. Waste, misuse, sacri- 
fice, be lavish, profuse, or ea>- 
travagant; squander, dissi- 

Economy. Thrift, thriftiness, 
frugality, providence, good hus- 
bandry; management, arrange- 
ment, regulation, administra- 
tion; plan, system, established 
order, dispensation. 

ANT. Prodigality, wasteful- 
ness, extravagance, lavishness. 
Ecstasy. Transport, rapture, in- 
spiration, fervor, frenzy, emo- 
tion, delight, enthusiasm, hap- 

ANT. Coolness, dulness, en- 
nui, weariness, tedium, indif- 

Edge. Border, margin, brink, 
rim, brim, verge; sharpness, 
keenness, intensity, animation, 

ANT. Center, interior; dul- 
ness, bluntness, flatness; inert- 
ness, inactivity. 

Edible. Eatable, esculent, whole- 
some, culinary. 

ANT. Poisonous, deleterious, 
harmful, dangerous, noxious, 

Edict. Decree, command, order, 
proclamation, mandate, ordi- 

ANT. Hoax, eanard; request, 

Edifice. Building, tenement, fab- 
ric, structure. 

ANT. Ruin, heap, demoli- 
tion, destruction. 
"Edify. Build up, enlighten, im- 

prove, stimulate, strengthen, 

ANT. Defile, debase, mislead, 
misguide, pervert, corrupt. 

Edit. Revise, correct, prepare 
for the press, annotate, emend; 
bring out; conduct, manage. 

ANT. Distort, pervert, fal- 
sify, garble, mutilate. 

Educate. Discipline, teach, in- 
struct, train, nurture, breed, de- 

ANT. Dwarf, stunt, hinder ; 
pervert, corrupt. 

Education. Training, teaching, 
tuition, instruction, schooling, 
discipline, cultivation, breed- 
ing, development, nurture, in- 
formation, knowledge, learning, 
reading, study. 

ANT. Ignorance, illiteracy, 
nescience, blindness, darkness. 

Educe. Draw out, extract, elicit, 
evolve, produce. 

ANT. Adduce, cite, allege, 
quote, advance, name, mention; 
apply, insert, deposit, bestow. 

Efface. Obliterate, erase, blot 
out, destroy, cancel, eradicate, 

ANT. Restore, revive, delin- 
eate, imprint, portray, replace, 
reinstate, renew. 

Effect, n. Result, consequence, 
event, issue; force, efficiency, 
validity, weight, power; pur- 
port, drift, tenor, meaning; 
fact, reality, truth ; impression, 
appearance, ensemble; (pi.) 
chattels, goods, commodities, 
property, movables. 

ANT. Cause, motive, source^ 
incentive; origin. 

Effect, v. Cause, produce, acconv 
plish, change, achieve, create, 
execute, perform, realize, com- 
pass, effectuate, consummate, 

ANT. Obviate, frustrate, 
vent, mar, hinder; deter, 

5 S9 



Effective. Adequate, competent, 
effectual, sufficient; potent, co- 
gent, efficacious, forcible, ener- 
getic, powerful ; active, efficient, 
operative; conducive; service- 
able, able, talented. 

ANT. Weak, futile, nuga- 
tory, inconducive, inoperative, 
inadequate, impotent, incompe- 
tent, powerless. 

Effectuate. Accomplish, effect, 
execute, achieve, secure, fulfil. 

ANT. Prevent, hinder, abol- 
ish, defeat, nullify, stifle, blight. 

Effeminate. Feminine, womanly, 
delicate; womanish, feeble, un- 
manly, timorous, enervated, 
soft, weak, emasculated. 

ANT. Strong, manly, mascu- 
line, virile, manlike, vigorous, 
hardy, robust. 

Effervesce. Boil, bubble, froth, 
foam, ferment, sparkle; express 
irrepressible emotion. 

ANT. Subside; acquiesce, re- 
frain, bear, brook, digest. 

Effete. Barren, unfruitful; de- 
cayed, spent, exhausted, worn, 
wasted, decrepit. 

ANT. Vigorous, fertile, pro- 
lific, productive, exuberant, lux- 
uriant, rank. 

Efficacious. Effectual, effective, 
active, operative, powerful, ade- 
quate, cogent. 

ANT. Insufficient, inade- 
quate, ineffectual. 

Efficacy. Power, potency, force, 
competency, strength, effective- 
ness, vigor, energy, usefulness. 
ANT. Inefficacy, incompe- 

Efficiency. Power, strength, ca- 
pabilty, virtue, energy, useful- 
ness, productiveness, effective- 
ness ; attentiveness, aptitude, 
skill, ingenuity, competence, in- 
ventiveness, readiness, ingeni- 
ousness, faculty, cleverness, ge- 
nius, acuteness. 

ANT. Weakness, inability, 
incompetence, unproductivity ; 
inattention, awkwardness, ab- 
sence of mind, thoughtlessness, 
preoccupation, distraction, lazi- 
ness, stupidity. 

Efficient. Operative, active, po- 
tent, efficacious, effective, effec- 
tual; able, skilled, ready, ener- 
getic, proficient, competent. 

ANT. Inactive, impotent, in- 
effective, abortive; dull, inert, 
indolent, sluggish, senseless, 

Effigy. Image, representation, 
figure, statue, likeness ; dummy. 
ANT. Caricature, misrepre- 
sentation, distortion; bust, por- 

Efflorescence. Flowering, bloom- 
ing, blossoming, budding; out- 
burst; bloom, luxuriance. 

ANT. Deflorescence, fading, 
waning, blasting, withering; 
nudity, bareness, denudation; 
absorption, desiccation. 

Effluence. Emanation, flow, ef- 
fusion, efflux; issue, outpour- 
ing; emission, discharge; abun- 
dance, overflow. 

ANT. Influx, infusion, reflu- 
ence, ebb; exhaustion; absorp- 
tion, retention. 

Effluvium. Exhalation, emana- 
tion, malaria, miasma, stink, 
noxious vapor. 

ANT. Ventilation, scent, dis- 
infectant; zephyr, aroma, balm. 

Effort. Endeavor, attempt, trial, 
exertion, struggle, essay, strain, 
striving, stretch. 

ANT. Failure, frustration, 
futility, weakness, deficiency, 
misadventure; ease, inactivity, 
spontaneity, facility. 

Effrontery. Assurance, impu- 
dence, audacity, shamelessness, 
presumption, hardihood, bold- 
ness 1 , brass; insolence, sauci- 

[ 00 



ANT. Modesty, coyness, shy- 
ness, diffidence, sensitiveness, 
shrinking, timidity, bashful- 

Effulgence. Brilliancy, splen- 
dor, luster, brightness, radiance, 
refulgence, glory, flame, lumi- 
nosity, resplendence. 

ANT. Darkness, tencbrosity, 
obscuration, gloom, opaqueness, 

Effuse, a. Profuse, poured forth 
freely, lavish, prodigal, copious, 
abundant, effluent. 

ANT. Dry, scanty, sparing, 
meager, thin. 

Effusion. Outpouring, effluence, 
discharge, emission; abun- 
dance; speech, address, ora- 
tion; waste, shedding, spilling. 
ANT. Infusion, absorption; 
essay, reading, document, in- 
strument; influx; retention. 

Effusive. Lavish, generous, pro- 
fuse, prodigal, gushing; spread 
widely, diffused. 

ANT. Sparing; taciturn, la- 
conic, curt, brief. 

Egoism. Selfishness, self-assur- 
ance, self-conceit, self -con- 
sciousness, self-confidence, self- 
esteem, conceit, vanity, self-as- 
sertion, self-praise, self-admira- 
tion, self-love, self-exaltation. 

ANT. Self-abnegation, def- 
erence, self-forgetfulness, diffi- 
dence, bashfulness, humility, 
modesty, self-distrust, shyness, 
unobtrusiveness, considerate- 
ness, unostentatiousness. 

Egregious. Surpassing, ex- 
traordinary, remarkable, enor- 
mous, monstrous, outrageous, 
tremendous, prodigious, pecul- 
iar; flagrant, gross. 

ANT. Ordinary, usual, com- 
monplace, mediocre, everyday. 

Egress. Exit, way out, depart- 
ure, going out, outlet; sally. 
ANT. Entrance, avenue, ap- 

proach, inlet; inroad, incur- 
sion, invasion. 

Either. One or the other of 
two; each, both. 

ANT. Neither, not any one 
of two. 

Ejaculation. Exclamation, cry, 
utterance; expletive. 

ANT. Silence, speechlessness, 
dumfounderment ; drawl; ora- 
tion, speech. 

Eject. Cast out, emit, vomit, 
void, evacuate; expel, dismiss, 
discharge, oust; reject, banish, 
throw aside, cast away. 

ANT. Retain, absorb; ac- 
cept, receive, house, store, ad- 
mit, accommodate, welcome; in- 
troduce, inject. 

Eke out. Add to, supply, in- 
crease, stretch, raise, augment,, 

ANT. Stint, drain, withhold, 
diminish, exhaust. 

Elaborate. Improve, refine, de- 
velop, mature, execute, forge, 
prepare, concoct, work upon, la- 
bor over. 

ANT. Slight, neglect, disre- 
gard, overlook ; miscontrive, 
mismanage; chance, hit, guess, 
conjecture, extemporize. 

Elapse. Pass, slip, glide away, 
lapse; intervene. 

ANT. Wait, abide, halt, hold; 
continue, endure; grasp, seize. 

Elastic. Flexible, springy, resil- 
ient, extensile, ductile, buoy- 
ant; alterable, modifiable; re- 
bounding, recoiling. 

ANT. Rigid, tough, inflex- 
ible; crystallized, unchange- 
able; dull, inert. 

Elated. Cheered, excited, exhil- 
arated, animated, flushed, in- 
spirited, inflated. 

ANT. 'Depressed, dejected, 
discouraged, dispirited, humil- 
iated, abashed, confounded. 

Elder. Senior, older, more an- 



eient, earlier born; superior; 

ANT. Younger, junior, ju- 

"Elect, o. Picked, selected, cho- 
sen, choice; appointed, dele- 
gated; redeemed, saved; elite, 

ANT. Rejected, doomed, rep- 
robate; abandoned, depraved. 

.Election. Selection, preference, 
choice; appointment by vote; 
alternative, free will, freedom, 
power to choose; discrimina- 
tion, discernment, distinction; 

ANT. Postponement; rejec- 
tion, reprobation, abandonment. 

Electric. Charged with electric- 
ity, relating to electricity; in- 
spiring, inspiriting, stimulat- 
ing; lightninglike, swift, flash- 
ing, thrilling, stirring, exciting. 

Electrify. Charge with electric- 
ity, render electric; rouse, ex- 
cite, thrill, stir, astonish, as- 
tound, amaze, appal. 

ANT. "Kill" (of something 
charged, from which the elec- 
tricity is suddenly removed) ; 
disconnect, sever (of apparatus 
for carrying electricity) ; stu- 
pefy, soothe, deaden, calm, mes- 

Elegance. Grace, beauty, pro- 
priety, symmetry; polish, po- 
liteness, refinement, gentility, 
gracefulness, taste. 

ANT. Deformity, awkward- 
ness, coarseness, rudeness, dis- 

Elegant. Graceful, well-formed, 
symmetrical, lovely, handsome, 
comely, refined, tasteful, orna- 
mental, accomplished, polished. 
ANT. Awkward, deformed, 
ill-proportioned, misshapen, un- 
graceful, hideous, coarse, rude. 

Elegy. Dirge, threnody, lament, 
jeremiad, requiem, coronach, 

funeral song; serious or mel- 
ancholy poem. 

ANT. Pcean, jubilee, halle- 
luiah, anthem. 

Element. Constituent, compo- 
nent, ingredient, part, prin- 
ciple, atom; (pi.) rudiments, 
outlines, essential parts. 

ANT. Whole, mass, aggre- 
gate, total, totality, gross, sum, 

Elementary. Simple, uncom- 
pounded, rudimentary, pri- 
mary; physical, material, natu- 
ral; ultimate, component, con- 

ANT. Compounded, collec- 
tive, aggregate, developed, or- 
ganized; immaterial, incorpo- 
real, impalpable. 

Elevate. Raise, lift up, exalt, 
promote, advance, aggrandize; 
improve, dignify, ennoble, re- 
fine, inspire, greaten; animate, 
elate, cheer, excite, exhilarate. 

ANT. Lower, degrade, de- 
base, depress, demean, humble, 

Elevation. Raising, elevating; 
promotion, aggrandizement, ex- 
altation ; dignity, refinement, 
improvement ; amelioration ; 
hill, height, altitude, superior- 
ity, eminence, loftiness, tall- 

ANT. Degradation, debase- 
ment, depression, decline, fall, 
depth; deterioration, inferior- 
ity; shortness, stuntedness. 
Elicit. Draw out, evoke, educe, 
call forth, bring out, deduce, 
bring to light ; express, extract, 
evolve, worm out, extort. 

ANT. Insert, implant, intro- 
duce, inoculate, inject, infuse, 
instill, incorporate, insinuate; 

Eligible. Desirable, preferable, 
worthy of choice, qualified, ca- 
pable, suitable, prime, choice. 




ANT. Worthless, ordinary, 
indifferent, unprofitable, unde- 

Elimination. Expulsion, exclu- 
sion, discharge, removal, rejec- 
tion, eradication, erasure, rid- 
dance, obliteration. 

ANT. Inclusion, retention; 
approval; preservation, conser- 

Elision. Omission, ejection, el- 
lipsis, abridgment, excerp- 

ANT. Insertion, inoculation, 
introduction, implantation; in- 
clusion; augmentation. 

Elliptical. Contracted, abbrevi- 
ated; suggestive, latent, allu- 
sive; significant, pregnant; de- 
fective, incomplete. 

ANT. Explanatory, categori- 
cal, full; expository, declara- 
tory, enunciative. 

Elocution. Speech, power of ex- 
pression, utterance, delivery, 
declamatory art; eloquence, or- 

ANT. Reading, lection. 

Elongation. Protraction, exten- 
sion, production, drawing out, 
continuation; withdrawal, dis- 

ANT. Apocope, elision, cur- 
tailment, abridgment, contrac- 

Eloquence. Oratory, graceful 
utterance, appropriate expres- 
sion, impassioned speech. 

ANT. Verbosity, wordiness, 
prolixity, tediousness; grand- 
iloquence, bombast, fustian. 

Elucidate. Explain, illustrate, 
clear, make manifest, unfold, 
make plain, expound. 

ANT. Confuse, mystify, ob- 
scure, puzzle, bewilder, befog. 

Elucidation. Explanation, ex- 
position, illustration, demon- 
stration; comment, annotation, 
commentary, gloss, scholium. 

ANT. Mystification, confu- 
sion; obscurity, ambiguity. 

Elude. Escape, avoid, shun, slip 
away; baffle, foil, thwart, dis- 
appoint, disconcert, balk, frus- 
trate, evade, mock. 

ANT. Meet, encounter, con- 
front ; dare, defy; court, invite* 

Elusive, Elusory. Evasive, de- 
lusive, equivocating, deceptive,, 
fraudulent, fallacious, deceit- 
ful, illusory ; shuffling, shif ting, 
slippery, fugitive ; shadowy, un- 
substantial, intangible. 

ANT. Persistent, staple, cer- 
tain, solid; true, sure, unequiv- 

Em-, or en-. A prefix meaning- 
in or into, sometimes inter- 
changeable with in-. The form 
em- is used before words begin- 
ning with p, b, or m. The pre- 
fix has also a causal force. 
Words beginning with this pre- 
fix, whose original meaning is 
simply the meaning of the root 
word plus that of the prefix, 
are omitted here, for their syn- 
onyms and antonyms may be 
readily formed from those of 
the root word. 

Emaciation. Leanness, lank- 
ness, thinness, tenuity, attenu- 
ation, wasting, gauntness, skin- 
niness, meagerness. 

ANT. Obesity, fatness, cor- 

Emanate. Flow forth continu- 
ously, issue, arise, spring, pro- 
ceed, emerge. 

ANT. End, terminate, culmi- 
nate, eventuate, cease; dry up. 

Emancipate. Free, enfranchise,, 
liberate, rescue, release, manu- 
mit, unfetter, unchain, disen- 
thrall, set free. 

ANT. Subjugate, enslave, en- 
thrall, bind; disqualify, inca- 




Embalm. Preserve, cherish, en- 
shrine, keep; scent, perfume, 
make fragrant; treasure, store, 

ANT. Abandon, desecrate, ex- 
pose, vulgarize, violate, profane. 

Embargo. Prohibition, ban, re- 
straint, hindrance, restriction; 
detention, stoppage. 

ANT. Permit, permission, re- 
lease, discharge, cong6, libera- 
tion, dismissal. 

Embark. Ship; engage, enlist, 
put in, invest; launch, enter, 

ANT. Land, arrive, anchor, 
disembark, go ashore. 

Embarrass. Entangle, perplex, 
make intricate or difficult; dis- 
tress, trouble, harass, hamper, 
confuse, disconcert, clog, puzzle, 
abash, confound, encumber. 

ANT. Extricate, relieve, dis- 
entangle, liberate, deliver; ex- 
pedite, facilitate, accelerate, as- 
sist; calm, compose, tranquil- 

Embellish.. Adorn, decorate, or- 
nament, deck, beautify. 

ANT. Detract, diminish, der- 
ogate from, strip, destroy, de- 

Embezzle. Appropriate, steal, 
purloin, peculate ; falsify, forge, 

ANT. Square, clear, balance; 
restore, refund, retrieve. 

Embitter. Make bitter, aggra- 
vate, exacerbate, exasperate, en- 
rage, anger, madden; molest, 
provoke, excite. 

ANT. Alleviate, soothe; com- 
pose, quiet, pacify; sweeten; de- 
light, please, comfort. 

Emblem. Figure, image, sign, 
symbol, token, type, attribute; 
device, cognizance, representa- 
tion; badge, mark, signal. 

ANT. Disguise, decoy, incog- 
nito, ruse, blind, domino, mask. 

Embody. Incorporate, make cor- 
poreal, concentrate, compact, 
integrate, combine, collect; syS' 
tematize, codify; comprehend^ 
include, embrace, comprise, con- 

ANT. Analyze, dismember, 

disband, disintegrate, dissipate. 

Embolden. Encourage, animate, 

reassure, inspirit, incite, urge, 


ANT. Intimidate, frighten, 
alarm, deter, overwhelm, dis- 

Embosomed. Concealed, envel- 
oped, surrounded, encircled, en- 

ANT. Exposed, open, uncon- 
cealed, revealed. 

Embrace. Clasp, hug, press; 
seize, welcome, accept; compre- 
hend, include, cover, contain, 
embody, take in. 

ANT. Cast off, reject; ex- 
clude, except. 

Embroider. Embellish, enrich, 
emboss, adorn with needlework. 

ANT. Darn, botch, patch, 

Embroil. Implicate, entangle, 
ensnarl, involve; disturb, per- 
plex, confuse, distract, trouble. 

ANT. Extricate, separate, re- 
move; compose, pacify, arrange, 

Embryo. Germ, rudiment, nu- 
cleus, origin. 

ANT. Development, comple- 
tion, maturity, fulfilment. 
Emendation. Amendment, cor- 
rection, rectification, reforma- 
tion, improvement. 

ANT. Error, defect, fault, in- 
correctness, inaccuracy. 
Emerge. Eise, issue, emanate, 
escape; appear, become visible. 

ANT. Disappear, sink; re- 
treat, abscond, recede; enter; 
Emergency. Exigency, urgency, 

[ 94 ] 




necessity, crisis, difficulty, ex- 
tremity, strait; juncture, turn 
of events ; unforeseen occasion ; 
embarrassment, difficulty, casu- 

ANT. Rescue, deliverance, so- 
lution, provision, arrangement, 
anticipation, foresight, climax. 

Emigration. Removal, exodus, 
migration from, colonization; 

ANT. Immigration, migra- 
tion to or into; settlement, so- 
journ, abode, stay; domicilia- 
tion, domestication. 

Eminence. Prominence, projec- 
tion, elevation, protuberance, 
hill, high point; distinction, 
celebrity, reputation, renown, 
repute, fame, preferment; note, 
conspicuousness; superiority. 

ANT. Debasement, degrada- 
tion, lowliness, decline; infamy, 
disgrace, shame, obloquy, op- 
probrium, scandal. 

Eminent. High, lofty, elevated; 
celebrated, distinguished, prom- 
inent, illustrious, remarkable, 
renowned, conspicuous, famous, 

ANT. Mediocre, worthless; 
infamous, notorious; egregious, 

Emission. Ejection, expulsion, 
issue; issuance, putting into 

ANT. Injection, admission, 

Emit. Eject, expel, throw out; 
issue, decree, discharge; put 
into circulation. 

ANT. Inject; retain, with- 

Emollient. Softening, laxative, 
balsamic, soothing, palliative. 

ANT. Irritant, astringent, ir- 
ritating, galling. 

Emolument. Gain, pay, profit, 
remuneration, wap-es, salary, in- 
come, hire, stipend, lucre, com- 

pensation; advantage, benefit; 
gratuity, perquisite. 

ANT. Loss, damage, waste; 

Emotion. Feeling, passion, ex- 
citement, agitation, sensibility, 
perturbation, tremor, trepida- 

ANT. Indifference, insensibil- 
ity, impassiveness, stoicism, im- 

Emphasis. Stress, force, ictus; 
weight, significance, impressive- 

ANT. Elision, monotony, uni- 

Emphatic. Significant, expres- 
sive, strong, forcible, positive, 
energetic, decided, distinct, un- 
equivocal, earnest, important, 

ANT. Mild, ordinary, usual, 
unimportant, commonplace, un- 
noticeable, cool, unimpassioned, 
undemons tra tive. 

Empire. Dominion, supremacy,, 
sovereignty, authority, govern- 
ment, command, control, sway, 
rule, kingdom. 

ANT. Independence, insur- 
rection, anarchy, mutiny, sedi- 
tion, uprising. 

Empiric, Empirical. Tentative, 
experimental, provisional, hy- 
pothetic, experiential ; quack- 

ANT. Regular, scientific, uni- 
form, constant, inductive, cate- 

Employ. Engage, call, hire, use, 
engross, busy, exercise; apply, 
enlist, entrust, occupy, econo- 

ANT. Discard, dismiss, mis- 

Employment. Business, voca- 
tion, pursuit, calling, profes- 
sion, craft, trade, occupation; 
service, agency, office, employ; 
application, engrossment. 

[ 95 ] 




ANT. Leisure, laziness, indo- 
lence; recreation, vacation. 

Empower. Commission, author- 
ize, warrant, qualify; enable, 
encourage ; delegate, sanction, 

ANT. Hinder, prevent, dis- 
courage, disqualify, disable; re- 
call, revoke, withdraw. 

2mpty, a. Void, without con- 
tents, vacant, unoccupied; des- 
titute, devoid; unsup plied, 
unfurnished, unfilled; unsatis- 
factory, vain, hollow, unsubstan- 
tial; desolate, waste, deserted, 
uninhabited ; senseless, weak, 
frivolous; clear, unencumbered, 
unobstructed, vacuous, unten- 
anted, evacuated; silly, idle, 

ANT. Full, occupied, inhab- 
ited, colonized, obstructed, en- 
cumbered; cultivated, informed, 
well-instructed, sensible, experi- 
enced; significant, important, 
forcible, substantial. 

Emulation. Rivalry, desire to ex- 
cel, exceed, or surpass, competi- 
tion; jealousy, envy, conten- 
tion; vying, aspiration, contest. 
ANT. Stagnation, inactivity, 
dulness; contempt, disregard, 
disdain, disaffection; abandon- 
ment, resignation, discourage- 

Enable. Empower, strengthen, 
qualify, make capable, capaci- 
tate, invigorate. 

ANT. Weaken, disqualify, in- 
capacitate, disable, hinder. 

Enact. Decree, establish by law, 
ordain; play, personate, repre- 
sent, act, feign, dissimulate; 

ANT. Abolish, abrogate, an- 
nul, cancel, repeal, rescind, ex- 

Enamor. Charm, captivate, fas- 
cinate, inflame with love, en- 
slave, endear, bewitch, enchain. 

ANT. Disenthrall, repel, es- 
trange, disgust, disenchant, hor- 

Encamp. Bivouac, pitch, settle, 
quarter, camp. 

ANT. March, decamp, retire, 
retreat, advance, charge. 

Enchain. Bind with chains, fet- 
ter, manacle, enslave. 

ANT. Loose, liberate, manu- 
mit, extricate, free. 

Enchant. Charm, fascinate, be- 
witch, enamor, captivate, win, 
catch, lead captive; enrapture, 
ravish, transport, beatify, de- 

ANT. Repel, estrange, dis- 
gust, horrify, shock, alienate. 

Enchantment. Incantation, fas- 
cination, charm, conjuration, 
necromancy, magic, witchery, 
sorcery, spell; delight, rapture, 
ravishment, transport, bliss. 

ANT. Disillusionment, repul- 
sion, shock, alienation. 

Encircle. Surround, encompass, 
environ, gird, enclose ; embrace, 
fold, clasp; hem in, beset, cir- 

Enclose. Encompass, encircle, 
shut, include, environ, envelop, 
wrap, circumscribe. 

Enclosure. Space enclosed, com- 
pass, circle; yard, compound; 
fence, ring, limit, park, field, 
boundary, precinct. 

ANT. Space, waste, desert, 
wild, open, prairie, wilderness, 
stretch, void, clearing. 

Encomium. Eulogy, praise, eu- 
logium, panegyric, commenda- 
tion, laudation, psean, compli- 
ment, good word. 

ANT. Invective, taunt, vitu- 
peration, obloquy, vilification, 

Encompass. Encircle, enclose, 
gird, hem in, surround, circum- 

Encounter. Meet, confront, face. 




withstand; assault, combat, en- 
gage, fight, attack, contend, 
compete with; fall upon. 

ANT. Elude, avoid, escape, 
shun, miss, flee, frustrate. 

Encourage. Inspirit, animate, 
embolden, hearten, incite, stim- 
ulate ; cheer, comfort, console ; 
support, countenance, reassure ; 
advance, further; foster, abet, 
aid, help, patronize; prompt, 

ANT. Deter, discourage, dis- 
hearten, dissuade; depress, de- 
ject; provoke, incite, exasper- 
ate; retard, hinder, prevent. 

Encroach. Intrude, trespass, in- 
fringe, invade; creep, advance 
stealthily; transgress. 

ANT. Respect, recognize, ob- 
serve; protect; refrain. 

Encumber. Clog, load, impede, 
obstruct, hinder, burden, over- 
load; embarrass, perplex, in- 
volve, entangle, complicate. 

ANT. Free, liberate; assist, 
aid, help ; relieve, straighten. 

Encumbrance. Load, impedi- 
ment, hindrance; debt, claim, 

ANT. A id, assistance; relief; 

End, n. Limit, outcome, period, 
extremity, extent, bound, con- 
clusion, boundary, completion, 
close, effect, expiration, finish, 
finis, finale; issue, goal, intent, 
fulfilment, purpose, point, re- 
sult, termination, terminus; 
utmost, uttermost; accomplish- 
ment, achievement ; cessation, 
consummation, design, conse- 
quence; fragment, scrap, rem- 

ANT. Commencement, ori- 
gin, beginning, source, spring, 
start, fountain, arising, incep- 
tion, opening, initiation, out- 
set, rise. 

End, v. *>Re. break off, close, 

complete, conclude, stop, quit, 
.desist, terminate, finish, ex- 
pire, wind up; destroy, kill, 
put to death. 

ANT. Begin, commence, in- 
itiate, start, open; restore, re- 

Endanger. Hazard, risk, peril; 
commit, compromise, expose to 
danger, jeopardize. 

ANT. Protect, shield, save, 
defend, cover, screen, preserve. 

Endear. Make dear, attach, se- 
cure the affection of, gain ; con- 

ANT. Estrange, alienate, em- 
bitter, antagonize. 

Endeavor, v. Attempt, essay, 
try, strive, undertake, make ef- 
fort, labor, aim, exert one's 

ANT. Neglect, omit, aban- 
don, drop, dismiss, pass by, let 
go, give up, throw away, up, 
or over, overlook. 

Endless. Interminable, bound- 
less, limitless, infinite, immeas- 
urable, illimitable; everlasting, 
perpetual, eternal, unending, 
without end; incessant, cease- 
less, uninterrupted, continual, 
continuous; immortal, death- 
less, undying, imperishable. 

ANT. Limited, brief, tempo- 
rary, periodic, transient, fugi- 
tive, finite, ephemeral, transi- 
tory, temporal. 

Endow. Furnish with dowry, 
enrich, endue, put on, invest, 
present, furnish, qualify, sup- 
ply, clothe. 

ANT. Denude, deprive, di- 
vest, spoliate, strip, impover- 
ish, despoil. 

Endowment. Grant, gift, be- 
quest, bounty, present, largess, 
boon : property, fund, revenue ; 
talent, faculty, power, quality, 
capability, aptitude, parts, ge- 
nius, qualification, ability; at- 

[ 97 ] 




tainment, provision, benefac- 

ANT. Poverty, lack, inca- 
pacity, impoverishment, spoli- 

Endure. Suffer, submit, bear, 
tolerate, allow, sustain, sup- 
port, undergo, abide, afford, 
brook ; experience ; continue, 
remain, persist, be permanent. 
ANT. Fail, sink, succumb, 
surrender, yield, break down, 
despair, droop, faint, fall, fal- 
ter, give out, give up. 

Enemy. Adversary, competitor, 
foe, opponent, rival, antagonist. 
ANT. Abettor, ally, friend, 
accomplice, supporter, helper, 
accessory, associate, compan- 
ion, familiar, confidant, adher- 

Energetic. Vigorous, active, 
forcible, powerful, effective, po- 
tent, efficacious, efficient, able, 

ANT. Weak, languid, faint, 
drooping, pining, exhausted, 
feeble; listless, spiritless, inac- 

Energy. Agility, activity, force, 
power, potency, strength, inten- 
sity, vigor, might, efficacy, effi- 
ciency; spirit, animation, life, 
manliness, animal spirits, 

ANT. Indolence, slowness, 
sloth, clumsiness, lassitude, in- 
activity, sluggishness, heavi- 
ness, inertness, laziness. 

Enervate. Unnerve, weaken, en- 
feeble, debilitate, effeminate; 
break, paralyze; incapacitate. 
ANT. Invigorate, strengthen, 
harden, nerve, brace, empower. 

Enfeeble. Enervate, weaken, de- 
bilitate, unnerve. 

ANT. Strengthen, nerve, in- 
vigorate, brace. 

Enfold. Envelop, wrap, enclose, 
embrace, encircle, encompass. 

ANT. Disclose, unwrap, de- 
velop, reveal, expose. 

Enforce. Urge, impress, com- 
pel, constrain, oblige, force, re- 
quire, exact, exert, strain. 

ANT. Relax, abandon, remit, 
waive, forego. 

Enforcement. Inculcation, ex- 
ecution, sanction, constraint, 

ANT. Relaxation, abandon- 
went, remission. 

Enfranchise. Endow with fran- 
chise or suffrage; free, emanci- 
pate, release, qualify, manumit. 
ANT. Disenfranchise, dis- 

Engage. Promise, bind, pledge, 
commit; plight, affiance, be- 
troth ; enlist, induce to serve ; 
attract, allure, gain, win, enter- 
tain; arrest, fix, occupy, busy, 
employ, engross; encounter, at- 
tack, fight with, battle with; 
contend, struggle, contest; in- 
volve ; stipulate, agree ; adopt. 
ANT. Decline, refuse, i&ith- 
draio, extricate, disengage, 
dismiss, discard; retreat, re- 

Engagement. Promise, stipu- 
lation, contract, obligation, 
assurance, pledge ; betrothal, 
affiancing ; employment, occu- 
pation, business, vocation ; com- 
bat, battle, contest, fight, en- 
counter, action, conflict. 

ANT. Release, liberation; 
dismissal; excuse. 

Engaging. Attractive, winning, 
charming, pleasing, interesting, 

ANT. Repulsive, unattrac- 
tive, disagreeable. 

Engender. Beget, generate, cre- 
ate, breed, produce, cause, occa- 
sion, propagate. 

ANT. Stifle, destroy, extin- 
guish, blioht. prevent, neutral- 




Engrave. Carve, cut, chisel, im- 
print, cut in, infix, grave, im- 
press deeply; sculpture, stereo- 

ANT. Erase, obliterate, wear 
out, efface, destroy; carve in re- 

Engross. Absorb, engage, mo- 
nopolize, engulf, occupy, fore- 
stall; copy. 

ANT. Distract, disperse, dis- 
sipate, scatter, vanish. 

Enhance. Heighten, swell, raise 
the price of, advance ; augment, 
increase ; aggrandize. 

ANT. Undervalue, depreciate, 
disparage, detract, underesti- 

Enigmatic, Enigmatical. Ob- 
scure, puzzling, hidden, myste- 
rious, perplexing, unintelligible, 
ambiguous, recondite, incom- 
prehensible, mystical, occult. 

ANT. Plain, clear, manifest, 
self-evident, lucid, explanatory, 
open, intelligible. 

Enjoin. Urge, admonish, advise, 
order, direct, command, bid, re- 
quire; prohibit, restrain; com- 
mission, ordain, oblige, pre- 

ANT. Dissuade; remit, ab- 
solve, exonerate; recall, dis- 
pense with, disqitalif'f. 

Enjoy. Possess; delight in, like, 
be pleased with. 

ANT. Dislike, loathe, endure, 
tolerate, lose, disrelish. 

Enjoyment. Pleasure, delight, 
happiness, gratification ; frui- 
tion ; possession ; satisfaction, 
gladness, felicity. 

ANT. Misery, wretchedness, 
grief, affliction, suffering, ca- 

Enlarge. Amplify, augment, in- 
crease, extend, expand, mag- 
nify; make greater, ennoble; 
dilate, descant, expatiate; 
swell, grow. 

ANT. Contract, narrow, re- 
duce, diminish, restrict, lessen, 

Enlighten. Illuminate, light 
up; inform, teach, edify, make 
intelligent, instruct. 

ANT. Dark-en, obscure; mys- 
tify, mislead, perplex, con- 

Enlist. Enroll, register, incor- 
porate, enter, embody, record, 
chronicle, muster. 

ANT. Erase, expunge, with- 
draw, dismiss, disband, muster 

Enliven. Amuse, quicken, ani- 
mate, rouse, invigorate, in- 
spire, inspirit, cheer, delight, 
gladden, exhilarate. 

ANT. Depress, dispirit, sub- 
due, sober, moderate, oppress, 
weary, paralyze, deaden, tire, 

Enmity. Hatred, hostility, ma- 
lice, rancor, animosity, antago- 
nism, acrimony, bitterness, ill 
will, malevolence, spite, malig- 
nity, maliciousness, opposition, 
asperity, aversion, hate, dis- 

ANT. Friendship, love, affec- 
tion, esteem, cordiality, amity, 
alliance, concord, agreement, re- 
gard, harmony, sympathy, kind- 
liness, kindness. 

Ennoble. Dignify, elevate, ex- 
alt, ameliorate, enlarge, make 

ANT. Debase, degrade, dete- 
riorate, depress, deprave, cor- 
rupt, vitiate. 

Enormity. Depravity, atrocity, 
wickedness, villainy, outrng- 
eousness, heinousness, nefari- 
ousness, abomination, perpetra- 
tion, sin. 

ANT. Innocence, righteous- 
ness, guilelessness, inoffensive- 

Enormous. Huge, vast, immense, 




immoderate, inordinate, abnor- 
mal, exceptional, monstrous, gi- 
gantic, colossal, prodigious, ele- 
phantine ; heinous, depraved, 

ANT. Trivial, insignificant, 
ordinary, average, diminutive, 

Enough. Sufficient, plenty, sat- 
isfactory, ample, abundant. 

ANT. Insufficient, short, in- 
adequate, scant, ill-supplied, 

Enrage. Exasperate, provoke, 
irritate, madden, incite, in- 
cense, inflame, infuriate, excite, 
aggravate, anger. 

ANT. Soothe, conciliate, al- 
lay, tame, quiet, mollify, ap- 
pease, pacify, tranquilize. 

Enrapture. Enchant, entrance, 
enravish, delight, transport, 
beatify, satisfy, please, glad- 
den, fascinate, bewitch, capti- 
vate, charm, attract, enamor, 

ANT. Disgust, nauseate, re- 
pel, torment, torture, horrify. 

Enrich. Aggrandize, enhance, 
endow, augment, store, supply ; 
adorn, decorate, ornament, em- 
bellish; fertilize. 

ANT. Impoverish, rob, de- 
nude, fleece, reduce, beggar, de- 
spoil, strip. 

Enroll. Enlist, register, record, 
chronicle, embody, list, cata- 

ANT. Erase, expunge, with- 

Enrolment. Registration ; reg- 
ister, record. 

ANT. Omission; withdrawal; 

Enshrine. Treasure, preserve, 
cherish, embalm, consecrate. 

ANT. Lose, misplace, expose, 
destroy, desecrate. 

Enslave. Captivate, charm, en- 
thral, subjugate, master, domi- 

nate, bewitch, delight, fasci- 

ANT. Repel, disgust, alien- 
ate; free. 

Ensue. Follow, result, eventu- 
ate, succeed, befall, accrue, hap- 
pen, take place, supervene; 
issue, arise, spring, come. 

ANT. Precede, herald, intro- 
duce; forewarn, threaten, pre- 
monish, caution. 

Entail. Transfer, transmit, fix, 
devolve, involve, bequeath, de- 
mise, leave, induce, necessitate. 

ANT. Prevent, obviate, nul- 
lify; neutralize; estrange, ali- 
enate, supersede. 

Entangle. Implicate, Involve, 
compromise, entrap, knot, per- 
plex, embarrass, confuse, inter- 
twist, interweave, intertwine. 

ANT. Straighten, extricate, 
disentangle, unravel, deliver. 
Enter. Go or come into; pierce, 
penetrate; begin, commence; 
enroll, inscribe, chronicle, note, 
register, record ; engage in ; em- 
bark, enlist, join; invade. 

ANT. Depart, leave, issue, 
quit, vacate; go out; finish, 
end; withdraw from, retire, re- 

Enterprise. Adventure, under- 
taking, effort, attempt, essay, 
endeavor, trial, experiment ; en- 
ergy, activity, readiness, will- 
ingness; progress. 

ANT. Routine, monotony, 
humdrum, matter-of-fact, un- 
progressiveness ; caution, inac- 

Enterprising. Venturesome, ad- 
venturous, daring, audacious, 
bold; prompt, alert, active, en- 
ergetic, efficient, spirited, stren- 
uous, eager, zealous, stirring; 
progressive, speculative. 

ANT. Timid, cautious, in- 
active, fearful, cowardly; con- 
servative; wary, prudent, di~ 

[ 1001 




creet, anxious, careful, thought- 
ful; indolent, unenterprising, 
inactive, unready, laggard. 

Entertain. Amuse, interest, di- 
vert, cheer, delight, recreate, 
beguile, please, occupy, gratify, 
enliven, disport; consider, pon- 
der; lodge, treat hospitably, 
cherish, harbor, hold, receive. 
ANT. Annoy, tire, bore, dis- 

- turb, weary, distract, disquiet; 
refuse, reject, deny, debar, ex- 
clude, eject. 

Entertainment. Delight, diver- 
sion, amusement, cheer, enjoy- 
ment, pastime, fun, merriment, 
pleasure, recreation, sport, hos- 
pitality, frolic, reception, lodg- 

ANT. Weariness, work, toil, 
ennui, labor, fatigue, disturb- 
ance; refusal, rejection. 

Enthrone. Crown, instal, exalt, 
Olevate, invest with power. 

ANT. Dethrone, depose, de- 
base, degrade. 

Enthusiasm. Ardor, earnest- 
ness, excitement, inspiration, 
frenzy, vehemence, warmth, ec- 
stasy, passion, zeal, rapture, 
eagerness, devotion, fervency, 
fanaticism, fervor, intensity, 

ANT. Indifference, caution, 
calmness, prudence, timidity, 
policy, coldness, dulness, cal- 
culation, lukewarmness, dead- 
ness, callousness. 

Entice. Lure, attract, seduce, 
coax, persuade, wheedle, cajole, 
delude, entrap, decoy, inveigle, 
lead astray, induce. 

ANT. Warn, hinder, deter, 
repel, admonish, caution, make 

Entire. Whole, complete, per- 
fect, unimpaired, unbroken, un- 
diminished, undivided; full, in- 
tegral, thorough, solid, unal- 
loyed, plenary; unmixed, sheer, 

mere, unmitigated, pure; total, 

ANT. Partial, incomplete, 
broken, impaired, alloyed, lim- 
ited, divided, defective, mixed; 

Entitle. Name, designate, de- 
nominate, call, style, character- 
ize; christen; enable, fit, em- 
power, qualify. 

ANT. Disable, disqualify. 
Entity. Being, essence, exis- 

ANT. Nonentity, chimera, 
phantom, fantasy, hallucina- 
Entomb. Bury, inter, inhume. 

ANT. Exhume, disinter. 
Entrance. Approach, doorway, 
opening, door, entry, ingress, 
gate, gateway, inlet, portal, ac- 
cess, admission, admittance, en- 
tree, introduction, penetration, 
avenue, adit; beginning, com- 
mencement, initiation. 

ANT. Departure, egress, re- 
fusal, exit, withdrawal, ejec- 
tion, exclusion, expulsion, re- 

Entreat. Beg, supplicate, solicit, 
beseech, implore, pray, appeal, 
petition, adjure, crave, impor- 
tune, enjoin, urge. 

ANT. Command, insist, bid, 
enjoin, charge, direct; grant, 
heed, hear, answer, respond. 
Entry. Entrance, ingress, ac- 
cess; avenue, passage, hall, in- 
let; minute, note, record, regis- 
ter, memorandum ; initiation, 

ANT. Egress, exit, depart- 
ure; outlet, vent; misrecord, 
falsification, blank, omission; 
conclusion, quittance, disposal. 
Entwine. Interlace, weave, en- 
twist, wreathe together or 

ANT. Disentwine, dissever, 

[ 101 ] 




Enumerate. Compute, reckon, 
numerate, number, tell, cite, es- 
timate, recount, specify, detail, 
calculate, rehearse, recapitu- 

ANT. Mingle, jumble, con- 
fuse; miscount, misreclcon, mis- 

Enunciate. Announce, proclaim, 
declare ; pronounce, syllable ; 
state, propound, articulate, re- 
late, utter, publish, promulgate. 
ANT. Mutter, babble, stam- 

Envelop, v. Wrap, surround, en- 
circle, fold, encompass, cover, 

ANT. Expose, unwrap, re- 
veal, extract; develop. 

Envenom. Poison, taint, vitiate, 
infect, pollute; embitter; en- 
rage, provoke, exasperate, irri- 
tate, madden, inflame. 

ANT. Purify, disinfect; de- 
light, please, gratify. 

Envious. Jealous, suspicious, 

ANT. Friendly, kindly, well- 
disposed, trustful, contented, 

Environ. Surround, encircle, en- 
compass, gird, belt, enclose, en- 
velop; invest, besiege, hem in, 

Envoy. Messenger (in diplo- 
matic service) ; ambassador, 
minister, legate, plenipotenti- 

ANT. Scout, spy, orderly 
(as messengers in military ser- 

Envy. Malice, ill will ; jealousy, 
hate, spite, hatred, grudging; 
chagrin, discontent, mortifica- 

ANT. Admiration, good will, 
regard, esteem, benevolence; as- 
piration, emulation. 

Ephemeral. Transient, momen- 
tary, daily, diurnal, fleeting, fu- 

gitive, brief, evanescent, transi- 

ANT. Permanent, immortal, 
eternal, lasting, enduring, per- 
petual, abiding, persistent, pe- 

Epigrammatic. Pointed, terse, 
laconic, concise, graphic. 

ANT. Diffuse, prolix, point- 
less, copious, circumlocutory, 
verbose, periphrastic. 

Epitome. Summary, compend, 
abstract, curtailment, reduc- 

ANT. Expansion, extension, 
amplification, dilation. 

Equable. Even, uniform, steady, 
regular, proportionate, smooth, 
easy, invariable. 

ANT. Variable, fitful, irregu~ 
lar, disjointed, desultory, un- 

Equal. Like, equivalent, identi- 
cal, tantamount; uniform, reg- 
ular, even, steady; proportion- 
ate, commensurate; impartial, 
unbiased; competent, fit, ade- 
quate, sufficient; fair, equit- 
able, just. 

ANT. Dissimilar, unsteady, 
incommensurate, irregular, dis- 
proportionate; incompetent, in- 
adequate; unjust, unfair; vari- 
able, disparate. 

Equality. Likeness, uniformity, 
identity, evenness, equableness, 
sameness of rank. 

ANT. Dissimilarity, differ- 

Equanimity. Composure, calm- 
ness, tranquillity, steadiness, 

ANT. Impatience, perturba- 
tion, restlessness, disquiet. 

Equip. Accouter, arm, provide, 
furnish, fit out, supply, dress, 
array, garnish, arrange, invest, 

ANT. Divest, denude, dis- 
mantle, despoil, derange. 

[ 102 




Equipage. Carriage, retinue, 
vehicle, attendance, procession, 
suite, train ; equipment, furni- 
ture, baggage, effects. 

Equipment. Accouterments, ap- 
paratus, furnishings, dress, rig- 
ging, trappings, gear, outfit, 
provisions, equipage, arms, sup- 

Equitable. Upright, just, im- 
partial, unbiased, unprejudiced, 
reasonable, fair, right, proper, 
honest, even-handed, propor- 

ANT. Unfair, unjust, unrea- 
sonable, partial, prepossessed, 
prejudiced, biased. 

Equity. Justice, right, upright- 
ness, rectitude, fairness, impar- 
tiality, fair play, honesty, in- 

ANT. Injustice, corruption, 
dishonesty, partiality, unfair- 
ness, prejudice. 

Equivalent. Equal, equipollent, 
tantamount; synonymous, in- 
terchangeable, equiponderant. 

ANT. Unequal, incommensu- 
rate, uneven, unbalanced. 

Equivocal. Ambiguous, indefi- 
nite, enigmatical, dubious, un- 
certain, doubtful, questionable, 
perplexing, indeterminate, in- 
distinct, suspicious. 

ANT. Evident, clear, plain, di- 
rect, manifest, obvious, indubi- 
table, unquestionable, perspic- 
uous, unambiguous, lucid, dis- 
tinct, certain, indisputable. 

Eradicate. Abolish, extinguish, 
exterminate, extirpate, uproot, 
destroy, annihilate, excise. 

^NT. Cherish, encourage, in- 
stil, propagate, implant, incul- 
cate, inspire, foster. 

Erase. Efface, expunge, cancel, 
obliterate, blot out, scratch 

ANT. Mark, delineate, ivrite, 
inscribe, imprint, engrave. 

Erect, a. Upright, standing, ele- 
vated; bold, undaunted, firm. 

ANT. Leaning, lying, supine; 
groveling, abject; mean, servile, 

Erect, v. Raise, uplift, place or 
set upright, build, construct; 
exalt, elevate, magnify; estab- 
lish, institute, form, found, 

ANT. Lower, incline, slant; 
subvert, depress, remove, de- 
stroy, demolish; debase, de- 

Err. Deviate, wander, ramble, 
rove; mistake, misjudge, blun- 
der; sin, fall, lapse, trip, offend, 
trespass, misapprehend, stray, 
stumble, go astray. 

ANT. Succeed, prosper; cor- 
rect, rectify. 

Errand. Message, mandate, com- 
mission, mission, charge, dele- 

ANT. Misannouncement, mis- 

Erratic. Wandering, nomadic, 
roving, rambling; planetary, 
moving ; irregular, eccentric, 
abnormal ; desultory, aberrant, 
flighty, changeful, capricious. 

ANT. Static, stationary; un- 
der iating, steady, regular, nor- 
mal; unalterable, methodical, 

Erring. Sinful, fallible, liable 
to err, wandering, misguided, 

ANT. Virtuous, good, up- 

Error. Blunder, mistake, misap- 
prehension, oversight, inaccu- 
racy; sin, fault, offense, trans- 
gression, iniquity, trespass, de- 
linquency, misdeed, shortcom- 
ing, wrongdoing ; deception, 
fallacy, untruth, falsity, hallu- 

ANT. Truth, correctness, ac- 
curacy; correction, 

[ 103 ] 




rectification; exactness, verifi- 

Erudition. Knowledge, learn- 
ing, lore, scholarship, letters. 

ANT. Illiterateness, dunce- 
dom, sciolism, ignorance, stu- 

Eruption. Explosion, outbreak, 
outburst; sally, sudden excur- 
sion; discharge, eructation, ex- 
sufnation, ejection. 

ANT. Absorption, swallow- 
ing, engulfing, engrossment, ir- 
ruption, inburst; consumption, 

Escape. Avoid, shun, evade, flee 
from, elude; pass unobserved; 
abscond, fly, hide. 

ANT. Incur, encounter, meet, 
confront; suffer. 

Esoteric. Private, secret, acroa- 
matic, inner, inmost; abstruse, 
profound ; special, advanced. 

ANT. Exoteric, public, popu- 
lar; rudimentary, primary, ele- 

Essence. Nature, quintessence, 
substance, vital part, element; 
volatile part, extract ; perfume ; 
scent, odor ; being, existence, en- 
tity, life. 

ANT. Accident; property; 
garb, clothing, surroundings. 

Essential. Vital, necessary, in- 
dispensable, requisite, impor- 
tant; volatile, pure, diffusible, 
highly rectified; innate, inher- 
ent, immanent, leading. 

ANT. Accidental, induced, im- 
ported, adventitious; quantita- 
tive, qualitative; promotive, re- 
dundant, regulative, superflu- 

Establish. Fix, settle, make 
steadfast; decree, enact, or- 
dain; institute, originate, con- 
stitute, found, plant, organize, 
form; place, secure, set up; 
confirm, sanction, ratify, ap- 
prove; verify, prove, substanti- 

ate; fulfil, carry out, make 
good; endow; demonstrate. 

ANT. Unsettle, supplant, dis- 
establish, break up, subvert, up- 
set; misstate, refute, confute; 
guess, conjecture, presume, sup- 
pose, surmise. 

Estate. State, condition; rank, 
position; property, possessions, 
fortune, effects; class, division, 
order; lands, demesne, domain, 

ANT. State, country, chat- 
tels, community, waste, goods, 

Esteem, n. Estimate, favor, re- 
gard, respect, estimation; ad- 

ANT. Aversion, hatred, dis- 
like, contempt, abhorrence, an- 
tipathy, repugnance, loathing. 

Esteem, v. Estimate, hold, re- 
gard, prize, value, think, ap- 
preciate, deem, calculate, con- 
sider; price; believe, affect; 
revere, honor, respect, admire, 
venerate, love, like. 

ANT. Disregard, depreciate, 
undervalue, dislike, misprize, 
underrate, decry. 

Estimable. Appreciable, calcu- 
lable, computable; worthy, ex- 
cellent, good, deserving, meri- 
torious; amiable, lovable, de- 
lectable, praiseworthy. 

ANT. Unworthy, bad, inde- 
lectable, unamiable; undeserv- 
ing, unlovable. 

Eternal. Immortal, perpetual, 
fadeless, perennial, unfailing, 
imperishable, endless, everlast- 
ing, ever-living, interminable, 
never-ending, never-fading, un- 
ceasing, timeless, undying, un- 
ending, unfading; infinite. 

ANT. Ephemeral, transient, 
fleeting, mortal, temporal, tran- 
sitory, evanescent, sublunary. 

Etiquette. Manners, breeding, 
fashion, conventionality. 

[ 104 




ANT. Misobservance, non- 
conformance, boorishness, rude- 
ness, singularity. 

Euphonious. Euphonic, melli- 
fluous, clear, musical, silvery, 
sweet-toned, melodious, harmo- 
nious, mellow. 

ANT. Harsh, discordant, dis- 

Euphuism. Purism, finical style, 
fastidious delicacy, affected 
elegance, high-flown diction, 
pompous or extravagantly or- 
nate diction; affectation, facti- 
tiousness, pedantry, highflying 
(used of language). 

ANT. Simplicity, vernacu- 
lar, mother-tongue, bluntness, 
naturalness, rusticity. 

Evacuate. Empty; eject, expel, 
excrete, throw out, discharge, 
void; quit, leave, forsake, de- 
sert, abandon, withdraw from, 
ANT. Seize, occupy, hold, fill. 

Evaporate. Vaporize, disperse 
in vapor; disappear, evanesce, 
vanish; exhale, emit in vapor; 
turn to vapor ; melt, colliquate, 
liquefy, dissolve, distil. 

ANT. Consolidate, compact, 
solidify, crystallize, indurate. 

Evasion. Prevarication, equivo- 
cation, quibbling, subterfuge, 
shuffling, sophistry, tergiversa- 
tion, disingenuousness ; shift, 
quibble, fencing. 

ANT. Answer, counter-argu- 
ment, grappling; straightfor- 
wardness; challenge. 

Even. Smooth, level, hat, plane ; 
equal, uniform, calm, steady, 
unruffled; fair, just, equitable; 
plain, flush ; well-balanced. 

ANT. Variable, uneven; ab- 
rupt, inclined, rugged. 

Event. Circumstance, chance, 
incident, fortune, result, possi- 
bility, sequel, outcome, fact, 
episode, end, contingency, case, 

issue, consequence; occurrence, 
adventure, accident. 

ANT. Cause, antecedent, op- 
eration, inducement, contribu- 
tion, convergence, tendency, pre- 

Eventful. Stirring, memorable, 
signal, momentous, important, 
critical, remarkable, marked, 
noted, notable. 

ANT. Ordinary, unmarked, 
eventless, uninteresting, unim- 
portant, characterless, trivial. 
Ever. At any time ; always, per- 
petually, continually, evermore, 
eternally, aye, for aye, forever, 
at all times; constantly, inces- 

ANT. Never. 

Everlasting. Endless, unending, 
perpetual, incessant, ceaseless, 
continual, uninterrupted, un- 
ceasing, interminable, eternal, 
constant, never-ending, never- 
ceasing; imperishable, undying, 
never-dying, deathless, immor- 
tal, ever-living; infinite. 

ANT. Ephemeral, transient, 

Every. All, any, both, either, 

ANT. None, no one, not any 

Evict. Dispossess, eject, throw 

ANT. Reinstate, admit; Zo- 
cate, lodge, settle. 
Evidence. Testimony, ground of 
belief, proof; manifestation, at- 
traction, testimony, averment, 
deposition, declaration, appear- 
ance, sign, token, indication, ex- 
emplification, illustration. 

ANT. Surmise, conjecture; 
counter-evidence; refutation, 
disproof; concealment, misin- 
dication, suppression, fallacy. 
Evident. Patent, clear, palpa- 
ble, manifest, transparent, via- 
ible, perceptible, obvious, open, 

105 ] 




conspicuous, apparent, distinct, 
discernible, indubitable, overt, 
plain, unmistakable, tangible; 
indisputable, incontrovertible. 
ANT. Doubtful, uncertain, 
questionable, dubious; hidden, 
concealed, secret, undiscovered, 
obscure, latent, unseen, unim- 
agined, unknown; covert, dark, 
invisible ; impenetrable, occult, 
impalpable, imperceptible, un- 
thought of. 

il, a. Ill, noxious, deleteri- 
ous, wrong, bad, hurtful, mis- 
chievous, sinful, unhappy, ad- 
verse, unpropitious, harmful, 
wicked, corrupt, unfair, notori- 
ous, miserable, sorrowful. 

ANT. Wholesome, right, vir- 
tuous, beneficial, holy, pure, fe- 
licitous, happy, fortunate, joy- 
ous, welcome, grateful, worthy, 
good, honorable. 

Evince. Prove, show, evidence, 
exhibit, manifest, demonstrate ; 
establish; indicate, display. 

ANT. Suppress, negative, 
disprove, conceal. 

Evoke. Summon, call forth; 
excite, arouse, elicit, rouse, pro- 
voke, educe, produce; elimi- 
nate, extract. 

ANT. Allay, stifle, stop, si- 
lence, prevent, seal. 

Exactly. Precisely, accurately, 
strictly, nicely. 

ANT. Loosely, inaccurately, 
incorrectly, differently. 

Exaggerate. Overstate, strain, 
overcharge, stretch, overcolor; 
amplify, enlarge, magnify, over- 
draw, heighten, overpaint, over- 

ANT. Disparage, attenuate, 
palliate, understate, underesti- 
mate, minimize, mitigate, qual- 
ify, soften, modify. 

Examine. Inspect, observe, in- 
vestigate, scrutinize, consider, 
Btudy; canvass, test, inquire 

into, search into, look into; 
weigh, ponder, criticize, prove, 
discuss, overhaul, explore. 

ANT. Conjecture, guess; dis- 
card, slur; misconsider, misin- 

Example. Model, pattern, ideal, 
archetype, exemplar, standard, 
sample, specimen, type, warn- 
ing, ensample, exemplification, 
prototype; copy, illustration, 
instance; issue, development. 

ANT. Stock, material, sub- 
stance, laio, rule, case, system, 
character, principle, quality. 

Excavate. Hollow, dig, scoop 
out, cut, trench; discover, dis- 

ANT. Inter, inhume, bury; 
conceal; fill, level. 

Except, prep. Excepting, with- 
out, saving, unless, exclusive 

Except, v. Exclude, save, bar; 
segregate, negative. 

ANT. Include, reckon, count, 
state, classify, propound, ad- 
mit, affirm. 

Exception. Exclusion, omission, 
non-inclusion; objection; af- 
front, offense; unusual case, 
anomaly; qualification, sepa- 

ANT. Rule, class; statement, 

Exceptionable. Undesirable, ob- 

ANT. Unobjectionable, de- 
sirable, exemplary. 

Exceptional. Irregular, rare, 
unusual, uncommon, unnatural, 
peculiar, anomalous, abnormal, 
aberrant, exceptive. 

ANT. Common, usual, nor- 
mal, ordinary, regular. 

Excess. Surplus, waste, extrav- 
agance, wastefulness, superflu- 
ity, lavishness, exorbitance, su- 
perabundance, dissipation, in- 
temperance, profusion, procli- 

[ 106 ] 




gality, redundance; increase, 

ANT. Frugality, economy; 
dearth, deficiency, defect, want, 
shortcoming, lack, need, pov- 
erty ; failure, destitution, inad- 
equacy, insufficiency, scanti- 
ness; temperance, sobriety. 

Excessive. Superabundant, dis- 
proportionate, undue, exuber- 
ant, superfluous ; immoderate, 
intemperate, extreme ; violent, 
vehement; enormous, exorbi- 
tant, overmuch, inordinate, un- 
reasonable, extravagant. 

ANT. Insufficient, scant, in- 
adequate, lacking, wanting, de- 

Excitability. Sensibility, sen- 
sitiveness; irritability, irasci- 
bility, passionateness. 

ANT. Immobility, hebetude, 
composure; insensitiveness, im- 

Excommunicate. Dismiss, ex- 
pel, denounce, proscribe, anath- 

ematize, exscind; exclude, ban- 
ish, bar, eject, blackball. 

ANT. Admit, readmit, enroll, 

Excrescence. Tumor, protuber- 
ance; superfluity, useless ap- 
pendage; redundancy. 

ANT. Eradication, extirpa- 
tion, excision, levigation, exsec- 

Excruciate. Torture, torment, 
rack, agonize. 

ANT. Soothe, please, tran- 

Exculpate. Absolve, exonerate, 
acquit, clear, set right, vindi- 
cate; defend, release. 

ANT. Charge, implicate, in- 
Excursion. Trip, ramble, tour, 

jaunt, journey, expedition. 
Excusable. Pardonable, venial. 
ANT. Inexcusable, unpar- 

Excuse, v. Pardon, forgive, ab- 
solve, acquit, exonerate, excul- 
pate; extenuate, justify; free, 
exempt, release, let off; over- 
look, regard indulgently, con- 
done; remit, vindicate, defend, 

ANT. Charge, condemn, tn- 
culpate, convict, sentence; ex- 
act, accuse. 

Execrable. Detestable, cursed, 
loathsome, accursed, villainous, 
hateful, abominable, damnable, 
diabolical, odious, abhorrent; 
offensive, disgusting, nauseous, 
obnoxious, repulsive, revolting, 

ANT. Desirable, respectable, 
laudable, eligible. 

Execration. Curse, malediction, 
ban, anathema, imprecation of 
evil ; detestation, abhorrence, 
horror, loathing, abomination; 
ANT. Benediction, blessing. 

Execute. Administer, perform, 

enforce, carry out, do. 

ANT. Fail, be lacking, disap- 

Exemplary. Laudable, praise- 
worthy, excellent, correct, esti- 
mable, worthy, virtuous; pat- 
ternlike, close, faithful, exact, 
scrupulous, assiduous, punctil- 
ious, rigid, punctual, rigorous; 
worthy of imitation, fit for a 

ANT. Detestable, objection- 
able, exceptionable. 

Exemplify. Illustrate, show by 
example ; manifest, embody, ex- 
hibit, represent. 

ANT. Belie, betray, misrep- 
resent, falsify. 

Exempt, v. Relieve, set free, re- 
lease, grant immunity to, ex- 
cuse, exonerate, except. 

ANT. Subject, render liable, 
bind, oblige ; expose. 

Exempt, o. Free, irresponsible, 

[ 107 ] 



liberated, clear, absolved, priv- 
ileged, unamenable. 

ANT. Liable, subject, amen- 
able, responsible. 

Exemption. Immunity, privi- 
lege, exception, release, freedom 
from liability; dispensation, li- 

ANT. Liability, amenable- 
ness, responsibility, subjection, 

Exercise, n. Application, drill, 
employment, exertion ; prac- 
tice, training; occupation, use; 
performance, operation, act, ac- 
tivity, action. 

ANT. Inaction, idleness, re- 
laxation, rest, inactivity; ease, 

Exertion. Use, exercise; effort, 
endeavor, struggle, trial, at- 
tempt, stretch, strain; labor, 

ANT. Relaxation, rest, rec- 

Exhalation. Evaporation ; va- 
por, fume, steam, smoke, fog, 
reek; mist, damp, effluvium. 

ANT. Inhalation, exsicca- 
tion, absorption. 

Exhale. Emit, breathe out, give 
out, evaporate ; vaporize. 

ANT. Inhale, breathe in, in- 

Exhaust. Drain, empty, expend, 
spend, waste, consume, squan- 
der, lavish, dissipate, destroy; 
prostrate, cripple, weaken, de- 
bilitate, enervate, disable, wear 
out, weary. 

ANT. Fill, replenish, aug- 
ment, refresh, invigorate. 

Exhibit. Show, display; mani- 
fest, express, disclose, indicate, 
make known, evince ; offer, pre- 
sent, propose; betray; demon- 
strate, illustrate. 

ANT. Conceal, mask, hide, 
secrete, suppress. 

Exhibition. Sight, representa- 

tion, pageant, display, manifes- 
tation, show. 

Exhilarate. Cheer, enliven, in- 
spire, inspirit, stimulate, ani- 
mate, elate, gladden; rejoice, 
delight, please. 

ANT. Depress, unnerve, un- 
hinge, dispirit. 

Exhort. Urge, stimulate, per- 
suade, incite, encourage; ad- 
vise, counsel, enjoin. 

ANT. Dissuade, warn, depre- 
cate, remonstrate. 

Exigency. Demand, urgency, 
need, necessity, requirement, 
want; pressure, crisis, emer- 
gency, juncture, quandary; con- 
juncture, pass, pinch, strait. 

ANT. Provision, rule, sup- 
ply, course, preparation. 

Exile, n. Banishment, expulsion, 
ostracism, proscription, expatri- 
ation; separation, isolation; 
banished person. 

ANT. Welcome, return; re- 
maining; cherishing, fostering, 

Exile, v. Banish, expatriate, os- 
tracize, expel, proscribe, rele- 

ANT. Welcome, reinstate, do- 
mesticate, domiciliate. 

Existence. Being, subsistence; 
entity, essence, creature, thing; 
life, animation; continuation, 

ANT. Nonentity, non-exist- 
ence, chimera. 

Expand. Open, spread out; di- 
late, enlarge, stretch, distend; 
swell, diffuse, extend, increase; 
develop, unfold, amplify. 

ANT. Contract, curtail, con- 
dense, restrict, attenuate. 

Expanse. Extent, stretch, ex- 
pansion ; firmament, sky, can- 
opy, vault, welkin; vast, void, 
space, breadth. 

ANT. Limit, enclosure, con- 
fine, bound. 

108 ] 



Expatiate. Rove, range; dilate, 
enlarge, descant, be copious, 
launch out, amplify. 

ANT. Contract, summarize, 
condense, epitomize. 

Expect. Await, look for; anti- 
cipate, rely upon, count upon, 
reckon or calculate upon, look 
forward to; look for, forecast, 
forebode, foresee. 

ANT. Welcome, greet, hail, 
recognize; realize. 

Expectation. Anticipation, ex- 
pectance, prospect, expectancy; 
reliance, confidence, assurance, 
presumption; trust, hope. 

ANT. Recollection, remem- 
brance, retrospect ; distrust, de- 
spair, discouragement. 

Expediency. Fitness, propriety, 
suitableness, desirableness, ad- 
visability ; advantage, utility, 
profit, usefulness ; profitable- 
ness, advantageousness ; inter- 

ANT. Disadvantage, detri- 
ment, inutility, inexpediency. 

Expedition. Haste, speed, celer- 
ity, despatch, alertness, prompt- 
ness, alacrity, quickness ; enter- 
prise, undertaking; march, voy- 

ANT. Delay, tardiness, pro- 

Expend. Disburse, spend, lay 
out; use, exert, consume, em- 
ploy; waste, exhaust, spread, 
scatter, dissipate. 

ANT. Save, economize, hus- 

Expense. Expenditure, outgo, 
cost, outlay ; price, charge, pay- 

ANT. Income, gain, proceeds, 
return, profit, product, receipts. 

Expensive. Dear, costly, high- 
priced; lavish, wasteful, ex- 
travagant; valuable, rich. 

ANT. Cheap, worthless, poor; 

Experience, n. Actual observa- 
tion, feeling, or presentation; 
practice, experimental knowl- 
edge; experiment, trial, proof, 
test, knowledge, habit. 

ANT. Anticipation, expecta- 

Experience, v. Feel, undergo, 
prove by trial, endure, suffer, 
be subject to; try, encounter. 

ANT. Evade, escape, lose, 

Experienced. Practiced, versed, 
accomplished, able, qualified, in- 
structed, thoroughbred; famil- 
iar, skilled, accustomed, con- 

ANT. Inexperienced, strange^ 

Experiment. Trial, test, assay, 
examination, proof, touchstone, 
ordeal ; observation, investiga- 
tion, experimentation; illustra- 
tion, exemplification. 

ANT. Hypothesis, conjecture, 

Explain. Elucidate, expound, in- 
terpret, unfold, clear up, make 
plain; account for, make intel- 
ligible, give the reasons for, 
solve, warrant, trace to causes, 
justify; teach, decipher. 

ANT. Mystify, bewilder, ob- 
scure, darken, misinterpret. 
Explanation. Elucidation, in- 
terpretation, exposition, illus- 
tration, description, explica- 
tion; solution, warrant, justi- 
fication, account, key; mutual 
understanding; sense. 

ANT. Confusion, misinter- 
pretation, mystification, obscu- 

Explicit. Express, clear, plain, 
definite, positive, unambiguous, 
unreserved, categorical, deter- 
minate; detailed, declaratory, 
unobscure, stated. 

ANT. Ambiguous, doubtful* 
indefinite, uncertain, vague, im- 

[ 109 ] 




plied, implicit, indeterminate; 
hinted, suggestive, obscure. 

Exponent. Index, indication, ex- 
ample, type, representative, il- 
lustration, specimen; advocate, 
interpreter, propounder. 

ANT. System, creed, prin- 
ciple, opinion. 

Export, v. Send out, carry out, 
send abroad, ship, produce. 
ANT. Import; consume. 

Exposed. Unprotected, defense- 
less, unguarded, endangered. 

ANT. Guarded, defended, pro- 

Expostulate. Object, dissuade, 

ANT. Abet, coincide, agree, 

Express, v. Squeeze out; utter, 
declare, assert, speak; repre- 
sent, indicate, show, signify, ex- 
hibit, denote, intimate; send by 

ANT. Suppress, repress, con- 

Express, a. Explicit, clear, defi- 
nite, plain, determinate, posi- 
tive, categorical; exact, accu- 
rate, faithful, true, close, pre- 
cise; special, particular; swift, 
rapid, fast; specific, pointed, 

ANT. General; vague; leis- 
urely; inaccurate, inexact, ap- 

Expression. Squeezing out; as- 
sertion, statement, utterance, 
declaration; phrase, mode of 
speech, term ; general tone, per- 
vading effect, look, cast of coun- 
tenance; lively representation; 
modulation, feeling, execution; 

ANT. Suppression, restraint, 
repression ; face, features, line- 
ament ; falsification, misstate- 
ment, solecism, enigma. 

Expunge. Erase, efface, oblit- 
erate, cancel, blot out, delete. 

ANT. Mark, write, trace, de- 

Exquisite. Nice, accurate, deli- 
cate, discriminating, exact, re- 
fined ; precious, valuable, select, 
choice, rare, excellent; perfect, 
complete, matchless, consum- 
mate; keen, poignant, acute, in- 
tense; delicious. 

ANT. Common, coarse, ordi- 
nary; unrefined. 

Extemporaneous. Improvised, 
unpremeditated, extempore, im- 
promptu, extemporary, offhand. 

ANT. Prepared, studied, pre- 
meditated, read, written, elabo- 
rated; rehearsed, recited. 
Extend. Stretch, reach ; prolong, 
continue, lengthen, protract; 
expand, dilate, enlarge, widen, 
augment, increase; diffuse; im- 
part, give, offer, yield ; amplify, 
avail, apply. 

ANT. Contract, restrict, cur- 
tail, limit, narrow, reduce, con- 
dense; miss, fail. 
Extent. Expanse, amplitude, ex- 
tension ; volume, bulk, magni- 
tude, size; stretch, reach, com- 
pass, length; degree, distance, 

ANT. Limitation, diminu- 
tion, restriction. 

Extenuate. Lessen, diminish, 
reduce; palliate, mitigate, ex- 
cuse, qualify, apologize for. 

ANT. Enhance, aggravate, 

Exterior, a. Outward, external, 
outer, outside, superficial; for- 
eign, extrinsic, from without. 

ANT. Inner, internal, do- 
mestic, inward. 

Exterminate. Eradicate, over- 
throw, uproot, expel, extirpate, 
annihilate, banish, destroy, re- 
move, root out, wipe out. 

ANT. Augment, breed, cher- 
ish, develop, increase, populate, 
replenish, settle, plant, foster t 

[ 110 J 




propagate, colonize, build up, 

Extermination. Extirpation, 
annihilation, eradication, abo- 
lition, destruction, extinction, 
excision, elimination. 

ANT. Settlement, replenish- 
ment, augmentation, coloniza- 
tion, population, propagation, 

External. Outward, outer, ex- 
terior, outside, superficial; for- 
eign, extrinsic; visible, appar- 
ent; manifest, palpable. 

ANT. Inner, internal, intes- 
tine, inmost, hidden, non-ap- 

Extinction. Destruction, anni- 
hilation, extirpation, extermi- 
nation, abolition ; extinguish- 
ment; stifling, death, suffoca- 
tion, cessation, obsolescence. 

ANT. Inception, origination, 
birth, course, life, operation, 
action, exercise, continuance, 
prosperity, survival. 

Extinguish. Quench ; , destroy, 
suppress, put down ; extirpate, 
abolish, eradicate, kill, annihi- 
late, put out. 

ANT. Replenish, replant, im- 
plant, cherish, propagate, pro- 
mote, invigorate, establish, con- 
firm, secure. 

Extort. Exact, wrest, wrench, 
wring out, force; despoil, ex- 
press, fleece, squeeze out, ex- 

ANT. Coax, cheat, wheedle, 

Extortionate. Oppressive, ex- 
acting, severe, hard, harsh; ex- 
orbitant, close-fisted, rigorous, 
monstrous, preposterous. 

ANT. Liberal, bountiful, in- 
dulgent, fair, moderate, reason- 

Extract, n. Selection, excerpt, 
passage, citation, quotation. 

Extract, v. Draw, pull, take 

out; derive, select, quote, cite; 
determine, find; educe, elicit, 
gather, collect, extort. 

ANT. Insert, replace, incor- 
porate, restore, reinsert, im- 

Extraneous. Foreign, extrinsic; 
non-pertinent, not germane, un- 
essential, superfluous ; uncon- 
nected, alien, unrelated, adven- 
titious, ascititious. 

ANT. Intrinsic, vital, inter- 
nal, connected, essential. 

Extraordinary. Unusual, re- 
markable, uncommon, singular, 
signal, egregious, rare, extra; 
unwonted, peculiar, wonderful, 
unprecedented, marvelous, pro- 
digious, monstrous, preposter- 
ous, strange. 

ANT. Common, usual, fre- 
quent, wonted, unremarkable, 
unimportant, ordinary. 

Extravagance. Excess, exorbi- 
tance, enormity, unreasonable- 
ness, preposterousness; wild- 
ness, folly, absurdity, irreg- 
ularity; prodigality, lavish ex- 
penditure, profusion, waste. 

ANT. Carefulness, economy, 
frugality, saving, provision, 
prudence, foresight. 

Extravagant. Excessive, inor- 
dinate, unreasonable, prepos- 
terous, exorbitant; wild, fool- 
ish, absurd, irregular; lavish, 
profuse, wasteful, spendthrift, 

ANT. Sound, sober, consis- 
tent, fair, rational, economical, 
frugal, careful, regular, usual. 

Extreme. Utmost, farthest, ut- 
termost, outermost; greatest, 
highest; last, final, ultimate; 
extravagant, immoderate, ex- 
cessive, unreasonable ; remote, 
terminal, distant, most violent. 
ANT. Initial, primal, judi- 
cious, moderate. 

Extremity. End, Terge, termi- 




nation, edge, border, extreme, 
utmost point ; close, conclusion. 

ANT. Beginning, commence- 
ment, opening, center, origin, 
"bulk, body. 

Exudation. Ooze, drip, percola- 
tion, excretion, secretion. 

ANT. Absorption, parching, 

Exultant. Exulting, jubilant, 
triumphant, elated, joyous, 

ANT. Mournful, dispirited, 

Exultation. Elation, joy, tri- 
umph, delight, transport, ec- 
ANT. Mourning, depression. 


fable. Story, myth, legend, al- 
legory, apologue; plot, action, 
series of events; fiction, false- 
hood, lie, untruth, fabrication, 
forgery, invention, figment; ro- 
mance, parable, novel. 

ANT. History, fact, narra- 

Fabric. Building, structure, edi- 
fice, pile; texture, make, work- 
manship, conformation; manu- 
factured cloth, woven stuff; 
work, construction, tissue, web. 
ANT. Destruction, disman- 
tlement, demolition, fragment, 
wreck, tatters, ruin, shreds, 

Fabricate. Build, frame, con- 
struct ; make, manufacture ; 
forge, invent, coin, feign; form, 
falsify, produce, devise, misrep- 

ANT. Demolish, tear, spoil, 
dismember, destroy, narrate, 
lacerate, copy, represent, re- 
peat, portray. 

Fabulous. Invented, fabricated, 
feigned, unreal, coined, ficti- 
tious ; incredible, pretended, im- 
aginary, false, monstrous. 

ANT. Real, actual, historic, 
authentic, fair, true, reason- 

Facetious. Witty, jocose, jocu- 
lar, humorous, waggish, funny, 
comical, pleasant, droll; gay, 

merry, sportive, lively, enter- 
taining, sprightly; playful. 

ANT. Matter-of-fact, heavy, 
dull, grave, serious, saturnine, 
somber, lugubrious. 

Facile. Docile, easy, mild, cour- 
teous, affable, complaisant, ap- 
proachable ; pliant, pliable, duc- 
tile, flexible, yielding, tractable, 
manageable, compliant; ready, 
dexterous; indulgent, weak, ir- 
resolute, characterless. 

ANT. Resolute, sturdy, ob- 
stinate, determined, inflexible, 
crusty, self-willed, self-reliant, 

Facility. Easiness, ease ; readi- 
ness, dexterity, expertness, abil- 
ity, knack; condescension, ur- 
banity, affability, civility, com- 
plaisance, politeness; pliancy, 
flexibility, ductility; appliance, 
convenience, means, advantage, 
resource; quickness, adroitness. 
ANT. Effort, awkwardness, 
labor, difficulty. 

Fact. Occurrence, event, deed, 
incident, act, performance, cir- 
cumstance ; reality, actuality, 
certainty, truth. 

ANT. Fiction, supposition, 
unreality, falsehood, chimera, 
lie, delusion, invention, halluci- 
nation, romance. 

Factious. Turbulent, refractory, 
seditious, rebellious, recalci- 

r 112 




trant, litigious, adversative, 

ANT. Genial, complaisant, 
agreeable, loyal, harmonious, 
public- spirited, sympathetic, co- 
operative, auxiliary. 

Factitious. Artificial; euphuis- 
tic, affected, finical, cramped, 
conventional, spurious. 

ANT. Natural, genial, unaf- 
fected, pure, genuine, truthful. 

Fade. Vanish, evanesce, disap- 
pear, pass away; decline, lan- 
guish, droop, decay, wither; 
lose color, grow dim, blanch, 
bleach, fall, sink, dwindle, pale, 
change, set, etiolate, fail. 

ANT. Rise, increase, bloom, 
grow, flourish, endure, abide, 
last, stand. 

Fag. Droop, sink, grow weary, 
flag; drudge, toil; do menial 
service, tire, fatigue, jade, ex- 
haust; work, slave. 

ANT. Idle, lounge, dawdle; 
strike; bask. 

Pail. Fall short, be insufficient, 
be deficient; decline, sink, de- 
cay, wane, fade, break, give out; 
cease, disappear, become ex- 
tinct; miss, miscarry, be un- 
successful, miss fire, be frus- 
trated; omit, neglect; break, 
become insolvent, suspend pay- 
ment; trip, lose. 

ANT. Succeed, exceed, sur- 
pass, achieve, abound, yield, ex- 

Paint. Weak, exhausted, worn, 
listless, languid, wearied, dim, 
feeble, fatigued, faint-hearted, 
faded, faltering, half-hearted, 
irresolute, purposeless, timid, 
ill-defined, indistinct; unener- 
getic ; obscure, inconspicuous. 
ANT. Prominent, marked, 
glaring ; resolute, sturdy, vigor- 
ous, strong, fresh, hearty, dar- 
ing, energetic; clear, brilliant, 
bright, conspicuous. 

Fair. Spotless, unspotted, un- 
blemished, unstained, untar- 
nished; white, light, blond; 
handsome, comely, beautiful ; 
pleasant, clear, cloudless, un- 
clouded; favorable, prosperous; 
promising, hopeful; open, dis- 
tinct, plain, unobstructed, un- 
encumbered; frank, honest, in- 
genuous, candid, noble, honor- 
able, upright, impartial ; rea- 
sonable, proper, equitable, just ; 
passable, tolerable, above medi- 
ocrity; serene. 

ANT. Lowering, dull, foul, 
ugly, disfigured, fraudulent, un- 
fair, dishonorable. 

Faith. Creed, doctrine, assur- 
ance, belief, confidence, assent, 
credence, opinion, trust, credit, 

ANT. Distrust, disbelief, dis- 
sent, doubt, incredulity, infidel- 
ity, misgiving, skepticism, un- 
belief, suspicion, rejection. 

Faithful. Firm, loyal, devoted, 
stanch, sure, true, trustworthy, 
trusty, unwavering, incorrupt- 
ible; attached; accurate, close, 
consistent, correspondent, ex- 
act, equivalent. 

ANT. Inaccurate, inexact; 
faithless, false, fickle, untrue, 
wavering, untrustworthy, ca- 

Fall. Drop, descend, sink ; lapse, 
droop, gravitate ; fall down, be 
prostrated; be lowered, be de- 
pressed; decrease, decline, be 
diminished, die away, sin, err, 
transgress, trip, trespass; die, 
perish; empty, be discharged, 
flow; happen, befall, come; be- 
come, get; pass, be transferred; 
be dropped, be uttered care- 

ANT. Rise, soar, mount, re- 
cover, climb, ascend. 

Fallacy. Illusion, deception, de- 
ceit, delusion, mistake, misap- 

[ 113 ] 




prehension, error, misconcep- 
tion; sophism, sophistry, para- 
logism, deceitful argument. 

ANT. Truth, logic, proof, pos- 
tulate, argument, verity, fact, 
axiom, soundness. 

Fallible. Erring, uncertain, ig- 
norant, weak, frail, imperfect. 
ANT. Certain, infallible, un- 
erring, omniscient. 

Fallow. Pale red or pale yellow ; 
untilled, unsowed, neglected ; 
inert, inactive, dormant; quies- 
cent, idle, uncultivated, unpro- 

ANT. Cultivated, tilled, pro- 
ductive, worked, sown, prolific, 
operative, fruitful. 

False. Untrue, mendacious, un- 
veracious, lying; dishonest, 
perfidious, treacherous, faith- 
less, disloyal, dishonorable, dis- 
ingenuous, double-tongued, 
false-hearted, double-faced, two- 
faced; untrustworthy, untruth- 
ful, unreliable, truthless; spu- 
rious, counterfeit, forged, not 
genuine, feigned, sham, hypo- 
critical, make-believe ; incor- 
rect, improper, erroneous, un- 
founded, wrong; fallacious, de- 
ceptive, deceiving, deceitful, de- 
lusive, misleading, disappoint- 
ing; sophistical, mock, bogus, 
fabricated, unfaithful. 

ANT. True, sound, correct, 
authentic, real, genuine, candid, 
conclusive, honorable, faithful. 

Falsehood. Falsity, lie, fabrica- 
tion, untruth, fiction, fib; im- 
posture, counterfeit, cheat; fal- 
lacy, error, sophistry, forgery, 

ANT. Truth, verity, correct- 
ness, fact, genuineness, honesty, 
honor, reality, authenticity. 

Falsify. Misrepresent, counter- 
feit, belie, misstate, garble; dis- 
prove, show unsound; violate; 
mistake, misinterpret, betray. 

ANT. Verify, rectify, correct, 
check, certify, justify, expose, 
declare, exhibit, publish. 

Falter. Hesitate, stutter, stam- 
mer; fail, quiver, tremble, tot- 
ter; waver, be undecided, show 
weakness; halt, slip, dubitate, 
demur, flinch, vacillate. 

ANT. Proceed, speed, flow, 
run, discourse, determine, per- 
severe, resolve. 

Fame. Celebrity, honor, laurels, 
distinction, notoriety, renown, 
reputation, repute, glory, emi- 
nence, credit; report, tidings, 
rumor, bruit, news. 

ANT. Silence, suppression, 
hush; dishonor, discredit, hu- 
miliation, infamy, shame, ob- 
scurity, contempt, contumely, 
disgrace, disrepute, ignominy, 

Familiar. Conversant, well-ac- 
quainted, well-versed; intimate, 
close, near, friendly, fraternal, 
cordial, amicable; social, acces- 
sible, sociable, affable, kindly, 
courteous, civil, companionable, 
conversible ; unceremonious, un- 
constrained, free, easy, infor- 
mal ; well-known ; household, 
frank, everyday, accustomed. 

ANT. Uncommon, rare, ex- 
traordinary, strange, unaccus- 
tomed, unacquainted, new, un~ 
familiar, inconversant. 

Famous. Celebrated, renowned, 
distinguished, remarkable, far- 
famed, eminent, noted, illustri- 
ous, glorious. 

ANT. Unknown, unsung, in* 
glorious, obscure, forgotten. 

Fanatic. Enthusiast, zealot, vi- 
sionary, bigot. 

ANT. Skeptic, unbeliever, 

Fanaticism. Intolerance, super- 
stition, bigotry, credulity; en- 
thusiasm, frenzy. 
ANT. Skepticism, cynicism, 

t H4 2 




indifference, free-thinking, lati- 
tudinarianism : disbelief, pro- 
fanity; disrt. (;t;i'd, coldness. 

Fanciful. Fantastic, grotesque, 
visionary, imaginative, chimer- 
ical ; unreal, eccentric, quaint, 
imaginary, freakish, erroneous, 
humorsome, capricious, fitful, 
erratic, whimsical, absurd. 

ANT. Ordinary, usual, regu- 
lar, commonplace, real, accu- 
rate, literal, prosaic, reason- 
able, sensible, solid, sure, true, 
sound, calculable, calculated; 
natural, sober, truthful, cor- 

Fancy. Imagination, whim, va- 
gary, caprice, belief, conceit, 
conception, desire, humor, idea, 
image, inclination, mood, lik- 
ing, predilection, supposition; 
thought, notion. 

ANT. Certainty, fact, real- 
ity, truth, verity, actuality; ob- 
ject, subject, thought, law, or- 
der; aversion, horror. 

Farcical. Droll, absurd, ridicu- 
lous, ludicrous; comic, funny, 
nonsensical, pantomimic. 

ANT. Grave, serious, tragic, 
solemn, dismal, ghastly, fune- 

Fare. Go, travel, journey, pass; 
prosper, be treated, prove, hap- 
pen, turn out, be situated; be 
entertained, feed; live, speed, 

ANT. Toil, fa-st, fail, droop, 
sink, faint, drop, falter, halt. 

Farewell. Adieu, good-by, vale- 
dictory, leave-taking, conge", de- 
parture, parting. 

ANT. Salutation, welcome, 

Fashion. Form, shape, figure, 
cut, make, model, cast, mold, 
pattern, appearance, configura- 
tion, conformation; way, man- 
ner, sort, method; usage, cus- 
tom, style, mode, conventional- 

ity; gentility; guise, charac- 
ter, practice, ceremony. 

A>"T. Person, work, speech, 
dress; derangement, formless- 
ness, shapelessness ; outlandish- 
ness, strangeness, eccentricity. 
Fast, a. Fixed, fastened, close, 
tight; firm, immovable; stead- 
fast, constant, stanch; fortified, 
strong, impregnable; profound, 
sound, deep; swift, quick, fleet, 
rapid; wild, reckless, thriftless, 
dissipated, thoughtless, extrav- 
agant; secure, stable, unyield- 
ing, unswerving; accelerated; 


ANT. Insecure, loose, slow, 
tardy, steady, sober, virtuous. 
Fasten. Secure, bind, tie, attach ; 
join, unite, connect, hold to- 
gether; hold compact, affix, an- 
nex, grapple, fix. 

ANT. Undo, loose, sever, re- 
lax, remove, unfasten, detach. 
Fastidious. Dainty, squeamish, 
difficult, over nice, overdelicate, 
queasy, critical ; overrefined, 
censorious, particular, punctil- 

ANT. Indulgent, uncritical, 
easy; coarse ; omnivorous. 
Fat. Unctuous, greasy, fatty, 
oily; plump, fleshy, obese, cor- 
pulent, portly, pursy; coarse, 
heavy, dull, sluggish, stupid; 
rich, profitable, lucrative; pro- 
ductive, fertile, fruitful; luxu- 
riant, brawny; stout; oleagin- 

ANT. Lean, slender, attenu- 
ated, emaciated, barren, poor, 
scant; marrowless; anatomical. 
Fatal. Deadly, mortal, lethal; 
destructive, calamitous, baleful, 
ruinous, mischievous, baneful, 
pernicious ; fateful. 

ANT. Beneficial, wholesome, 
vitalizing, restorative, salubri- 
ous, nutritious, slight, super- 
ficial, harmless. 




Fate. Destiny, destination, in- 
evitable necessity, fatality ; lot, 
doom, predetermined event; de- 
struction, death ; final event, 
ultimate destruction; fortune, 

ANT. Will, choice, decision, 
independence, freedom. 

Fathom, v. Sound ; divine, pene- 
trate, reach, comprehend, under- 
stand; gage, pierce, measure, 

ANT. Survey, glance, scan, 
miss, skin, graze, overlook. 

Fathomless. Bottomless, pro- 
found, abysmal. 

ANT. Superficial, shallow, 

Fatigue, n. Weariness, exhaus- 
tion, lassitude ; labor, hardship, 
toil; languor, enervation. 

ANT. Freshness, vigor, inde- 
fatigability, activity. 

Fatigue, v. Harass, weary, tire, 
jade, exhaust, fag. 

ANT. Inspirit, refresh, en- 
liven, animate. 

Fatuity. Foolishness, imbecil- 
ity, idiocy; folly, madness, ab- 
surdity, infatuation. 

ANT. Wisdom, sense, sound- 
ness, sobriety, discernment. 

Fault. Defect, blemish, imper- 
fection, flaw, weakness, failing, 
frailty; misdeed, misdemeanor, 
offense, trespass, wrong, trans- 
gression, delinquency, indiscre- 
tion; slip, error, lapse; failure, 
omission, want, drawback. 

ANT. Perfection, sufficiency, 
correctness, completeness. 

Faultless. Without blemish, per- 
fect ; innocent, guileless, blame- 
less, sinless, spotless, immacu- 
late, guiltless, stainless; com- 
plete, correct, accurate. 

ANT. Incomplete, imperfect, 
incorrect, defective, inaccurate, 
corrupt, faulty, erroneous. 

Faulty. Bad, defective, imper- 

fect; blamable, blameworthy, 
culpable, reprehensible. 

ANT. Correct, complete, per- 
fect, accurate; irreproachable, 
blameless, unassailable. 

Favor, n. Kindness, grace, coun- 
tenance, friendliness, good will; 
benefit, good deed, friendly 
turn ; patronage, champion- 
ship, support; letter, communi- 
cation, epistle; gift, present; 
decoration, knot, rosette; per- 
mission, leave, pardon; advan- 
tage, preference, boon; conces- 
sion, predilection, civility, re- 
gard, condescension. 

ANT. Refusal, denial, prohi~ 
bition, disfavor, withholding, 
withdrawal, frown, disapproval, 
injury, discountenance. 

Favor, v. Befriend, countenance, 
patronize, encourage; approve, 
regard with favor; facilitate, 
be propitious to; support, help, 
aid, assist; humor, indulge, ex- 
tenuate, palliate, ease, spare; 
resemble, look like. 

ANT. Refuse, deny, disap- 
prove, withdraw, withhold, pro- 
hibit, discountenance, injure, 

Favorable. Kind, friendly, pro- 
pitious, willing, auspicious; 
conducive, contributing ; bene- 
ficial, advantageous, conveni- 
ent, suitable, fit; permissive, 
indulgent, concessive, partial, 
fond, liberal. 

ANT. Reluctant, unpropi- 
tious, unfavorable, impartial. 

Favorite. Dear, beloved, pet, 

Favoritism. Partiality, invidi- 

ANT. Odium, prejudice; im- 

Fawn upon. Flatter, wheedle, 
cajole, cringe, palaver, sla- 

ANT. Insult, deride, defy, cen- 

[ 116 ] 




sure, dare, satirize, rebuke, rep- 

Fealty. Homage, loyalty, alle- 
giance ; fidelity, faithfulness, 
honor, good faith, devotion. 

ANT. Disloyalty, treachery, 
infidelity, disaffection, shame, 

Pear. Dismay, alarm, horror, 
awe, apprehension, dread, ter- 
ror, fright, panic, tremor, tim- 
idity, trepidation, trembling, 
affright, consternation, disquie- 
tude, misgiving, anxiety, solici- 
tude, concern; veneration, rev- 

ANT. Courage, confidence, 
assurance, fearlessness; trust, 
boldness; fortitude. 

Fearful. Afraid, apprehensive; 
timid, nervous, timorous, faint- 
hearted, cowardly; dreadful, 
terrible, frightful, dire; awful; 
shocking, terrific, horrible; hes- 

ANT. Venturesome, auda- 
cious, bold, confident, consola- 
tory, inspiriting, assuring; at- 
tractive, alluring, hopeful, in- 

Feasible. Manageable, possible, 
permissible, practicable, con- 

ANT. Impossible, unallow- 
able, impracticable. 

Feast. Treat, banquet, regale- 
ment, entertainment, carousal ; 
festival, holiday; delight, en- 

ANT. Starvation, scarcity, 
want, lack, bareness, scantiness. 

Featly. Neatly, cleverly, dex- 
terously, adroitly. 

ANT. Clumsily, bunglingly, 

Feature. Lineament, cast of the 
face; fashion, make, aspect, ap- 
pearance, conformation ; promi- 
nent part, outline; characteris- 
tic, trait, point, mark, item, 

component, element, indication, 
portion, sign. 

ANT. Whole, system, coun- 
tenance; arrangement, case; 
misindication, misinformation, 
falsification; blind, mask, dis- 
guise; excrescence. 

Federation. Uniting, federating, 
confederation, union, league, 
allying, alliance, coalition, fed- 
eral compact, confederacy, com- 

ANT. Secession, disunion, te- 
dition, mutiny, disruption. 

Fee. Pay, reward, recompense, 
compensation, remuneration; 
feud, fief, fee-simple, uncondi- 
tional tenure. 

Feeble. Weak, not strong, ener- 
vated, debilitated, infirm, lan- 
guid, sickly, languishing, de- 
clining, frail, drooping; faint, 
imperfect, dim; without vigor, 
lacking intensity; wretched, 
poor, dull, forceless, puny, en- 
feebled, nerveless ; incomplete, 
vain, fruitless ; scanty, pitiable. 
ANT. Strong, robust, active, 
successful, effective; abundant; 
powerful, muscular; forcible, 
cogent, telling; violent, vehe- 
ment, ardent; lusty, hale, vig- 
orous, hearty. 

Feed. Give food to, supply, con- 
tribute to, provide for; nour- 
ish, cherish, sustain; eat, take 
food, take nourishment; sustain 
life, subsist. 

ANT. Starve, refuse, deny, 
withhold, take away ; impover- 
ish, steal from; diet, abstain, 

Feel. Perceive, have feeling; be 
perceived ; be moved, be excited, 
be stirred, be wrought up, be 
impressed; touch, handle; ex- 
perience, suffer, or enjoy; be 
affected by, be moved by ; prove, 
sound, try, put to the "test. 
ANT. Be hard or callous, in- 

t 117 ] 




sensate, apathetic, dull, numb, 
imperceivable, indifferent, un- 
susceptible, or stoical. 

Feeling. Sense of touch; sensa- 
tion, perception by touch; sen- 
sibility, emotion, sentiment, af- 
fection, passion, impression ; 
tenderness, susceptibility; con- 
tact ; pathos ; consciousness, 

ANT. Callousness, insensibil- 
ity, imperturbability, inexcita- 
bility, coldness, insensateness. 

feign. Invent, imagine, devise, 
forge, fabricate ; counterfeit, af- 
fect, assume, simulate, pretend 

ANT. Detect, test, unmask, 
refute, verify, substantiate. 

Felicitous. Fit, appropriate, apt, 
pertinent, seasonable, oppor- 
tune, well-timed, happy, skil- 
ful, ingenious; prosperous, suc- 
cessful, fortunate, lucky, auspi- 
cious, propitious; timely, joy- 

ANT. Unhappy, unfortunate, 
inauspicious, untimely, inop- 
portune, disastrous, sad. 

Felicity. Bliss, blessedness, hap- 
piness; aptness, aptitude, fit- 
ness, propriety, felicitousness, 
suitableness; success, luck, for- 

ANT. Ill luck, "bad fortune, 
sorrow, unhappiness, disaster, 
misfortune; sadness, mourning, 

Fell, a. Inhuman, cruel, barba- 
rous, relentless, ruthless, im- 
placable, unrelenting, pitiless, 
malignant, malicious, malign, 
savage, ferocious, bloody, blood- 
thirsty; direful, merciless, re- 
morseless, fierce, truculent. 

ANT. -Generous, chivalrous, 
lenient, humane, propitious. 

Fell, v. Prostrate, level, bring to 
the ground, hurl down, knock 
down; cut down, hew down, lay 

low; hem; demolish, subvert, 
waste, bare. 

ANT. Plant, erect, support ; 
stock, upraise, rear, propagate. 

Fellow. Associate, companion, 
comrade; equal, peer, compeer; 
mate, match, counterpart; ad- 
herent, colleague, member; cor- 
relative, tally; partner, friend. 
ANT. Foe, opponent, antago- 
nist, stranger, mismatch, oppo- 

Fellowship. Companionship, fa- 
miliarity, intimacy, brother- 
hood, acquaintance; participa- 
tion, partnership, joint inter- 
est; converse, intercourse, com- 
munion; sociability, affability, 
kindliness ; association, com- 
pany; membership, society. 

ANT. Severance, disconnec- 
tion, dismemberment; non-in- 

Felonious. Malignant, malign, 
malicious, nefarious, infamous, 
heinous, atrocious, cruel, felon ; 
perfidious, traitorous, disloyal, 

ANT. Legal, constitutional, 
rightful, regular ; legitimate, le- 
galized; permissible, allowable; 
just, proper. 

Feminine. Female, womanish, 
womanly, effeminate; delicate, 
tender, modest, soft. 

ANT. Robust, manly; indeli- 
cate, unfeminine; rough, rude; 

Fen. Marsh, swamp, bog, moor, 
morass, quagmire. 

Fence, v. Enclose, guard, fortify, 
defend, circumscribe, protect; 
elude, parry, stave. 

ANT. Open, disenclose; re- 
ceive, catch, suffer. 

Ferment, n. Yeast, leaven, fer- 
mentation ; agitation, commo- 
tion, tumult; fever, heat, glow. 

Ferment, v. Set in fermentation ; 
excite, agitate, heat; seethe, 




concoct, brew; warm, chafe; ef- 
fervesce, rankle, fester. 

ANT. Damp, cool; dissipate; 
subside, evaporate, disperse; 

Fertile. Prolific, fecund, breed- 
ing, bearing; fruitful, produc- 
tive, rich, plenteous, luxuriant, 
exuberant, teeming; causative, 
conducive; pregnant; fraught, 
ingenious, inventive. 

ANT. Poor, sterile, barren, 
unproductive, ineffective, incon- 
dueive, fruitless, inoperative, 
un inventive, unimaginative. 

Festive. Convivial, jovial, joy- 
ous, gay, merry, mirthful, fes- 

ANT. Solitary, deserted, as- 
cetic, gloomy. 

Fetid. Stinking, offensive, rank, 
rancid, malodorous, mephitic, 
noisome, foul, strong-smelling, 

ANT. Inodorous, fresh, per- 
fumed, scented, balmy. 

Fetter, n. Chains, bondage, cus- 
tody, durance, duress, manacles, 
irons, shackles, imprisonment, 
handcuffs, gyves, bonds. 

Fetter, v. Shackle, clog, hamper, 
trammel; chain, bind, tie, con- 
fine, restrain, encumber; man- 
acle, hinder, impede. 

ANT. Free, liberate, acceler- 
ate, expedite. 

Feud. Contest, controversy, dis- 
pute, enmity, hostility, quar- 
rel, strife, dissension, affray, 
animosity, bitterness, broil, con- 
tention, brawl, fray ; antipathy. 
ANT. Friendliness, congeni- 
ality, sympathy, clanship, paci- 
fication, reconciliation, social- 
ity, neighbor lines s. 

Fever. Heat, flush, excitement, 
agitation, ferment; ardor, fer- 
vor, broil, passion. 

ANT. Coolness, iciness, fri- 
gidity; composure, indifference. 

Few. Not many, small in num- 
ber, hardly any, scarcely any; 
scant, rare, lacking. 

ANT. Many, abundant, nu- 

Fiber. Strength, sinews, thews, 
toughness; thread, staple, pile, 

ANT. Laxity, debility, flab- 

Fickle. Wavering, unsteady, un- 
stable, inconstant, variable, vac- 
illating, volatile, mercurial, fit- 
ful, changeable, irresolute, un- 
settled, capricious, fanciful, un- 
reliable, mutable; veering, rest- 
less, shifting. 

ANT. Sober, orderly, reliable, 
calculable, well-regulated, uni- 
form, steady, trustworthy. 

Fiction. Fable, falsehood, myth, 
invention, novel, romance, fig- 
ment, story, fabrication, legend, 
allegory, apologue ; creation. 

ANT. History, fact, literal- 
ness, reality, truth, verity, cer- 

Fictitious. Feigned, imaginary, 
invented, unreal, purely ideal, 
fanciful ; false, counterfeit, spu- 
rious, supposititious. 

ANT. Real, true, historical, 
genuine, authentic, veritable. 

Fidelity. Faithfulness, devoted- 
ness, devotion, truth, loyalty, 
true-heartedness, fealty, adher- 
ence to duty; accuracy, close- 
ness, exactness, truthfulness, 
precision, attachment, honesty, 
allegiance, integrity. 

ANT. Disloyalty, treachery, 
untruthfulness, disaffection, in- 
accuracy, infidelity, inexact- 

Field. Tract of land ; battle-field, 
scene of war; surface, expanse, 
range, scope; province, depart- 
ment, region, realm, domain; 
ground, arena; room, opportu- 




ANT. Circumscription, con- 
straint; interdiction, exclusion, 

fierce. Ravenous, infuriate, bar- 
barous, fell; vehement, turbu- 
lent, passionate, uncurbed, un- 
tamed, raging; furious, savage, 
ferocious, fiery, violent, wild, 
impetuous ; uncultivated, un- 

ANT. Gentle, harmless, kind, 
patient, submissive, sweet, ten- 
der, docile, affectionate, mild, 
peaceful, tame; calm. 

Fiery. Hot, ardent, heated, fer- 
vid, flaming, glowing; impetu- 
ous, vehement, fierce, passion- 
ate, impassioned; irascible, 
choleric, excited, enkindled, hot- 
blooded, irritable. 

ANT. Cold, icy, frigid, chilly; 
indifferent, phlegmatic, pas- 
sionless, unimpassioned, mild, 
tame; extinguished, quenched. 

Fight, n. Combat, conflict, con- 
test, battle, struggle, engage- 
ment, encounter, action, affair, 
fray, affray, brush; broil, riot; 
spirit, fighting temper; resis- 
tance, disposition to struggle, 

ANT. Pacification, reconcili- 

Figurative. Typical, representa- 
tive, emblematical; metaphori- 
cal, tropical ; flowery, florid, or- 
nate; poetical, rhetorical, sym- 

ANT. Literal, prosaic, unpo- 
etical, unmetaphorical. 

Figure, n. Form, shape, config- 
uration, conformation, outline; 
image, likeness, representation, 
^gy 5 appearance ; pattern, 
design; metaphor, trope; dia- 
gram, drawing; price; symbol, 
type, emblem; digit, number, 
numeral, character; aspect, de- 
lineation, condition, illustra- 

ANT. Misrepresentation, de- 
formity, disfigurement. 

Figure, v. Adorn, variegate, di- 
versify ; represent, signify, typ- 
ify, symbolize ; imagine, image, 
conceive, picture, represent; 
calculate, compute, cipher; ap- 
pear, act, perform; show off, 
cut a dash. 

ANT. Disfigure, harm, de- 
stray; miscalculate, mistake. 

File. Rasp, smooth, finish; plaea 
on file; polish; perfect, refine, 

ANT. Roughen, jag, acumi- 
nate, denticulate, barb, notch, 

Fill. Make full, fill up ; pervade, 
occupy; dilate, expand, stretch, 
distend; store, supply, furnish, 
replenish, stock; satisfy, con- 
tent, sate, satiate, cloy, pall; 
occupy, hold, fulfil, perform; 
become full, be filled; gorge, ap- 
point, glut; stuff; rise; swell, 
grow, increase. 

ANT. Exhaust, drain, dtt- 
satisfy, deprive, stint, vacate; 
misappoint ; subside, ebb, evap- 
orate, shrink, diminish. 

Filter. Strain, ooze, percolate, 
exude, transude; refine, distil, 
leak; purify, cleanse, depurate, 
defecate, clarify. 

ANT. Muddle, disturb, be- 
foul, thicken. 

Filthy. Dirty, nasty, foul, defiled, 
unclean, squalid ; impure, cor- 
rupt, gross; dingy, unsanitary, 

ANT. Pure, sweet, healthy, 
clean, sanitary, wholesome. 

Final. Latest, last, eventual, ul- 
timate ; decisive, conclusive, de- 
finitive; terminal; definite, de- 

ANT. Initiative, open, pro- 
gressive, continuous, incipient, 
current, unconeluded, inchoate, 
inaugural, nascent, rudimental. 

[ 120 ] 




Find. Discover, fall upon, light 
upon, meet; obtain, get, pro- 
cure, gain, arrive at, attain 
to; observe, remark, perceive, 
notice, discover ; detect, catch ; 
supply, furnish, provide, contri- 
bute; determine judicially, de- 
clare by verdict; confront, as- 
certain, experience, invent. 

ANT. Withdraw; miss, lose, 
elude, withhold, overlook, mis- 

Fine, n. Forfeit, penalty, for- 
feiture, mulct, amercement. 

Fine, a. Minute, small, commi- 
nuted, little ; slender, capillary, 
delicate; thin, tenuous, subtile, 
attenuated; light, keen, sharp; 
exquisite, nice, refined; excel- 
lent, superior, very good; bril- 
liant, accomplished; beautiful, 
handsome, splendid, elegant; 
clear, pure, unadulterated; gay, 
showy, garish, flashy, filmy, ar- 
tistic, choice, finished, high, 
grand, noble, generous, honor- 
able, pretentious, pretty, os- 
tentatious; presumptuous, cas- 

ANT. Rough, mean, petty, 
unfinished; illiberal, unimpos- 
ing, paltry ; modest, unaffected, 
affable; plain-spoken, categori- 
cal; unanaliitical, unreflective ; 
coarse, great, heavy, huge, im- 
mense, large, rude, stout, thick, 
blunt, big, clumsy. 

Finery. Gewgaws, trinkets, or- 
naments, trimmings, tawdri- 
ness, decorations, trappings, be- 
dizenment, tinsel, trash, dressi- 

ANT. Ornament, dress, deco- 
ration, adornment; chasteness, 
sobriety, simplicity. 

Finical. Fastidious, dainty, over- 
particular, squeamish, overnice, 
affected, elegant; dandyish, fop- 
pish, spruce. 
ANT. Effective, unaffected, 

practical, energetic, real, genu- 
ine, natural; outspoken, blunt, 
coarse, rude. 

Finish, v. Accomplish, execute, 
complete, perform, achieve, do, 
get done; perfect, polish, elab- 
orate; end, terminate, close, 
conclude, put an end to ; shape. 
ANT. Start, commence, be- 
gin; fail, undertake; miscon- 
trive, botch, mar, mismanage. 

Finished. Perfect, artistic, re- 
fined, high. 

ANT. Inartistic, incomplete, 
poor, rude, coarse, unfinished. 

Finite. Bounded, limited, con- 
ditioned, contracted, restricted 

ANT. Infinite, unlimited, un- 

Fire. Blaze, burning, conflagra- 
tion, flame, combustion; dis- 
charge ; heat, ardor, fervor, vio- 
lence, force, passion, impetuos- 
ity, fervency, intensity, anima- 
tion, vigor, spirit, enthusiasm; 
light, luster, radiance, splen- 
dor; vivacity, inspiration, im- 
agination ; torture, affliction, 
trouble, bitter trial, persecu- 

First. Foremost, leading; chief, 
highest, principal, capital; ele- 
mentary, primary, rudimen- 
tary; earliest; primitive, pri- 
meval, pristine ; in the first 
place, at the outset, in the be- 
ginning, first and foremost; 
original, onmost. 

ANT. Subsequent, secondary, 
subordinate, subservient, low- 
est, unimportant, last, hind- 

Fit, a. Competent, fitted, quali- 
fied ; suitable, appropriate, apt, 
apposite, meet, seemly, becom- 
ing, befitting, proper, good, de- 
cent, convenient, fitting, deco- 
rous, adapted, congruous, pe- 
culiar, particular, prepared, ad- 

[ 121 ] 




equate, calculated, ripe, right, 
contrived, expedient. 

ANT. Awkward, misfitting, 
ungainly, ill-suited, inappropri- 
ate, unseemly, unprepared, un- 
suitable, inadequate, miscalcu- 
lated, miscontrived, improper, 
unfit, inexpedient. 

Fitful. Variable, irregular, im- 
pulsive, spasmodic, unstable, 
fickle, whimsical, fanciful, ca- 
pricious, fantastic, humorsome. 
odd; eventful, checkered; rest- 
less, inconstant, mutable, desul- 
tory, unequal. 

ANT. Regular, equable, or- 
derly, systematic, calculable. 

Fix. Set, place, establish, plant, 
fasten, make firm; attach, tie, 
connect; determine, define, ap- 
point, limit, settle; rivet, direct 
steadily, adjust; solidify, con- 
solidate; link, locate, root, se- 
cure; decide. 

ANT. Displace, unsettle, re- 
move, disarrange, uproot, trans- 
plant, transfer, weaken, shake, 
disestablish, reverse, disturb, 
change, unfix. 

Flaccid. Limber, lax, drooping, 
flabby, soft, limp, yielding, re- 
laxed, inelastic, pendulous. 

ANT. Firm, braced, plump, 
muscular, chubby, brawny, vig- 
orous, strong, powerful. 

Flag, n. Flagstone; streamer, 
banner, colors, standard, pen- 
non, pennant, ensign, gon- 

Flag, v. Hang loose, droop ; lan- 
guish, faint, decline, pine, sink, 
succumb, grow weak, become 
dejected; pall, grow stale, lose 
interest, weary, tire; give in. 

ANT. Freshen, flourish; per- 
severe, hold, brace up, struggle, 
persist, battle, recruit, recover. 

Flagitious. Atrocious, heinous, 
flagrant, scandalous, villainous, 
corrupt, abandoned, profligate; 

enormous, monstrous, disgrace- 
ful, nefarious, aggravated. 

ANT. Creditable, honorable, 
noble, meritorious, justifiable, 
distinguished, extenuated, ex- 
cusable, pardonable. 

Flaring. Flaming, glaring, con- 
spicuous, bright, gaudy, over- 
colored, flaunting, flashy, os- 
tentatious, showy, tawdry. 

ANT. Subdued, toned, har- 
monized, dull, dim, dingy, neu- 
tral, dowdy, colorless. 

Flat, a. Level, horizontal; even, 
plane, smooth; low, prostrate, 
laid low; dull, lifeless, spirit- 
less, unanimated, frigid, tame, 
prosaic, uninteresting; point- 
less; vapid, tasteless, insipid, 
stale, dead, jejune ; peremptory, 
absolute, positive; downright, 

ANT. Animated, exciting, in- 
teresting, thrilling, sensational, 
emotional, melodramatic. 

Flaunt. Wave ostentatiously, in- 
solently, brazenly, or boldly; 
display, vaunt, flourish, toss, 
disport, boast; flout, flounce, 
flutter, parade, figure. 

ANT. Conceal, suppress, re- 
tire, skulk, recede, hide, shrivel, 
collapse, furl. 

Flavor. Taste, savor, relish, 
zest, smack, gusto; aroma, es- 
sence, subtle quality, spirit, 
soul; odor. 

ANT. Insipidity, tasteless- 
ness, inodorousness, mawkish' 
ness, scentlessness, flatness. 

Flexible. Pliable, pliant, lim- 
ber, lithe, supple, crooked; af- 
fable, tractable, compliant, doc- 
ile, gentle; elastic; easy, indul- 
gent, ductile, flexile, yielding. 

ANT. Tough, rigid, inelastic, 
hard, inflexible, inexorable. 

Flicker. Quiver, flutter, falter, 
waver, glimmer, bicker, shim- 
mer, scintillate. 

[ 122 




ANT. Stream, "blaze, beam, 
shine, gleam. 

Plight. Flying, soaring, volita- 
tion, mounting, fleeing, depart- 
ure; flock; .olley, shower; es- 
cape, evasion, disappearance ; 
stampede, hegira, exodus. 

ANT. Recurrence, return, re- 
appearance; repose, perching, 

Flimsy. Gauzy, poor, transpar- 
ent, thin; trifling, trivial, in- 
ane, puerile ; weak, shallow, su- 
perficial, slight, unsubstantial ; 
feeble, frivolous, foolish, light, 

ANT. Solid, sound, irrefrag- 
able, cogent, substantial. 

Flinch. Wince, swerve, recoil, 
blench, shrink, draw back. 

ANT. Dare, face, bare, meet, 
endure, challenge, defy. 

Fling. Throw, cast, toss, hurl, 
dart, pitch, chuck; prostrate, 
overthrow, throw down; wince, 
flounce; jeer, sneer, gibe, scoff, 
flaunt, taunt; emit, ejaculate. 

ANT. Snatch, grasp, hold, 
keep, retain, arrest, catch. 

Flippant. Fluent, voluble, glib, 
talkative, nimble of speech ; im- 
pertinent, pert, malapert, for- 
ward, bold; superficial, saucy, 

ANT. Servile, considerate, 
obsequious, flattering, deferen- 
tial; accurate; complimentary, 

Float. Waft, swim, be buoyed 
up; bear up, buoy up; spread, 

ANT. Sink, drown, die, van- 
ish, founder. 

Flock, n. Brood, bevy, herd, lot, 
group, pack, swarm, set, hatch, 
drove, covey, litter; collection, 
company, congregation. 

Flock, v. Herd, congregate, as- 
gemble, throng, crowd, troop. 
ANT. Disperse, scatter, sep- 

arate, segregate, distribute, 

Flood, n. Deluge, abundance, in- 
undation, overflow, freshet; 
downrush, multitude. 

ANT. Drought, drain, ebb, 
scarcity, subsidence. 

Florid. Flowery; flushed, rubi- 
cund; ornate, rhetorical, figura- 
tive, embellished; overwrought, 
sanguine, meretricious. 

ANT. Pallid, exsanguine; 
bloodless, anemic, unadorned, 
bare, sober, nude, chaste. 

Flounder. Struggle, toss, wal- 
low, tumble, flounce; roll, blun- 
der, bungle. 

ANT. Emerge, course, career, 
speed, rise, skim, flourish. 

Flourish. Thrive, grow; pros- 
per, succeed, be successful; va- 
por, boast, brag, vaunt, bluster, 
show off; attain one's prime, 
be in vigor; brandish, wave; 
speed, triumph. 

ANT. Fail, decline, fade, ar- 
rest, founder, miscarry; sheath, 

Flow. Stream, run, pour, roll on, 
sweep along; melt, liquefy, be 
molten; issue, emanate, pro- 
ceed, come, grow, arise, follow, 
spring, result; glide, wave, un- 
dulate, float, waver, abound, be 
full, flood, deluge, overflow; ca- 
reer, progress, course. 

ANT. Halt, stick, stop, hesi- 
tate, fail, stickle, stint, beat, 
recoil, ebb, regurgitate; stag- 

Flower, n. Blossom, bloom ; best 
part; prime, vigor; figure, ex- 
pression; perfection, acme, or- 
nament, pride, gem, cream. 

ANT. Deformity, disappoint- 
ment, blot, abortion; blight; 
scum; dregs. 

Flowing. Running; fluent, copi- 
ous, smooth ; abundant, exuber- 
ant, easy, eloquent. 

[ 123 ] 




ANT. Dry, dribbling, meager, 
strained, labored, difficult, un- 
ready, forced. 

Fluctuate. Veer, waver, swerve, 
vacillate, vary, undulate, oscil- 
late, hesitate. 

ANT. Abide, adhere, persist, 
stand fast, stay, stick, hold fast. 
Fluctuation. Oscillation, un- 
dulation, unsteadiness, varia- 
tion, change, shifting, rise and 
fall, inconstancy, hesitation, 
wavering, vacillation. 

ANT. Steadiness, firmness, 
steadfastness, constancy, stabil- 
ity, fixedness, stolidity; persis- 
tence, perseverance, pertinacity, 
obstinacy, tenacity. 
Fluency. Smoothness, flowing 
quality, liquidness ; copious- 
ness, affluence, command of lan- 
guage, readiness of speech. 

ANT. Solidity, density, com- 
pactness, hardness; difficulty, 
sloicness; paucity. 
Flurry, v. Excite, agitate, dis- 
concert, confuse, disturb, per- 
turb, hurry, ruffle, worry, flus- 

ANT. Soothe, compose, quiet, 
calm, mesmerize. 

Flutter. Hover, flap, flirt ; palpi- 
tate, tremble ; flaunt ; fluctuate, 
waver, oscillate, vacillate, be 
inconstant, be unsteady; flit, 
quiver, flicker. 

ANT. Perch, roost, nestle, 
. settle, subside, collapse, rest, re- 
pose, pause, sink, lull. 
Flux. Flow, flowing; mutation, 
change, shifting, transition; fu- 
sion, melting; solvent; motion, 
progression, substitution, trans- 

ANT. Stagnation, stillness, 
identity, invariableness, immu- 
tability, arrestation, crystalli- 

Focus. Center; standpoint; con- 
vergence, rendezvous, nucleus. 

ANT. Circle, dispersion, dv* 
vergence, dissipation. 

Foggy. Misty, hazy; confused, 
dazed, bewildered, muddy, mud- 
dled; absent, stupid, obscure. 

ANT. Alert, alive, awake; lu- 
cid, clear, bright; shrewd, 

Foible. Frailty, weakness, fail- 
ing, defect, imperfection, in- 
firmity, fault, weak point; pec- 

ANT. Crime, atrocity, sin, 

Foil, n. Contrast, background, 
set-off; rapier; enhancement, 
setting; elucidation. 

ANT. Eclipse, outshining, ex- 
tinction, overshadowing. 

Foist. Impose, thrust; falsify, 
counterfeit, palm, pass. 

ANT. Expose, detect, verify, 

Fold, v. Double, enfold, enwrap, 
envelop, wrap, embrace, enclose. 
ANT. Unfold, expose, disen- 

Follow. Attend, accompany, re- 
sult, pursue, succeed, chase, go 
after, come after, copy, ensue, 
heed, imitate, observe, obey, 
practice; shadow. 

ANT. A void, elude, precede, 
quit, disobey, cause, produce, 
shun, abandon. 

Follower. Pursuer ; attendant, 
retainer, supporter, dependant, 
companion, associate ; adher- 
ent, disciple, pupil, partisan; 
imitator, copier. 

ANT. Leader, teacher, rival, 
antagonist, opponent. 

Folly. Foolishness, imbecility, 
fatuity, stupidity, shallowness, 
dulness; absurdity, extrava- 
gance, infatuation, unwisdom, 
imprudence, nonsense, indis- 
cretion; slip, lapse, misstep; 
madness, misconduct, silliness, 

[ 124 ] 




ANT. Wisdom, sanity, sense, 
prudence, judgment, sobriety. 

Foment. Bathe; excite, insti- 
gate, stimulate, brew, encour- 
age, promote, abet, stir up ; fan, 
cherish, propagate. 

ANT. Allay, extinguish, ex- 
tirpate, quench, discourage. 

Pond. Foolish, silly, weak, ab- 
surd, empty, vain, senseless, 
baseless ; doting, affectionate, 
loving, attached, enamored, de- 

ANT. Averse, unloving, un- 
affectionate, strong-minded, ra- 
tional, austere, sensible, well- 
grounded, undemonstrative. 

Fondle. Caress, coddle, blan- 
dish, pet; dandle; spoil, in- 

ANT. Worry, annoy, tease, 
chafe, irritate, ruffle. 

Fondness. Delusion, folly, silli- 
ness, weakness, absurdity; ten- 
derness, doting; liking, prefer- 
ence, partiality, predilection, 
affection; relish, appetite. 

ANT. Repulsion, aversion, 
dislike, antipathy; hatred, con- 
tempt; harshness, brutality, 

F*od. Aliment, nourishment, 
nutriment, nutrition, Viands, 
sustenance, victuals, provender, 
regimen, pabulum, rodder, diet, 
forage, feed, fare; bread, meat, 
provisions, cheer, commons, ra- 
tions, subsistence. 

Fool. Idiot, natural; dolt, wit- 
ling, driveler, blockhead, sim- 
pleton, dunce; buffoon, harle- 
quin, droll, punch, antic, jester, 

ANT. Wise man, adept, ex- 
pert, scholar, master. 

Foolish. Senseless, idiotic, silly, 

t weak, daft, simple, irrational, 

B insensate, shallow, brainless, 
witless; unwise, unreasonable, 
absurd, ridiculous, preposter- 

ous, indiscreet, imprudent; pu- 
erile, idle, trivial, trifling, con- 
temptible, vain, childish; inju- 
dicious, objectionable, imbecile, 
nonsensical ; crazed. 

ANT. Sensible, sane, clear- 
sighted, deep, strong-minded, 
sound, sagacious, wise, prudent, 
judicious, eligible, calculating, 

Footing. Foothold; foundation, 
basis, groundwork; standing, 
rank, grade, status, state, con- 
dition ; settlement, establish- 
ment; sum total. 

ANT. Dislodgment, ousting, 

Foppish. Dandyish, vain, cox- 
combical, dressy, dandified. 

ANT. Unassuming, modest, 
dowdy, unaffected, clownish, 

Foray. Inroad, irruption, raid, 
invasion, incursion; sally, esca- 
pade, dragonade. 

ANT. Flight, retreat, recall, 
stampede, decampment. 

Forbear. Abstain, avoid, with- 
hold, refrain, forego; stop, de- 
sist, pause, cease, stay, hold, 
break off, give over; be toler- 
ant, endure, be patient; shun, 
decline; omit; spare, tolerate, 
put up with. 

ANT. Seek, indulge, gratify, 
yield, grant, bestow; continue, 
advance, progress; rebel, resist. 

Forbidding. Repulsive, repel- 
lent, unpleasant, odious, abhor- 
rent, disagreeable, offensive; 
deterrent, prohibitory. 

ANT. Attractive, seductive, 
permissive, alluring, encourag- 

Force, n. Strength, power, en- 
ergy, might, vigor; efficacy, effi- 
ciency, potency, validity, vir- 
tue, cogency, agency; compul- 
sion, violence, constraint, coer- 
cion, enforcement; army, troop, 

[ 125 3 




legion, battalion, hcet, squad- 
ron, phalanx; instrumentality, 
dint, vehemence, pressure. 

ANT. Weakness, feebleness, 
inefficiency, counteraction, neu- 
tralization, debility, inconclu- 
siveness, pointlessness. 

Pore, a. Anterior, preceding, an- 
tecedent, prior, previous, for- 
mer, foregoing; front, face; ad- 
vanced, leading, head, foremost, 

ANT. Posterior, subsequent, 
following; rear, back, hindmost, 

Forefather. Progenitor, ances- 
tor, father. 

ANT. Descendants, progeny. 

Forefend. Avert, prevent, ward 
off, hinder, keep off, forbid; 
stave, obviate. 

ANT. Remedy, rectify, cure, 
mend, redress. 

Forego. Relinquish, resign, re- 
nounce, surrender, cede, yield, 
abandon, give up, part with, let 
go; waive, drop, abjure. 

ANT. Claim, assume, seise, 
grasp, retain, vindicate. 

Foreign. Alien, external, ex- 
terior, outward, strange, exotic, 
from abroad; extraneous, ex- 
trinsic, adventitious, irrele- 
vant; outlandish. 

ANT. Domestic, congenial, 
native, relative, germane. 

Forerunner. Precursor, herald, 
harbinger, foregoer, avant-cou- 
rier; prelude; prognostic, sign, 
omen, premonition; predeces- 

ANT. Successor, follower; 
postlude; fulfilment. 

Foresee. Foreknow, forecast, 
have prescience of; predict, an- 
ticipate, foretell, forebode, di- 

ANT. Remember, recollect, 
recall, reflect. 

ForetelL Prognosticate, fore- 

show, foreshadow, betoken, por- 
tend, augur, bode, forebode, 
presage; predict, prophesy; pre- 
indicate, forewarn. 

ANT. Recite, narrate, detail; 
recollect, remember. 

Forethought. Foresight, antic- 
ipation, precaution, forecast, 
provision, prudence. 

ANT. Delay, procrastina- 

Forever. Always, perpetually, 
eternally, everlastingly, ever, 
endlessly, evermore, aye. 
ANT. Never, at no time. 

Forfeit, Forfeiture. Loss, fine, 
mulct, amercement, confisca- 
tion, penalty; damages. 

ANT. Bribe, premium, dou- 
ceur, compensation, gratuity, 
reward, remuneration. 

Forge. Beat, hammer out, fabri- 
cate, frame, form; devise, in- 
vent, coin; falsify, counterfeit; 
work, produce, elaborate, feign, 
make falsely, shape. 

ANT. Shatter, batter, shiver, 
blast, fuse, detect, expose; mis- 
construe, misshape, misfabri- 
cate; verify. 

Forgery. Counterfeit; falsifica- 
tion, fraudulent imitation. 

ANT. Attestation, verifica- 
tion, signature; genuineness. 

Forget. Consign to oblivion, 
overlook; slight, neglect, cease 
to care for; unlearn, pretermit, 

ANT. Acquire, learn, recol- 
lect, remember, retain, treasure, 

Forgetful. Apt to forget; negli- 
gent, inattentive, careless, heed- 
less, neglectful, mindless. 

ANT. Attentive, retentive, 
careful, mindful. 

Forgetfulness. Aptness to for- 
get; failure of memory; negli- 
gence, inattention, carelessness, 
heedlessness; oblivion. 

[ 126 ] 




ANT. Retentiveness, recol- 
lection, recalling. 

Forgotten. Unremembered, by- 
gone, slighted, overlooked, ob- 
solete, neglected, disregarded. 

ANT. Remembered, present, 
treasured, cherished, guarded, 

Forlorn. Deserted, forsaken, sol- 
itary, abandoned, lost, friend- 
less; wretched, miserable, piti- 
able, destitute, desolate; help- 
less, comfortless, disconsolate, 
wobegone ; hapless, luckless ; 
lone, lonesome. 

ANT. Supported, cherished, 
attended, protected, befriended, 

Form, n. Shape, figure, configu- 
ration, mold, fashion, cast, cut ; 
mode, method, formula, formu- 
lary, ritual; manner, system, 
sort, kind, order; regularity, 
arrangement; shapeliness, cere- 
mony, formality, ceremonial ; 
conventionality, etiquette; pat- 
tern, model; mere appearance, 
empty show. 

Form, v. Shape, mold, fashion, 
constitute, arrange, frame, con- 
struct, contrive, conceive, make, 
produce, create, devise, invent, 
compose, dispose, combine. 

ANT. Deform, dislocate, dis- 
tort, derange, disintegrate, dis- 
member, dissipate, disorganize, 

Formal. Express, explicit, posi- 
tive, strict, official ; regular, set, 
methodical, fixed, rigid, stiff; 
ceremonious, precise, punctili- 
ous, starched, prim, exact; es- 
sential, constitutive ; external ; 
complete, shapely, sufficient, af- 
fected, correct, stately, digni- 
fied, pompous. 

ANT. Incomplete, irregular, 
informal, incorrect, inadequate, 
easy, unassuming, unceremoni- 

Formalism. Rigidity, parade, 
ceremoniousness, pomposity, ex- 
ternalism, punctilio. 

ANT. Simplicity, unaffected- 
ness, unostentatiousness, un- 

Formality. Custom, established 
mode ; ceremony, etiquette, con- 
ventionality, mere form; pa- 
rade, affectation, punctilious- 
ness, stateliness. 

ANT. Informality; uncere- 
moniousness, unconventional- 
ity; originality. 

Formation. Creation, produc- 
tion; composition, constitu- 
tion ; arrangement, disposal, 
combination, disposition ; con- 
struction, shape, structure. 

Former. Anterior, antecedent, 
previous, prior, preceding, fore- 
going; quondam, late, old-time; 
past, bygone, foregone, previ- 
ous ; first-named, first-men- 
tioned; earlier, ancient. 

ANT. Subsequent, succeed- 
ing, posterior, latter, modern, 
coming, future. 

Formidable. Terrible, redoubted, 
tremendous, dangerous; awful, 
alarming, terrifying, discour- 
aging, appalling, serious, hor- 
rible, dreadful, fearful, shock- 

ANT. Light, trivial; feeble, 
harmless, contemptible, poicer- 
less, despicable, weak, help- 

Forthwith. Instantly, directly, 
immediately, without delay, in- 

ANT. Hereafter, soon, by- 
and-by, presently. 

Fortification. Fort, stronghold, 
fortress, fastness, castle, cita- 
del; bulwark, fortified place. 

Fortify. Protect, surround; re- 
inforce, brace, stiffen, strength- 
en; confirm, corroborate; garri- 
son, intrench. 

[ 127 ] 




ANT. Weaken, dismantle; in- 

Fortitude. Endurance, heroism, 
resolution, courage ; firmness, 
patience ; bravery ; calmness, 
resignation, hardihood, compo- 
sure, stoicism. 

ANT. Impatience, timidity, 
flinching, irritation, faintness, 
delicacy, effeminacy, womanish- 
ness, childishness. 
Fortuitous. Accidental, casual, 
.contingent, chance, incidental, 

ANT. Purposed, planned, de- 
signed; anticipated, foreseen. 
Fortunate. Favored, lucky, suc- 
cessful, prosperous, happy, fe- 
licitous, propitious, auspicious, 
favorable, advantageous, provi- 

ANT. Miserable, unhappy, un- 
lucky, ill-starred, unfortunate, 
wretched, woful, fallen, infeli- 
citous, broke, crushed. 
Fortune. Chance, accident, luck, 
hap, casualty, fortuity; liveli- 
hood; estate, substance, prop- 
erty, possessions; wealth, afflu- 
<ence, riches, opulence; destiny, 
fate, destination, doom, star, 
lot; issue, result, event; suc- 

ANT. Design, purpose; mis- 
fortune, ill luck, poverty; in- 
ception, <iause, failure. 
Forward, a. Onward, progres- 
sive, advancing; front, fore, an- 
terior; ready, prompt, eager, 
willing, zealous, earnest; pre- 
sumptuous, confident, bold, im- 
pertinent, pert, assuming, flip- 
pant; early, premature; obtru- 
sive, anxious, self-assertive. 

ANT. Tardy, reluctant, re- 
tiring, backward, slow, modest, 

Forward, v. Support, foster, ad- 
vance, promote, further, encour- 
age, aid, favor, help ; hasten, ac- 

celerate, quicken, speed, hurry, 
despatch, expedite ; transmit, 
send on, ship. 

ANT. Retard, delay, prevent, 
hinder, frustrate. 

Foul. Impure, nasty, dirty, un- 
clean, squalid, filthy, tarnished, 
soiled, stained, polluted, sul- 
lied; disgusting, loathsome, of- 
fensive, noisome; dishonorable, 
unfair, sinister, underhanded; 
base, scandalous, infamous, vile, 
wicked, dark, abominable, de- 
testable, disgraceful, shameful ; 
vulgar, coarse, low ; abusive, in- 
sulting, scurrilous; thick, tur- 
bid, muddy; stormy, cloudy, 
rainy; entangled, tangled. 

ANT. Pure, uncorrupt, un- 
stained, undefiled, uncontami- 
nated, unsullied, stainless, fair, 
unspotted, spotless, unpolluted, 

Found, v. Base, set, fix, place, 
ground, rest; build, construct, 
raise, erect ; establish, institute, 
originate, plant, set up; cast, 
mold; endow, root. 

ANT. Uproot, subvert, sup- 
plant, disestablish. 

Foundation. Base, groundwork, 
basis, bottom, footing; estab- 
lishment, settlement; endow- 
ment; institution, origin, rudi- 
ments, ground, substratum, un- 
derlying principle. 

ANT. Disestablishment; su- 
perstructure; demolition, ruin, 

Founder. Originator, institutor, 
establisher, planter; molder, 
caster; author. 

ANT. Subverter, destroyer. 

Fountain. Spring, well, jet; 
source, origin, original cause, 
first principle. 

Fraction. Part, portion, frag- 
ment, piece, bit, scrap, section. 
ANT. Whole, total, amount, 
sum, aggregate. 

[ 128 


Tractions. Cross, captious, petu- 
lant, testy, peevish, fretful, ir- 
ritable, waspish, snappish; pet- 

ANT. Good-humored, blithe- 
some, agreeable, complaisant, 

Fragile. Brittle, easily broken, 
frangible; infirm, frail, weak, 
feeble, delicate, slight. 

ANT. Tough, hardy, stout, 

fragment. Remnant, fraction, 
scrap, chip, detached part, bit, 
piece, morsel. 

ANT. Bulk, body, whole, 

Fragrance, Fragrancy. Redo- 
lence, perfume, aroma, balmi- 
ness, incense, grateful odor or 
smell, pleasant scent. 

Fragrant. Aromatic, redolent, 
spicy, balmy, odoriferous, per- 
fumed, sweet-scented, odorous, 

ANT. Inodorous, scentless, 

Frail. Fragile, brittle, frangible ; 
weak, feeble, infirm; irresolute, 
erring, mutable. 

ANT. Resolute, lasting, vir- 
tuous; tough, hardy, strong, 

Frame, n. Framework, skeleton, 
carcass, framing; form, struc- 
ture, system, fabric, constitu- 
tion, scheme; condition, state, 
temper, mood. 

jFrame, v. Construct, build, put 
together; form, compose, make, 
constitute ; invent, devise, plan, 
contrive; fabricate, forge. 

Franchise. Right, privilege; ex- 
emption, immunity; freedom. 

ANT. Obligation, disability, 
disqualification, liability, juris- 

Frank. Open, ingenuous, free, 
sincere, candid, artless, frank- 
hearted, without disguise, un- 

reserved; familiar, honest, out- 
spoken, easy, plain. 

ANT. Close, reserved; disin- 

Frantic. Furious, raving, rag- 
ing, mad, wild, infuriate, fren- 
zied, distracted; maniacal. 

ANT. Sane, sober, calm, col- 
lected, cool, unruffled, composed. 

Fraternity. Association, jircle, 
society, company, brotherhood, 
sodality, league, clan; brother- 

Fraternize. Harmonize, sympa- 
thize, consort, concur ; associate 
with, cooperate with ; coalesce. 
ANT. Renounce, abjure, for- 
swear; ostracise. 

Fraud. Duplicity, deceit, decep- 
tion, dishonesty, treason, arti- 
fice, trick, cheat, imposture, 
swindle, treachery, imposition. 
ANT. Good faith, honesty, 
truth, uprightness, fairness, in- 

Fraught. Filled, stored, laden, 
freighted, charged, abounding, 
pregnant, big; loaded, teeming. 
ANT. Devoid, divested, ex- 
empt, empty, wanting, poor, 

Freakish. Whimsical, erratic, 
capricious, odd, fanciful, hu- 
morsome ; sportful, frisky, jok- 
ing, mirthful. 

ANT. Sober, steady, demure, 
unwhimsical, unfanciful, reli- 
able, consistent, equable, uni- 

Free, a. Independent, at liberty, 
unrestrained; released, emanci- 
pated, delivered, liberated; ex- 
empt, clear, allowed, permitted, 
open ; unobstructed, unimpeded, 
unrestricted ; frank, ingenuous, 
candid, artless, unreserved, sin- 
cere, frank-hearted; generous, 
liberal, bountiful, hospitable, 
charitable, munificent, open- 
handed; prodigal, lavish, inv 

[ 129 ] 




moderate; ready, eager, will- 
ing, prompt; gratuitous, spon- 
taneous; loose, lax; familiar, 
unconstrained, easy, informal; 
detached, playing, operating, 
unoccupied, unhindered, uncon- 
ditional, untrammeled, care- 
less, unconfined, bounteous. 

ANT. Bound, shackled, sub- 
servient, restricted, obstructed, 
clogged; occupied; impeded, un- 
lawful, compulsory, biased, sub- 
ject, liable, amenable; condi- 
tional, qualified; stingy, nig- 

Freedom. Independence, liberty ; 
scope, range, play, free swing; 
franchise, immunity, privilege; 
license, laxity, looseness, famil- 

ANT. Slavery, serfdom, ser- 
vitude; imprisonment, captiv- 

Frenzy. Madness, rage, fury, in- 
sanity, raving, distraction, lu- 
nacy, derangement, mania, de- 
lirium, aberration of mind; fa- 
naticism, fire. 

ANT. Calm, composure, col- 
lectedness, coolness, sanity, so- 
briety, equanimity. 
Frequent, a. Oft-repeated; com- 
mon, usual, everyday; many, 
repeated, recurrent, general, 
numerous, continual. 

ANT. Few, solitary, scanty, 
rare, casual. 

Fresh. New, recent, novel; re- 
newed, revived ; blooming, flour- 
ishing, unfaded, unwilted, un- 
withered, well-preserved ; unim- 
paired, undecayed ; rosy, ruddy, 
fair, delicate, fresh-colored; 
well, hearty, florid, vigorous, 
healthy, hardy, strong ; unworn, 
unwearied, unexhausted, unfa- 
tigued; vivid, lively, keen, un- 
abated; unsalted; pure, cool, re- 
freshing, sweet, health-giving, 
bracing; brisk, stiff, strong; 

raw, uncultivated, unpracticed, 
untrained, unskilled, inexperi- 
enced ; young, untried, modern. 
ANT. Old, stale, weary-, 
jaded; former; stagnant, im- 
paired; original, ordinary, tar- 
nished, faded, decayed, pallid, 
sickly, putrid, moldy, musty, 

Fretful. Touchy, peevish, petu- 
lant, testy, snappish, waspish, 
splenetic, spleeny, captious, ir- 
ritable, ill-humored, ill-tem- 
pered; fractious, impatient, dis- 

ANT. Patient, contented, for- 
bearing, meek, resigned, unmur- 

Friction. Attrition, abrasion, re- 
sistance, confrication, rubbing; 
grating, contact. 

ANT. Lubrication, non-con- 
tact, detachment, isolation. 

Friend. Confidant, intimate, as- 
sociate, companion; ally, con- 
fr&re, fellow-adherent; favorer, 
encourager, well-wisher, advo- 
cate, patron, adherent, defender, 
supporter ; acquaintance, famil- 
iar, chum, messmate, coadjutor. 
ANT. Opponent, foe, adver- 
sary, antagonist, enemy. 

Friendly. Companionable, ge- 
nial, neighborly, cordial, affec- 
tionate, brotherly, fond, favor- 
able, kind, kindly, loving, well- 
disposed, social, tender, affable, 
accessible, sociable, amicable, 
complaisant, hearty, sincere. 

ANT. Adverse, estranged, ill- 
disposed, unfriendly, antagonis- 
tic, unkind, inimical, alienated, 
distant, disaffected, frigid, hos- 
tile, cold, indifferent, conten- 
tious, belligerent, bellicose. 

Friendship. Affection, good will, 
devotion, attachment, amity, 
comity, consideration, favor, 
friendliness, love, regard, es- 
teem, admiration. 

[ 130 ] 




ANT. Hostility, hatred, en- 
mity, feud; contempt, disdain; 

Frighten. Alarm, affright, in- 
timidate, scare, terrify, daunt, 
appall, browbeat, depress, dis- 

ANT. Calm, soothe, comfort, 
ease; reassure, encourage. 

Frightful. Terrible, fearful, ter- 
rific, dire, dread, dreadful, hor- 
rid, horrible, awful, shocking, 
hideous, ghastly, grim, grisly, 
gruesome, alarming; ugly, mon- 

ANT. Pleasing, fair, attrac- 
tive, encouraging, lovely, beau- 

Frigid. Cold, dull, cool, unin- 
teresting, lifeless, unanimated, 
tame, spiritless ; formal, prim, 
stiff, forbidding, chilling, rigid, 
freezing, repulsive, repellent ; 
inanimate, passionless, distant. 
ANT. Warm, ardent, impas- 
sioned; vehement, zealous. 

Frisk. Leap, skip, hop, frolic, 
jump, romp, gambol, wanton, 
dance, sport, play. 

ANT. Lie, ruminate, roost, 
mope, sulk, rest, repose. 

Frisky. Gay, lively, sportive, 
playful, coltish, wanton, frolic- 

ANT. Demure, sedate, pen- 
sive, meditative. 

Fritter. Slice, break, shiver, 
shatter; dribble, waste, dissi- 
pate, idle. 

ANT. Husband, economize, 
cultivate, provide, be frugal. 

Frivolous. Trivial, worthless, 
light, trifling, silly, petty, idle, 
flimsy, childish, puerile, foolish, 

ANT. Serious, earnest, im- 
portant, grave. 

Frolic, n. Gambol, lark, esca- 
pade, prank; fun, pleasantry, 
drollery ; merriment, merry- 

making; play, game, festivity, 
sport, entertainment, gaiety, 

ANT. Study, engagement, oc- 
cupation, purpose, undertaking, 
Frolicsome. Gay, lively, frisky, 
sportive, playful, frolic, merry, 
joyous; wanton, festive. 

ANT. Grave, serious, labori- 
ous, earnest, studious. 
Froward. Contrary, fractious, 
perverse, contumacious, refrac- 
tory, untoward, unyielding, un- 
governable, wayward, disobedi- 
ent, peevish, cross, captious, 

ANT. Docile, amenable, fa- 
vorable, agreeable, obedient, 

Frugal. Provident, economical, 
careful, choice, saving, chary, 
thrifty, unwasteful, sparing; 
parsimonious, abstinent, abste- 
mious, temperate. 

ANT. Profuse, lavish, luxu- 
rious, extravagant, prodigal, in- 
temperate, self-indulgent. 
Frugality. Parsimony, thrift, 
providence, prudence, economy, 
sparing, miserliness, parsimo- 
niousness, scrimping. 

ANT. Liberality, luxury, op- 
ulence, waste, wealth, extrava- 
gance, bounty, affluence, abun- 
dance, riches. 

Fruit. Harvest, crop, product; 
production, result, effect, con- 
sequence, outcome ; offspring, 
issue, young; produce, reward, 

ANT. Seed, cause, origin, op- 
eration, growth. 

Fruitful. Productive ; prolific, 
fertile, fecund ; abundant, rich, 
plentiful, plenteous; pregnant, 
fraught, causative, successful, 
effectual, useful. 

ANT. Unproductive, sterile, 
barren, fruitless, useless, abor- 
tive, ineffectual. 

t 131 ] 




Fruition. Fulfilment, enjoy- 
ment; reaping, attainment, use, 

ANT. Loss, disappointment, 

Fugacious. Transitory, tran- 
sient, evanescent, fugitive, eph- 
emeral, fleeting. 

ANT. Persistent, perennial, 
permanent, perpetual. 

Fulfil. Accomplish, effectuate, 
effect, realize, execute, consum- 
mate, complete, perfect; obey, 
observe, perform, do, discharge, 
keep, adhere to, comply with; 
meet, satisfy, answer, fill, fill 
out; verify, achieve. 

ANT. Neglect, ignore; fal- 
sify, disappoint; render abor- 
tive; overlook, disregard, slight. 

Fulminate. Explode, detonate; 
utter denunciations, thunder, 
fulmine, hurl threats; clamor, 
roar, denounce, vociferate. 

ANT. Laud, panegyrize, eu- 

Fulsome. Gross, excessive, of- 
fensive, extravagant, nauseous, 
disgusting, repulsive, coarse, ri- 
bald, questionable, loathsome, 
sickening, fawning. 

ANT. Chaste, sober, delicate, 
nice, temperate, moderate. 

Fume, v. Smoke, reek, emit va- 
por, exhale; rave, rage, chafe, 
storm, bluster, fret, flare up, be 
in a rage. 

ANT. Acquiesce; smile; sub- 
mit, accede, consent, concur. 

Function, n. Exercise, perform- 
ance, execution, discharge; 
employment, office, duty, busi- 
ness, occupation, part, prov- 
ince; character, capacity, op- 
eration, administration, 

ANT. Usurpation, misde- 
meanor, misconduct, maladmin- 

Functionary. Office-holder, offi- 

cial, officer, servant, personage, 

Fund. Stock, capital; supply, 
store; foundation, permanent 
fund ; money, means, resources ; 

ANT. Expenditure, outlay, 

Fundamental. Essential, radi- 
cal, primary, organic, constitu- 
tional, indispensable, principal, 

ANT. Secondary, unimpor- 
tant, non-essential, ascititious, 

Funereal. Mournful, sad, lugu- 
brious, woful, dark, plaintive, 
somber, melancholy, funeral, 
gloomy, dismal, sepulchral, sol- 
emn, deathlike. 

ANT. Joyous, festive, funny, 
stirring, lively, ridiculous, far- 

Funny. Ludicrous, droll, comi- 
cal, farcical, sportive, humor- 
ous, amusing, laughable, divert- 
ing, jocose, ridiculous. 

ANT. Tedious, dull, mourn- 
ful, lugubrious, grave, serious, 
dismal, sad, lamentable. 

Furbish. Burnish, polish, rub, 
scour, brighten. 

ANT. Dull, tarnish, cloud. 

Furnish. Provide, supply; fit, 
equip, fit up; afford, give, be- 
stow, contribute, present, pur- 
vey, yield. 

ANT. Withhold, unthdraw; 
dismantle; retain, keep. 

Furtive. Secret, sly, clandes- 
tine, stolen, stealthy, surrepti- 
tious, secretive. 

ANT. Open, public, un- 
disguised, unconcealed, unre- 

Fuse. Melt, liquefy, smelt; inter- 
mix, amalgamate, blend, com- 
mingle, intermingle; coalesce. 

ANT. Disunite, diffuse, dis- 
amalgamate, disincorporate. 

[ 132 ] 




Fuss, n. Hurry, worry, ado, fid- 
get, bustle, flurry, stir, agita- 
tion, excitement, tumult. 

ANT. Quiet, peace, sedate- 
ness, calm, composure, tranquil- 

Futile. Trifling, frivolous, triv- 
ial; worthless, valueless, vain, 
idle, unprofitable, profitless, un- 

availing, fruitless, bootless, in- 
effectual ; weak, ineffective, use- 
less, nugatory. 

ANT. Cogent, effective, po- 
tent, powerful, useful, substan- 
tial, solid. 

Future. Forthcoming, coming, 

ANT. Past, gone, bygone. 


Gabble, n. Prate, jargon, stuff, 
jabber, rattle, twaddle, chatter, 
gibber, gibberish, babble, gab, 
gossip, palaver, prattle, cackle. 
ANT. Speech, conversation, 
eloquence; reticence, tacitur- 
nity; mincing, mouthiness, eu- 
phuism, grandiloquence. 

Gabble, v. Prate, prattle, chat- 
ter, cackle, rattle, jabber, gos- 
sip, palaver. 

ANT. Drone, drawl, mur- 

Gag. Silence, stifle, muzzle, 
muffle, hush. 

ANT. Evoke, provoke, inspire, 

Gage, n. Measure, standard; di- 
mensions, estimate; security; 
challenge, defiance. 

Gage, v. Measure, estimate, 
fathom, probe. 

ANT. Survey, conjecture, ob- 
serve, view, scan, guess, mis- 

Gain, n. Profits, earnings, in- 
crease, gainings; emolument, 
lucre, money-making; blessing, 
profit, advantage, good, benefit. 
ANT. Loss, detriment, dam- 
age, privation, injury. 

Gain, v. Get, acquire, win, earn, 
obtain, procure, secure, carry, 
achieve; conciliate, enlist, per- 
suade, prevail upon, win over, 
gain over, bring over ; reach, at- 

tain, arrive at; profit; benefit, 
realize, reap. 

ANT. Lose, forfeit, suffer. 

Gainful. Advantageous, profit- 
able, beneficial; lucrative, pay- 
ing, productive, remunerative, 

ANT. Unprofitable, disad- 
vantageous, detrimental, injuri- 
ous, losing, gainless. 

Gallant, a. Gay, fine, magnifi- 
cent, well-dressed, showy, splen- 
did; courageous, brave, valiant, 
valorous, intrepid, chivalrous, 
fearless, bold, daring, high-spir- 
ited; noble, lofty, honorable, 
magnanimous, high-minded ; at- 
tentive, polite, courteous; am- 
orous; heroic. 

ANT. Coicardly, discourte- 
ous, churlish. 

Gambol. Frisk, frolic, romp, 
caper, leap, hop, skip, jump, 

ANT. Droop, tire, weary, 

Game, n. Sport, play, amuse- 
ment, pastime ; plan, scheme, 
stratagem, strategy, adventure, 
enterprise, measure, undertak- 
ing; quarry, prey; recreation, 
frolic, diversion. 

ANT. Toil, study, duty, la- 
bor; weariness, flagging; busi- 

Garb. Dress, clothes, habit, ap- 

[ 133 ] 




parel, raiment, garments, ves- 
ture, costume, attire, habili- 
ment; uniform, vestments. 

ANT. Undress; rags, tatters, 
shreds; nudity, nakedness. 

Garble. Mutilate, falsify, cor- 
rupt, misrepresent, misquote, 
pervert; cook, dress, color, dis- 

ANT. Quote, cite, extract, re- 
cite, report verbatim. 

Garnish. Adorn, embellish, deco- 
rate, deck, grace, beautify, or- 
nament, prank, set off, trick 
out; furnish, furbish. 

ANT. Strip, dismantle, de- 
nude, bare, deprive, divest. 

Garrulity. Loquacity, babble, 
loquaciousness, babbling, talk- 
ativeness, prattle, prate; ver- 
bosity, chatter. 

ANT. Reticence, taciturnity, 
laconism, reserve, silence. 

Garrulous. Chattering, loqua- 
cious, verbose, talkative. 

ANT. Taciturn, speechless, 
laconic, reserved, reticent, si- 

Gaud. Trinket, finery, gewgaw, 
trumpery, whim, gimcrack, toy, 
bauble, trifle. 

ANT. Ornament, gem, deco- 
ration, jewel, valuable. 

Gaudy. Flaunting, garish, glit- 
tering, tawdry, tinsel, flashy, 
showy, overdecorated, loud; be- 
spangled, fine, gay, meretri- 

ANT. Rich, simple, hand- 
some, chaste. 

Gaunt. Lean, lank, thin, meager, 
emaciated, slender, attenuated, 
spare ; grim, savage, hungry. 

ANT. Docile, tractable, well- 
fed, tame, sleek. 

Gawky. Awkward, clownish, un- 
gainly, clumsy, raw, boorish, 
rustic, green, uncouth, loutish. 
ANT. N eat, handy, graceful, 

Gay. Showy, bright, fine, bril- 
liant, dashing; gaudy, flaunt- 
ing, flashy, garish, tawdry, glit- 
tering, tinsel ; merry, lively, jo- 
vial, cheerful, gleeful, blithe, 
sportive, airy, gladsome, frolic- 
some, jolly, hilarious, light- 
hearted; sprightly, smart, fes- 
tive, pleasuresome. 

ANT. Heavy, sad, grave, dull, 
dowdy, somber, melancholy. 

Gaze, v. Stare, scan, behold, re- 
gard, contemplate, view, gloat, 

ANT. Wink, ignore, overlook, 
ogle, glance, disregard. 

General, a. Ordinary, universal, 
common, commonplace, custom- 
ary, everyday, public, prevalent, 
familiar, normal, popular, ha- 
bitual, frequent, usual. 

ANT. Singular, uncommon, 
exceptional, rare, unknown, in- 
frequent, unusual; particular, 

Generality. Universality; bulk, 
mass, body, majority. 

ANT. Section, minority, ex- 
ception, individuality. 

Generate. Beget, procreate, en- 
gender, breed, propagate; pro- 
duce, form, make, cause, bring 
about, originate. 

ANT. Stifle, extinguish, ter- 
minate, annihilate. 

Generation. Procreation ; pro- 
duction, formation ; offspring, 
progeny, succession of descend- 
ants ; family, stock, race, breed ; 
contemporaries; period, epoch, 
age, era, lifetime; origination. 
ANT. Perpetuity, eternity, 
immortality; posterity. 

Generic. General, common, col- 
lective, racial, comprehensive. 

ANT. Particular, personal, 
specific, individual. 

Generous. Liberal, noble, mag- 
nanimous, bountiful, free, mu- 
nificent, open-handed, disinter- 

[ 134 ] 




ested, open-hearted, chivalrous, 

ANT. Avaricious, covetous, 
greedy, parsimonious, penuri- 
ous, petty, rapacious, stingy, 
close, illiberal, ignoble, mean, 
miserly, niggardly, churlish, 

Genial. Fostering, cheering, en- 
livening, encouraging, inspirit- 
ing; cordial, hearty; cheerful, 
pleasant, merry, mirthful, jo- 
vial, warm, balmy, festive, joy- 
ous, revivifying, rejuvenating, 

ANT. Cold, cutting, harsh, 
deleterious, noxious, deadly, de- 
structive, blighting, lethal, un- 

Genius. Bent, turn, aptitude, 
aptness, faculty, capacity, en- 
dowment, talent, gift; ingenu- 
ity, invention, sagacity, intel- 
lect, brains, parts, wit, inspira- 
tion, creative or inventive 
power; adept, proficient, mas- 
ter, master hand ; nature, char- 
acter, disposition, constitution, 
characteristic; spirit, tutelary 
deity, guardian angel; clever- 
ness, inventiveness, skill, crea- 
tiveness, giftedness, ideality, 

ANT. Stupidity, senseless- 
ness, folly, dulness, imbecil- 
ity, obtuseness, stolidity, in- 

Genteel. Refined, polite, courte- 
ous, civil, polished, well-bred, 
gentlemanly or ladylike; fash- 
ionable, stylish, elegant; grace- 
ful, refined, aristocratic, culti- 
vated, cultured. 

ANT. Rude, clownish, uncul- 
tivated, ill-bred, boorish, uncul- 
tured, plebeian, unfashionable, 
unpolished, inelegant. 
Gentle. Mild, bland, moderate, 
kind, tender, compassionate, in- 
dulgent, meek, soft, lenient, hu- 

mane, clement, merciful, tender- 
hearted, gentle-hearted; tame, 
docile, peaceable, calm, peace- 
ful, tranquil, tractable, pacific, 
quiet; light, zephyrlike; no- 
ble, high-born, well-born ; culti- 
vated, refined, courteous, well- 
bred, polished; placid, amiable. 
ANT. Rough, rude, coarse, 
fierce, savage; uneven, uncut; 
boisterous; shaggy, ragged, dis- 
ordered; harsh, uncivil, offen- 
sive; tempestuous, stormy; in- 

Genuine. Pure, uncorrupt, unal- 
loyed, unadulterated, true, au- 
thentic, real, veritable; native, 
unaffected, sincere; sound, nat- 

ANT. Spurious, adulterated; 
fictitious; apocryphal, counter- 
feit, false, artificial. 

Germ. Embryo, ovule, seed-bud ; 
origin, source, first principle; 
nucleus, seed, bud. 

ANT. Fruit, result, develop- 
ment, product, produce, issue, 

Germane. Related, akin, oog- 
nate, allied; pertinent, rele- 
vant, appropriate, apposite, fit- 
ting, suitable; kindred, homo- 

ANT. Foreign, alien, irrele- 
vant, unconnected. 

Germinate. Bud, shoot, vege- 
tate, sprout, push, burst forth, 
put forth, spring up. 

ANT. Rot, decay, spoil, die, 
putrefy, corrupt. 

Get. Attain, earn, achieve, ac- 
quire, obtain, procure, receive, 
win, secure, gain. 

Jan. Abandon, lose, forfeit, 
surrender, forego. 

Ghastly. Pale, wan, cadaverous, 
deathlike; grim, dismal, hide- 
ous, terrible, horrible, frightful, 
shocking, grisly; spectral, pal- 

[ 135 ] 




ANT. Blooming, fresh, ruddy, 
comely, buxom, seemly. 

Ghost. Spirit, soul; apparition, 
specter, sprite, phantom, shade, 
departed spirit; vision. 

ANT. Body, organism, ani- 

Gibe. Sneer, scoff, taunt, flount. 
jest, jeer, ridicule, deride, mock, 
rail at. 

ANT. Salute, compliment. 

Giddy. Dizzy, vertiginous; in- 
constant, fickle, changeable, un- 
steady, mutable, unstable, vac- 
illating, irresolute ; careless, 
heedless, wild, reckless, head- 
long, thoughtless, light-headed, 
flighty; whirling, hare-brained, 
beetling, flighty. 

ANT. Slow, ponderous, sta- 
tionary; earnest, thoughtful, 
steady; low, wary, unelevated, 

Gift. Bequest, benefaction, do- 
nation, boon, grant, present, 
largess, bribe, bounty, gratu- 
ity; endowment, talent, genius, 
faculty, power, capacity, capa- 
bility, ability, turn, forte; do- 
nation, douceur, offering, alms, 
allowance, contribution, sub- 
scription, subsidy, dower, leg- 
sty, demise. 

ANT. Reservation, refusal, 
purchase; inanity, stupidity, 
forfeit, penalty, fine, surren- 
der; earnings, wages, remuner- 
ation, Compensation; reward, 

Gigantic. Vast, huge, colossal, 
enormous, giant, prodigious, 
Herculean, C yclopean, immense, 

ANT. Puny, feeble, dwarfish, 
petty, tn.s : illcnnt, pigmy. 

Girdle. GiH, bind round; sur- 
round, encircle, encompass, en- 
close, embrace, shut in ; belt, 
hem, environ, engirdle, begird. 
ANT. Disclose, open, disen- 

circle, ea>pand, ungird, disen- 

Girl. Damsel, lass, lassie, miss, 
maiden, maid, virgin, young; 
unmarried woman. 

Gist. Essence, pith, core, marrow, 
substance, kernel, main point, 
force, ground, foundation. 

ANT. Surplusage, addita- 
ment, redundancy, environ' 
ment; accessories; clothing, 
garb; excess, overplus. 

Give. Deliver, bestow, supply, 
grant, cede, confer, communi- 
cate, impart, furnish; produce, 
yield, surrender, concede, pre- 
sent, afford, spare, accommo- 
date with ; pay, exchange ; per- 
mit, allow, vouchsafe, deign; 
utter, pronounce, render; occa- 
sion, cause ; devote, apply, ad- 
dict, give up; sink, bend; re- 
treat, give way, recede, retire. 

ANT. Withhold, withdraw, 
refuse, retain, grasp, fail, re- 
strain, deny, take back, remove, 
recall; take, receive, accept; 
hold, support. 

Glad. Rejoiced, pleased, grati- 
fied, delighted, happy, well-con- 
tented; cheerful, joyous, joyful, 
gladsome, elated, jocund, play- 
ful, light-hearted, cheery, ani- 
mated; exhilarating, pleasing, 
bright, gratifying; blithesome, 

ANT. Unhappy, sad, sorrow- 
ful, disastrous, sorry, dismal, 
disappointed, discontented, un- 

Gladden. Delight, cheer, exhil- 
arate, bless, rejoice, gratify, 
make glad. 

ANT. Grieve, disappoint, de- 
press, dispirit, trouble, wound, 
afflict, sadden, displease. 

Glare. Glitter, glisten, dazzle, 
flare, gleam, sparkle; glower, 
look fierce; beam, shine, glow, 
ray, radiate. 

[ 136 ] 




ANT. Shimmer, scintillate, 
waver, glimmer, smolder, burn 
fitfully, flash, flicker, glister j 
obscure, darken. 

Glassy. Vitreous; crystal, crys- 
talline, transparent, gleaming, 
lucent, brilliant, shining; 
smooth, polished, glacial, gla- 
brous, brittle, pellucid, limpid, 
glossy, silken. 

ANT. Rough, uneven, pli- 
ant, rugged, tough, opaque, tur- 
bid, muddy, dull, dark. 
Glaze, v. Set glass; calender, 
polish, burnish, gloss, furbish : 
become glassy, grow dim; vit- 

ANT. Roughen, corrugate, 
rumple, crumple, wrinkle, fur- 

Glimpse, n. Glance, glimmer- 
ing, sight, inkling, flash, sur- 
vey, trace, tinge. 

ANT. Observation, scrutiny, 
investigation, inspection, ex- 
posure, analysis, examination. 
Gloom. Obscurity, darkness, 
dimness, gloominess, cloud; de- 
jection, sadness, depression, des- 
pondency, melancholy ; gloam- 
ing, twilight, shadow, obscura- 
tion, dulness, cloudiness. 

ANT. Light, radiance, clear- 
ness, daylight, brightness. 
Glorify. Extol, exalt, magnify, 
bless, honor, praise; brighten, 
make illustrious, elevate, en- 
noble, adorn; laud, signalize, 
aggrandize, panegyrize. 

ANT. Debase, depress, abuse, 
abase, defame, degrade, decry, 
censure, blame, rebuke. 
Glorious. Illustrious, renowned, 
celebrated, eminent, famed, fa- 
mous, distinguished, conspicu- 
ous; resplendent, splendid, ra- 
diant, bright, brilliant; noble, 
lofty, exalted, supreme, high, 
excellent, consummate. 

ANT. Mean, debased, undis- 

tinguished, disgraced, unknown, 
dishonorable, inglorious. 

Glory. Honor, renown, celebrity, 
fame, praise; splendor, luster, 
brightness, brilliancy, pride, ef- 
fulgence ; gloriousness, noble- 
ness, exaltation, grandeur; ra- 
diance, state, pomp, parade,, 

ANT. Obscurity, cloud, ig- 
nominy, dishonor, degradation^ 
disgrace, shame. 

Gloss, n. Interpretation, com- 
ment, note, explanation, scho- 
lium, commentary, annotation; 
pretext, pretense, specious plea; 
luster, polish, shine, sheen; dis- 
tortion, misinterpretation, per- 
version, twist, plea, specious- 

ANT. Haze, nebulousness / 
truth, Uteralness, representa- 
tion, reality, verity, actuality, 
solution, exposition. 

Glowing. Shining, hot, intense, 
ardent, excited, fiery, fervid, 

ANT. Cool, languid, dispas- 
sionate, dull, apathetic, chill- 

Glut, n. Repletion, superabun- 
dance, surplus, overplus, re- 
dundancy, overstock, superflu- 

ANT. Scarcity, want, scanti- 
ness, dearth, failure, drainage, 

Glut, v. Cloy, sate, satiate, pall, 
surfeit; gorge, cram, stuff, fill, 
overfeed, make replete. 

ANT. Empty, void, disgorge, 
eject, discharge, vomit. 

Gluttony. Voracity, greed, gor- 
inandizement, deglutition. 

ANT. Abstinence, abstemi- 
ousness, temperance, frugality. 

Go. Move, pass, proceed, advance, 
progress ; walk, travel, journey, 
fare; depart, set out, leave; 
reach, extend; contribute, con- 

[ 137 ] 




cur, tend, avail ; eventuate, turn 
out; be esteemed, be reckoned; 
accept, approve, endure, toler- 
ate, swallow, bear; stir, budge. 
ANT. Stand, stay, come, re- 
main, rest, endure, persist, lack, 
abide, fail. 

Good, n. Benefit, gain, advan- 
tage, utility, profit; welfare, 
weal, prosperity, interest; vir- 
tue, righteousness, excellence ; 
abundance, riclies; boon, bless- 
ing, mercy. 

ANT. Hurt, loss, detriment, 
injury, evil, disadvantage, ill, 
calamity, affliction, infliction, 

Good, a. Advantageous, service- 
able, profitable, useful, benefi- 
cial; suitable, fit, convenient, 
proper, well-adapted; upright, 
virtuous, worthy, pious, dutiful, 
righteous, religious; excellent, 
valuable, precious, sterling, ad- 
mirable, capital ; kind, humane, 
benevolent, friendly, favorable, 
gracious, merciful, obliging, 
well -disposed; fair, unblem- 
ished, untarnished, unsullied, 
immaculate, honorable, unim- 
peached; cheerful, lively, social, 
genial, companionable ; able, 
skilful, expert, ready, dexter- 
ous, well-qualified; competent; 
pleasant, gratifying, agreeable; 
considerable; real, true, seri- 
ous, unfeigned ; right, complete, 
sound, propitious, efficient, suf- 
ficient, valid, actual, reputable, 

ANT. Bad, wrong, evil, ill, 
wicked, depraved, imperfect, un- 
sound, vicious, profane, nig- 
gardly, unpropitious, unservice- 
able, unsuitable, inefficient, in- 
competent, inadequate, invalid, 
fictitious, supposititious, incon- 
siderable, mean, disreputable, 
disgraceful; baneful, mischiev- 
ous, pernicious, injurious, hurt- 

ful; abandoned, corrupt, im- 
moral, unprincipled, dishonest, 
unfair, villainous; unfortunate, 
unlucky, unhappy; unwelcome, 
sad, depressing, discouraging, 
distressing; wretched, sorry, 
abominable; inferior, defective; 
severe, serious, hard, heavy. 

Good-by. Farewell, adieu. 

ANT. Salutation, welcome, 
hail, greeting. 

Good-humored. Cheerful, buoy- 
ant, placid, amiable, good-na- 
tured, good-tempered. 

ANT. Cross, ill-humored, ill- 
natured, unamiable, petulant, 
fretful, peevish. 

Goodly. Graceful, comely, beau- 
tiful, good-looking; pleasant, 
happy, agreeable, desirable; ex- 
cellent, fair, fine; considerable. 
ANT. Unpleasant, undesir- 
able, inconsiderable, uncomely, 
ungainly, clumsy, aickicard. 

Gorgeous. Showy, glittering, 
splendid, shining, magnificent, 
resplendent, fine, rich, superb, 
dazzling; costly, grand, strong. 
ANT. Poor, naked, dingy, 
bare, threadbare, cheap; grimy, 
soiled; dull, obscure, dim. 

Govern. Manage, reign over, di- 
rect, command, control, rule, 
sway, influence, mold, restrain, 
curb, moderate, guide, super- 
vise, conduct; regulate, steer, 

ANT. Be subject, obey, sub- 
mit, comply, yield; misrule, 
misdirect, misconduct. 

Grace. Favor, kindness, conde- 
scension, love, benignity, good 
will; piety, devotion, sanctity, 
devoutness, faith, holiness, re- 
ligion; mercy, pardon, forgive- 
ness; elegance, polish, accom- 
plishment, refinement; beauty, 
symmetry, comeliness, graceful- 
ness, ease; short prajer; excel- 
lence, charm. 

[ 133 ] 


ANT. Disfavor, deformity, 
pride, unkindness, gawkiness, 
awkwardness, inelegance. 
Graceful. Beautiful, comely, ele- 
gant, stately, easy, natural, be- 
coming, flowing, rounded, sinu- 

ANT. Awkward, homely, un- 
couth, ugly, plain, gawky, un- 

Graceless. Depraved, degener- 
ate, corrupt, reprobate, disso- 
lute, profligate, lost, abandoned, 
hardened, obdurate, shameless, 
incorrigible, wicked, irreclaim- 
able; ungraceful, scampish, vi- 
cious, worthless. 

ANT. Graceful, virtuous, up- 
right, conscientious, worthy; 
gracious, tender-hearted. 
Gracious. Benevolent, benign, 
kind, favorable, benignant, com- 
passionate, friendly, merciful, 
tender, lenient, condescending, 
mild, gentle; affable, familiar, 
civil, polite, easy, courteous, 

ANT. Haughty, discourteous, 
ungracious, ill-disposed, churl- 
ish, unfriendly, impolite. 
Gradation. Progress, progres- 
sion, succession ; graduation, 
precedency, arrangement, ordi- 
nation, standing, rank, degree, 
stage, tier. 

ANT. Equality, uniformity, 
fraternity; abruptness, break, 

Gradual. Regular, progressive; 
slow, approximate; continuous, 
unintermittent, step by step, 

ANT. Sudden, momentary, in- 
stantaneous, periodic, intermit- 
tent, recurrent, broken, discon- 
tinuous, disconnected. 
Grand. Stately, lordly, princely, 
august, exalted, majestic, ele- 
vated, illustrious, eminent, dig- 
nified, great, high ; magnificent, 

glorious, superb, splendid, lofty, 
noble, sublime; principal, chief, 
main, leading, supreme; large, 
imposing, important, eventful, 
pompous, gorgeous. 

ANT. Little, undignified, un~ 
imposing, inferior, petty, pal- 
try, secondary, unimportant, in- 
significant, mean, common, beg- 
garly, contemptible, small. 

Grandeur. Greatness, vastness, 
loftiness, elevation, immensity; 
state, dignity, majesty, stateli- 
ness, pomp, augustness, splen- 
dor; magnificence, display, os- 

ANT. Meanness, paltriness? 
humiliation, shame, disgrace. 

Grandiloquence. Bombast, fua- 
tian, turgidity; verbosity, pom- 
posity, mouthiness, grandiosity, 
antiloquence, stiltedness, eu- 

ANT. Simplicity, naivet6, un- 
affectedness; vernacular. 

Grant. Yield, admit, concede, al- 
low; give, bestow, confer, deign, 
vouchsafe ; convey, transfer ; al- 
lot, accord, cede, impart. 

ANT. Withhold, withdraw, 
reserve, resume, deny, refuse. 

Graphic. Vivid, lively, pictur- 
esque, well-drawn, striking, tell- 
ing; illustrative, pictorial, de- 
scriptive, forcible, feeling; de- 

ANT. Undcscrlptive, unillus- 
trative, unpicturcsque ; hazy f 
obscure, indefinite. 

Grasp. Clasp, gripe, seize, grip,, 
grapple, catch, clutch, clinch,, 
lay hold of; hold, retain, com- 

ANT. Loose, lose, abandon, 
relinquish, surrender, release, 
miss, misunderstand. 

Grateful. Obliged, thankful, in- 
debted, beholden ; agreeable, ac- 
ceptable, pleasing, pleasant, de- 
lightful, gratifying, welcome,. 

C 1: 



charming, satisfying; delicious, 
savory, nice, cordial, luscious, 
refreshing, invigorating; com- 
forting, soothing, alleviating. 

ANT. Unpleasant, unaccept- 
able, disobliged, ungrateful, dis- 

Gratification. Satisfaction, in- 
dulgence; enjoyment, delight, 
pleasure, fruition; reward, rec- 

ANT. Pain, dislike, disap- 
pointment, abstinence, stinting, 
discipline, inurement, abnega- 

Gratify. Please, delight, glad- 
den; indulge, satisfy, humor, 

ANT. Displease, dissatisfy, 
stint, deprive, deny, discipline. 

Gratitude. Thankfulness, obli- 
gation, gratefulness. 

ANT. Thanklessness, ingrati- 
tude, ungratefulness, unthank- 
fulness, resentment, oblivion, 

Gratuitous. Free, voluntary, 
uncompensated, groundless, un- 
warranted, unsought, unneces- 
sary ; spontaneous, baseless, un- 

ANT. Compulsory, involun- 
tary, obligatory, necessitated, 
warranted, well-founded; un- 
willing, enforced, enjoined. 

Grave, a. Important, weighty, 
serious, cogent, momentous ; so- 
ber, sedate, thoughtful, staid, 
solemn; plain, subdued, quiet, 
silent; sad, pressing, demure, 
Bomber, aggravated, heavy. 

ANT. Joyous, merry, unim- 
portant, facetious, ridiculous, 
trivial, light, frivolous, futile, 
trifling, petty, slight. 

Great. Large, big, vast, huge, 
bulky, ample, immense, gigan- 
tic, enormous; much, excessive, 
high ; numerous, countless ; con- 
siderable, important, weighty; 

distinguished, eminent, exalted, 
prominent, excellent, elevated, 
celebrated, noted, famed, illus- 
trious, famous, renowned; au- 
gust, grand, dignified, noble, 
sublime, majestic, lofty; gener- 
ous, magnanimous, chivalrous, 
high-minded; sumptuous, rich, 
magnificent; difficult, onerous, 
hard, burdensome, grievous ; 
chief, principal, main, leading, 
grand; superior, preeminent; 
protracted, noticeable. 

ANT. Little, narrow, scanty, 
puny, few, short, mean, ignoble, 
weak, unimportant. 

Greediness. Avidity, hunger, vo- 
racity, ravenousness, gluttony; 
eagerness, longing, greed, in- 
tense desire; grasping, avarice, 
rapacity, selfishness. 

ANT. Generosity, prodigal- 
ity, benevolence. 

Greedy. Voracious, ravenous, in- 
satiable, gluttonous, insatiate, 
rapacious; eager, desirous ; self- 
ish, grasping, avaricious; 

ANT. Abstemious, abstinent, 
contented, apathetic, indiffer- 
ent; generous, unselfish. 

Grief. Bitterness, misery, agony, 
anguish, heartache, heartbreak ; 
trial, grievance ; melancholy, 
sadness, sorrow, trouble, tribu- 
lation, woe, mourning, affliction, 
distress, regret. 

ANT. Happiness, joy, ela- 
tion, delight, hilarity, exulta- 
tion, cheer, mirth, gaiety. 

Grievance. Hardship, wrong, 
injury, burden, oppression ; af- 
fliction, trial, sorrow, grief, dis- 
tress, woe; complaint, trouble, 

ANT. Congratulation, boon, 
benefit, rejoicing, privilege, al- 
leviation, riddance, disburden- 

Grieve. Afflict, pain, hurt, dis- 

t 140 1 



tress, sadden, agonize; sorrow, 
mourn, lament, suffer, bewail ; 
burden, annoy, wound, com- 
plain, deplore. 

ANT. Ease, soothe, console, 
please, rejoice, exult, alleviate, 
gratify, content, satisfy. 
Grievous. Sad, heavy, distress- 
ing, afflictive, painful, deplor- 
able, lamentable; hurtful, in- 
jurious, noxious, mischievous, 
detrimental, calamitous; atro- 
cious, heinous, outrageous, in- 
tolerable, dreadful, flagrant, 
aggravated ; sorrowful, baleful, 
burdensome, unhappy, disas- 

ANT. Pleasant, joyous, de- 
lightful, glad, consolatory, ac- 
ceptable, welcome, grateful, 
light, trivial, trifling. 
Grim. Fierce, ruthless, cruel, 
savage, ferocious; frightful, 
horrible, hideous, dire, horrid, 
appalling, terrific, dreadful; 
ugly, ghastly, sullen, stern. 

ANT. Mild, attractive, be- 
nign, placid, docile. 
Gross. Great; large, big, bulky: 
dense, thick; coarse, rough, 
rude, unrefined, unseemly, un- 
becoming; indelicate, sensual, 
impure, vulgar, low, broad ; 
enormous, flagrant, shameful, 
outrageous, grievous ; palpable, 
manifest, glaring; whole, total, 
entire, aggregate; vicious, ani- 
mal, bloated. 

ANT. Partial, component; 
net ; refined, pure; elegant, deli- 
cate, subtle. 

Grotesque. Fantastic, whimsi- 
cal, fanciful, droll, odd, unnat- 
ural,, wild, bizarre, ex- 
travagant; ludicrous, absurd, 
ridiculous, antic, burlesque; 
quaint, old, archaic, distorted, 

AXT. Classic, chaste, grace- 
ful, fine, severe, regular, fash- 

ionable, symmetrical, typical,, 
formal, normal. 

Ground. Basis, base, ground- 
work, support, foundation ; sod, 
soil, clod, earth, loam, turf; 
region, territory, country, land, 
domain; estate, acres, field; 
motive, consideration, reason,, 
cause, account, inducement; 
premise, plea. 

ANT. Superstructure, state- 
ment, argument, inference, de- 
duction; product, development , 
result, effect; ocean, sea, deep t 
main, waters. 

Grounded. Rooted, established, 
initiated, inaugurated, trained, 
prepared, fixed, set; indoctri- 

ANT. Ungrounded, unpre- 
pared, uninitiated, baseless, un- 
founded, groundless, unauthor- 

Groundless. Vain, suppositi- 
tious, unfounded, false, base- 
less, fanciful, chimerical, gra- 

ANT. Well-founded, author- 
itativc, substantial, actual, au- 

Group. Cluster, collection, assem- 
blage, order, bunch, knot, class, 
clump, assembly, collocation. 

AXT. Individual, crowd, iso- 
lation, medley, confusion; dis- 
persion, distribution, scatter- 

Grovel. Creep, crawl, sneak, be 
prone, fawn, cringe, lie, grub, 

ANT. Soar, aspire, mount, 
rise, domineer, intimidate, dic- 
tate, broicbcat. 

Grow. Enlarge, increase, swell, 
expand, extend, augment; veg- 
etate, shout, sprout, germinate; 
advance, wax, progress, im- 
prove; adhere; raise, produce, 
cultivate ; accrue, become, de- 
velop, amplify. 

[ 141 ] 


ANT. Diminish, recede, con- 
tract, fail, stop, die, wane, de- 
cline, subside, ebb, decay, depre- 
ciate, crumble, weaken. 
Grudge, n. Hatred, pique, ran- 
cor, spite, malice, malevolence; 
grievance, aversion, dissatisfac- 
tion, discontent, refusal. 

ANT. Welcome, satisfaction, 
approval, contentment, bene- 
faction, complacency, bestowal. 
Guardian. Warden, keeper, pro- 
tector, defender, preserver ; cus- 
todian, conservator. 

ANT. Pupil, ward; traitor, 
betrayer; charge, minor. 
Guess. Conjecture, divine, sur- 
mise, mistrust, suspect; find 
out, solve, penetrate, fathom; 
suppose, think, believe, fancy, 
imagine; hazard, risk. 

ANT. Examine, prove, inves- 
tigate, establish, demonstrate, 
deduce, elaborate, illustrate. 
Guide, n. Director, conductor, 
pilot ; mentor, monitor, adviser, 
instructor, counselor; clue, 
key; itinerary. 

ANT. Follower, disciple, im- 
itator, pupil. 

Guide, v. Lead, conduct, pilot; 
direct, rule, manage, regulate, 
govern, control, steer; superin- 
tend, influence, train. 

ANT. Mislead, misconduct, 
misdirect, mismanage, misregu- 
late, misguide, miseducate, be- 
tray, deceive, impose upon, dis- 
appoint, cheat. 

Guile. Cunning, craft, subtlety, 
artifice, artfulness, deceit, du- 

plicity, deception, fraud, wiles, 
trickery; treachery, insidious- 
ness, hypocrisy. 

ANT. Frankness, simplicity, 
honesty, candor, generosity, sin 
cerity, truth, veracity. 

Guilt. Guiltiness, culpability, 
criminality; wrong, offensive- 
ness, wickedness, ill desert, in* 
iquity, sin, offense. 

ANT. Sinlessness, innocence^ 
purity, godliness, righteous- 

Guise. Aspect, appearance, garb, 
dress, form, shape, figure, man- 
ner, mode, fashion; practice, 
habit, custom; semblance, plea, 
demeanor, mien. 

ANT. Character, person, in- 
dividual, sentiment, disposition, 
opinion, life, mind, soul, self. 

Gumption. Shrewdness, discern- 
ment, sagacity, skill, cleverness, 
ability, capacity, power, pene- 
tration, common sense. 

Gush, v. Burst, stream, flow, 
rush, spout, pour out, flow out; 
sentimentalize, be overeffusive. 
ANT. Drip, drop, filter, ooze, 
percolate, dribble, drain, strain, 

Gust. Taste, relish, zest, liking; 
pleasure, enjoyment, delight, 
delectation, gratification; turn, 
fancy, favor; blast, squall; fit, 
outburst, burst, paroxysm ; 
puff, breeze, gale. 

ANT. Calm, tranquillity, sub- 
sidence, composure, restraint, 
zephyr; insipidity, tasteless- 

t 142 ] 




Habiliment. Dress, garments, 
clothes, apparel, vesture, rai- 
ment, habit, costume, vestment, 
garb, robes, uniform, cloth- 

ANT. Undress, nudity, bare- 
ness, deshabille, divestment. 

Habit. Condition, constitution, 
temperament; way, manner; 
dress, garb, habiliment; habit- 
uation, familiarity, association, 
inurement; routine, rule, cus- 
tom, fashion, practice, system, 
habitude, use, usage, wont. 

ANT. Dishabituation, inex- 
perience, inconversance, desue- 
tude, disuse, breach, infringe- 
ment, disusage. 

Habitation. Abode, dwelling, 
lodging, domicil, headquar- 
ters, quarters, dwelling-place. 

Habitual. Usual, customary, 
wonted, common, accustomed, 
regular, ordinary, familiar, 
everyday, perpetual. 

ANT. Irregular, extraordi- 
nary, unusual, occasional, ex- 
ceptional, rare. 

Haggard. Wild, wayward, in- 
tractable, refractory, unruly, 
untamed; gaunt, lean, spare, 
meager, worn, wasted, raw- 
boned ; attenuated, wrinkled, 
ghastly, hollow-eyed. 

ANT. Sleek, smug, plump, 
chubby, comely, nightly, pretty. 

Hail. Accost, address, salute, 
greet, welcome, call, speak, sig- 

ANT. Ignore, avoid, pass, 
cut, disdain, insult, rebuff. 

Halcyon. Calm, quiet, placid, 
still, peaceful, tranquil, undis- 
turbed, unruffled, palmy, se- 
rene, happy, golden, balmy. 
ANT. Stormy, tempestuous, 

troublous, boisterous, bluster- 
ing, turbulent, violent. 

Hale. Healthy, sound, strong, 
robust, hearty, hardy, well. 
ANT. Feeble, sickly, weak. 

Half, n. Bisection, dimidiation, 

ANT. Integrity, total, whole, 
entirety, sum, amount, aggre- 
gate, quantity, number. 

Hallow. Consecrate, dedicate, 
sanctify, devote, make holy; 
reverence, venerate, honor, re- 
spect, pay homage to, enshrine. 
ANT. Desecrate, profane, ex~ 
ecrate, blaspheme, abominate. 

Halt. Stop, hold, stand, pull up j 
limp, hobble; rest, falter, ham- 
per, stammer, demur, dubitate, 
pause, stand still, hesitate. 

ANT. Advance, flow, speed; 
determine, decide, conclude, fin- 

Hamper. Hinder, fetter, en- 
tangle, shackle, clog, encum- 
ber, restrain, impede. 

ANT. Free, liberate, loose; 
expedite, hasten, speed, accel- 

Hand. Palm and fingers; side, 
direction, part; skill, dexterity, 
talent, ability, faculty; handi- 
work, workmanship; man- 
agement, course; asrency, share, 
intervention, participation; la- 
borer, workman, operative, ar- 
tificer, artisan, craftsman, em- 
ployee; possession, power, con- 
trol; index, pointer, indicator; 
chirography, handwriting; in- 
fluonce; handful, bunch. 
ANT. Employer. 

Handle. Touch, feel, take; man- 
age, use. wield; treat, discuss, 
discourse; deal with; operate,, 

[ H3 1 




ANT. Drop, bungle, misman- 
age, botch, spoil, mar. 
Handsome. Comely, stately, 
well-formed, fine-looking; easy, 
graceful, becoming, appropri- 
ate; generous, liberal, noble, 
magnanimous, disinterested; 
ample, sufficient, large, plenti- 
ful; beautiful, pretty, lovely, 

ANT. Uncomely, ill-looking, 
ungenerous, illiberal, ugly, un- 
sightly, ghastly. 

Handy. Dexterous, adroit, skil- 
ful, skilled, ready, clever, ex- 
pert; convenient, near, at hand. 

ANT. Remote, inconvenient, 
umoieldy, cumbrous, awkward, 
useless, unhandy. 
Hang. Rest, lean, depend, poise, 
suspend; attach, incline, drop, 
decline, droop; execute; drape, 
adorn; dangle, be suspended, 
adhere, rely, stick, cling; hover, 
float, play; attend. 

ANT. Stand, recline, lean, 
lie; prop, support, uphold. 
Happen. Chance, occur, befall, 
bechance, betide, fall, come to 
pass, fall out, take place, super- 

ANT. Miss, omit, fail, pass, 
spare, pass by, neglect, dis- 

Happiness. Delight/ joy, pleas- 
ure, satisfaction, comfort, bliss, 
triumph, mirth, gaiety, ecstasy, 
gladness, rejoicing, rapture, 
contentment, merriment, bless- 
edness, felicity, cheer, enjoy- 
ment, well-being, light-hearted- 
ness, cheerfulness, brightness; 
beatitude, prosperity. 

ANT. Grief, sorrow, anguish, 
trouble, mourning, misfortune, 
affliction, disaster, woe, agony, 
distress, torture, torment, mel- 

Happy. Gay, glad, joyous, cheer- 
ful, blessed, delighted, joyful, 

jolly, successful, rejoicing, 
blissful, lucky, merry, fortu- 
nate, rejoiced, jocund, buoy- 
ant, felicitous, bright, blithe- 
some, sunny, cheering, cheery, 
sprightly, delightful, smiling, 
mirthful, pleased, prosperous, 
rapturous; light-hearted, blest, 
gladdened, charmed; ready, ex- 
pert, apt, skilful, adroit, able, 
dexterous ; seasonable, oppor- 
tune, befitting, pertinent, well- 
timed ; auspicious, propitious, 

ANT. Unlucky, unfortuna,te, 
unsuccessful, infelicitous, sor- 
rowful, sorry, dull, lugubrious, 
disappointed, desponding, un- 

Harangue. Speech, public or 
formal address, oration; bom- 
bast, declamation, tirade, 
screed; effusion, rant. 

ANT. Mumble, drawl, insinu- 
ation, suggestion, stammering, 
reasoning, blandiloquence, stut- 

Harass. Fatigue, tire, weary, 
annoy, exhaust; vex, plague, 
worry, distress, trouble, molest, 
disturb, torment, harry; jade, 
tease, irritate, chafe, harrow, 
pester, perplex. 

ANT. Relieve, refresh, com- 
fort, solace, soothe, animate, in- 

Harbinger. Herald, forerunner, 
precursor, announcer. 

ANT. Reporter, narrator, fol- 
lower, attendant, historian, re- 

Harbor, n. Asylum, refuge, shel- 
ter, cover, retreat, sanctuary, 
resting-place; port, haven, des- 
tination, home, anchorage. 

ANT. Labor, toil, peril, ex- 
posure, roving, wandering, voy- 
age, roaming, pilgrimage. 

Harbor, v. Shelter, lodge, pro- 
tect; entertain, indulge, foster, 

E 144 ] 




cherish; secrete; accommodate, 

ANT. Eject, expel, discard, 
discourage, stifle, exclude, ban- 
ish, dismiss. 

Hard. Firm, solid, compact, im- 
penetrable, rigid, unyielding ; 
difficult, embarrassing, knotty, 
puzzling, intricate, perplexing; 
laborious, arduous, toilsome, 
wearying, fatiguing; unkind, 
insensible, cruel, oppressive, 
rigorous, severe, exacting, in- 
flexible, obdurate, callous, un- 
feeling, unsympathetic; griev- 
ous, distressing, painful, calam- 
itous, unpleasant, disagreeable; 
inclement, stormy, cold, severe, 
tempestuous; harsh, sour, acid, 
rough ; coarse, unpalatable ; un- 
favorable, unprosperous, unpro- 
pitious; stiff, unnatural, forced, 
constrained, ungraceful ; exces- 
sive, intemperate; inexplicable, 
flinty, dense, stubborn, hardy, 

ANT. Soft, fluid, liquid, elas- 
tic, brittle, easy, penetrable, 
mild, lenient, tender, ductile, 
simple, uninvolved, intelligible, 

Harden. Indurate, make hard; 
habituate, inure, season, form, 
train, accustom, discipline; for- 
tify, strengthen, steel, nerve, 
brace ; scar, make callous, make 
obdurate; consolidate, compact. 
ANT. Disinure, relax, ener- 
vate, debilitate, soften, disha- 
bituate, melt, mollify, vaporize, 

Hardihood. Firmness, fortitude, 
resolution, mettle, pluck, man- 
hood, courage, bravery, bold- 
ness, intrepidity, audacity, de- 
cision, determination; effron- 
tery, assurance, brass. 

ANT. Weakness, effeminacy ; 
timidity, fear; indecision; cow- 

Hardly. Scarcely, barely, just; 
severely, rigorously, unkindly, 
roughly, cruelly; merely, nar- 

ANT. Fully, amply, easily, 
abundantly, largely. 

Hardship. Toil, fatigue, weari- 
ness ; grievance, suffering, trial, 
affliction, trouble, misfortune, 
calamity, burden, hardness ; an- 
noyance, infliction, endurance. 

ANT. Pleasure, amusement, 
alleviation, recreation, gratifi- 
cation, relief, assuagement, fa- 
cilitation, treat, boon. 

Hardy. Bold, intrepid, resolute, 
brave, daring, valiant, heroic, 
manly, stout-hearted, coura- 
geous; strong, robust, firm, 
lusty, stout, healthy, rigorous, 
hale, sound, hearty; inured, 

ANT. Weak, uninured, irres- 
olute, delicate, debilitated, ten- 
der, fragile, frail, infirm. 

Harm. Injury, hurt, detriment, 
mischief, damage, prejudice, 
disadvantage ; evil, criminality, 
wrong, wickedness; misfortune, 
ill, mishap. 

ANT. Benefit, boon, amelio- 
ration, improvement, compen- 
sation, reparation, remedy, 

Harmless. Innocuous, innocent, 
innoxious, gentle, inoffensive ; 
unhurt, unharmed, uninjured. 

ANT. Noxious, hurtful, noc- 
uous, savage, cruel, deadly, mis- 
chievous, violent, pernicious, 

Harmonious. Concordant, har- 
monic, consonant; melodious, 
tuneful, musical, dulcet, mellif- 
luous ; correspondent, consis- 
tent, symmetrical, congruent; 
friendly, cordial, amicable, fra- 
ternal, brotherly, neighborly ; 
accordant, proportioned, uni- 
form, peaceful, agreeable. 

[ 145 ] 




ANT. Discordant, incongru- 
ous, unsJiapely, harsh, dispro- 
portioned, unmelodious, sharp, 
grating, riotous, unfriendly, 
unpeaceful, quarrelsome. 

Harmony. Concord, amity, ac- 
cordance, unison, consent, un- 
animity, unity, accord, agree- 
ment, uniformity, symmetry, 
union, conformity, consonance, 
congruity, concurrence, consis- 

ANT. Hostility, separation, 
discord, warfare, battle, vari- 
ance, conflict, disagreement, 
disunion, dissension, conten- 
tion, antagonism, contest, con- 
troversy, schism, opposition, 
incongruity, difference, incon- 
sistency, disproportion. 

Harsh. Rough, sour, crabbed, 
tart, hard, biting, sharp, cor- 
rosive, caustic; grating, dis- 
cordant, jarring; morose, se- 
vere, stern, austere, acrimoni- 
ous, ill-natured, unkind, un- 
feeling; rude, uncivil, blunt, un- 
gracious, gruff, brutal, bearish ; 
abusive, rigorous, rancorous. 

ANT. Smooth, lenient, me- 
lodious, genial, kindly, suave, 
bland, gentle. 

Harvest. Fruit, crop, increase, 
yield, result, return, proceeds, 
product, growth, ingathering, 
harvest-feast, harvest-festival, 
harvest-time, harvest-home. 

Haste. Despatch, celerity, speed, 
promptitude, quickness; hurry, 
precipitation, vehemence, pre- 
cipitance ; expedition, excite- 
ment, heedlessness, swiftness. 

ANT. Delay, slowness, tardi- 
ness, coolness, reflection, mod- 
eration, steadiness. 

Hasten. Expedite, despatch, ac- 
celerate, speed, hurry, hustle, 
quicken, precipitate, press on, 
urge forward; haste, make 
haste; urge, press. 

ANT. Retard, impede, ob- 
struct, demur, halt, hesitate. 
Hasty. Quick, swift, fleet, fast, 
rapid, brisk, speedy; cursory, 
slight, hurried, superficial; 
headlong, rash, reckless, pre- 
cipitate, indiscreet, thought- 
less; passionate, touchy, irri- 
table, petulant, waspish, ex- 
citable, fiery, hot, irascible, 
peppery, fretful ; impetuous, 
crude, incomplete, immature, 

ANT. Tardy, slow, leisurely, 
careful, reflective, developed, 
complete, matured, elaborate, 
thoughtful, deliberate. 
Hateful. Malignant, malevo- 
lent, malign; abominable, de- 
testable, odious, execrable, ab- 
horrent, horrid, shocking, ac- 
cursed, damnable ; loathsome, 
disgusting, nauseous, foul, re- 
pulsive, offensive, vile, obnox- 
ious, revolting, repugnant; 

ANT. Lovely, loveable, de- 
sirable, delightful, attractive, 
enticing, enjoyable, tempting, 

Hatred. Enmity, dislike, hos- 
tility, anger, abhorrence, aver- 
sion, spite, revenge, grudge, ill 
will, malice, antipathy, resent- 
ment, animosity, malignity, re- 
pugnance, rancor, detestation, 

ANT. Friendship, love, be- 
nevolence, charity, beneficence. 
Have. Hold, occupy, own, pos- 
sess, be in possession of, re- 
gard, consider, esteem; wish, 
require, desire; obtain, get, ac- 
quire, receive, gain; be obliged, 
be under necessity; take, ac- 
cept; bear, bring forth; feel, 
entertain, enjoy, keep. 

ANT. Want, need, lose, dis- 
card, forego, miss, reject, covet, 

[ 146 ] 




Havoc. Ravage, devastation, 
destruction, desolation, waste, 
ruin; carnage, slaughter; dem- 
olition, wreck. 

ANT. Conservation, enrich- 
ment, enhancement, augmen- 
tation, development, prosper- 
ity, productiveness, luxuriance. 

Hazard, n. Chance, peril, ven- 
ture, risk, casualty, accident, 
contingency, danger, jeopardy, 

ANT. Safeguard, protection, 
security, surety, certainty, ne- 
cessity, plan, assurance, safety ; 
warrant, calculation, law. 

Hazy. Foggy, misty, nebulous, 
filmy, gauzy, cloudy, murky, 

ANT. Clear, crystalline, di- 
aphanous, transparent, bright, 
luminous, shining. 

Head. Top, summit, acme; 
front, fore part; rise, com- 
mencement, source, origin, be- 
ginning; chief part, principal 
part; person, individual; chief, 
chieftain, leader, commander, 
master, superintendent, direc- 
tor; first place; understand- 
ing, mind, thought, intellect; 
topic, subject; class, section, 
department, category, division; 
seat of the brain ; crown, ruler, 
crisis, gathering, culmination, 
leadership, guide. 

ANT. Tail, bottom, foot, fol- 
loicer, servant, retainer, sub- 
ordinate, subordination, inferi- 
ority, body, bulk, substance, 

Heal. Cure, remedy, restore; 
reconcile, compose, soothe, har- 
monize, settle; be cured, get 
well ; repair, assuage, cicatrize. 
ANT. Harm, hurt, wound, 
pierce, ulcerate. 

Healthy. Healthful, sanitary, 
hearty, hygienic, well, vigor- 
ous, strong, sound, wholesome, 

hale, salutary, salubrious, in- 
vigorating, bracing. 

ANT. Unhealthy, noxious, 
pernicious, insalubrious; ill, 
sickly, unhealthful, weak, dis- 
eased, feeble, wasted, emaci- 
ated, fainting, failing, unsound, 
worn, frail, fragile, exhausted, 

Heart. Organ of circulation; 
interior, center, essence, core, 
kernel ; disposition, mind, will, 
inclination, intent, passion, pur- 
pose; spirit, courage, firmness, 
fortitude, resolution; love, af- 
fection, feeling, emotion; con- 
science, character, moral na- 
ture; nucleus, hardihood, life, 

ANT. Rand, action, aspect, 
exterior, manifestation, deed, 
conduct, timidity. 

Heart-broken. Forlorn, dis- 
consolate, inconsolable, miser- 
able, wretched, desolate, cheer- 
less, comfortless, in despair, 
broken-hearted, wobegone. 

ANT. Cheerful, hopeful, 

Heartily. Cordially, zealously, 
sincerely, earnestly. 

ANT. Half-heartedly, insin- 
cerely, indifferently. 

Hearty. Earnest, warm, cor- 
dial, sincere, true, deep, pro- 
found, heartfelt, unfeigned; ac- 
tive, zealous, vigorous, ener- 
getic, animated; healthy, hale, 
sound, strong, well, robust; 
abundant, full, heavy; nour- 
ishing, rich, nutritious; hon- 
est, genuine. 

ANT. Delicate, infirm, un- 
healthy, cold, insincere, hol- 
low, dissembling, deceptive, de- 
ceitful, hypocritical, false. 

Heat. Warmth, high tempera- 
ture; excitement, flush, vehe- 
mence, impetuosity, passion, 
violence, fever; ardor, earnest- 

[ 147 ] 




ness, fervor, eeal; contest, race, 
struggle; intensity, ebullition. 
ANT. Coolness, indifference, 
calmness, subsidence, compo- 
sure, reflection. 

Heathenish. Heathen, pagan, 
Gentile; cruel, savage, inhu- 
man, ferocious ; unconverted, 
unChristian, unbelieving, un- 

ANT. Christian, believing, 
refined, civilized, polished. 

Heave. Lift, hoist, raise, ele- 
vate; breathe, exhale; throw, 
toss, hurl, fling, send; uplift, 
upraise, subelevate. 

ANT. Dash, sink, lower, de- 
trude, precipitate. 

Heaven. Firmament, sky, wel- 
kin, empyrean; Paradise, bliss, 
Elysium; felicity, transport, ec- 
stasy, happiness, rapture, tran- 
scendent delight. 

ANT. Gehenna, limbo, abyss, 
Hades, Tartarus, Avernus, in- 
fernal regions; misery, agony, 
torment, remorse. 

Heavenly. Celestial, divine, an- 
gelic, seraphic, cherubic, god- 
like, saintly, sainted, blessed, 
holy, beatific, beatified, glori- 
fied, blest; enrapturing, rav- 
ishing, rapturous, transport- 
ing, ecstatic, delightful, bliss- 
ful, golden. 

ANT. Demoniacal, diaboli- 
cal, foul, hideous, fiendish, hell- 
ish, infernal; terrene, human, 

Heavy. Weighty, ponderous, 
oppressive, grievous, severe, 
burdensome, cumbersome, af- 
flictive; dull, sluggish, inert, 
inactive, stupid, torpid, indo- 
lent, slow, lifeless, inanimate; 
dejected, depressed, sorrowful, 
sad, gloomy, despondent, mel- 
ancholy, disconsolate, crushed, 
do\vncast, crestfallen; onerous, 
difficult, laborious, hard; te- 

dious, weary, tiresome, weari- 
some ; loaded, encumbered, bur- 
dened; miry, muddy, clayey, 
cloggy. 8 ggy> ill-raised; tem- 
pestuous, stormy, strong, vio- 
lent, energetic, boisterous; im- 
penetrable, stolid; loud, deep, 
roaring; dense, dark, gloomy, 
cloudy, lowering; thick. 

ANT. Light, trifling, trivial, 
agile, active, joyous, brisk, al~ 
leviative, quick, consolatory, 
buoyant, inspiriting, animat- 

Hector. Threaten, bully, men- 
ace; vex, tease, annoy, worry, 
fret, irritate, provoke, harass, 
harry; swagger, bluster, boast, 

ANT. Cower, shrink, hide, 
abscond, skulk. 

Heed. Observe, regard, notice, 
mind, attend, harken to, listen 
to, obey, care, be wary or cau- 

ANT. Slight, ignore, disre- 
gard, neglect, omit, overlook. 

Heedful. Observing, regardful, 
watchful, careful, cautious, at- 
tentive, wary, provident, cir- 
cumspect, mindful. 

ANT. Heedless, careless, un- 
observing, thoughtless, unob- 
servant, inattentive, negligent, 
regardless, unmindful, neglect- 
ful, remiss, inconsiderate, pre- 
cipitate, reckless, headlong, 

Height. Altitude, elevation; 
eminence, summit, top, apex, 
acme; hill, mountain; exalta- 
tion, stature, dignity, lofti- 
ness, grandeur; tallness, cul- 
mination, crisis. 

ANT. Depth, lowness, de- 
pression, base, littleness, abase- 
ment ; profundity. 

Heighten. Elevate, raise; mag- 
nify, exalt, ennoble; increase, 
enhance, augment, improve; 




aggravate, intensify; color, ex- 
aggerate, vivify, amplify, lift 

ANT. Lower, diminish, de- 
press, abase, deteriorate, tem- 
per, tone, modify, qualify, ex- 

Heinous. Flagrant, flagitious, 
infamous, villainous, nefarious, 
wicked, atrocious, enormous, 
monstrous; hateful, detestable, 
odious, abominable, execrable. 

ANT. Excellent, laudable, dis- 
tinguished, praiseworthy, justi- 
fiable, meritorious, excusable. 

Help. Foster, aid, assist, encour- 
age, succor, uphold, sustain, 
support, abet, cooperate, sec- 
ond, stand by, befriend, rem- 
edy, prevent, avoid, promote, 

ANT. Obstruct, incur, resist, 
aggravate, oppose, thwart, dis- 
courage, iC'ithstand, counteract. 

Hereditary. Ancestral, patri- 
monial ; transmitted, inher- 
ited; lineal. 

ANT. Conferred, acquired, 
icon, achieved. 

Heresy. Heterodoxy, error, un- 
sound doctrine, schism, unor- 

ANT. Orthodoxy, catholicity ; 
convention, prevailing belief. 

Heretic. Dissenter, schismatic, 
nonconformist, heresiarch. 

ANT. Orthodox believer, fa- 
natic, adherent. 

Heritage. Inheritance, entail- 
ment, legacy, bequest, portion, 
patrimony, estate. 

ANT. Wages, acquisition, 
merit, compensation. 

Hermetically. Secretly, myste- 
riously, mystically, occultly, 
emblematically, symbolically ; 
air-tight, closely. 

ANT. Loosely, misfittingly ; 

Heroic. Brave, valiant, cour- 

ageous, bold, daring, intrepid, 
fearless, dauntless, noble, mag- 
nanimous, gallant; epic; vio- 
lent, extreme, desperate, ex- 
travagant; undaunted, chival- 
rous, romantic. 

ANT. Dastardly, cowardly, 
cravenly, fearful, timorous. 

Hesitate. Doubt, pause, delay, 
demur, waver, vacillate; falter, 
stammer ; dubitate, scruple. 

ANT. Decide, run, flow, de- 
termine, precipitate. 

Heterodox. Unsound, unortho- 
dox, heretical, freethinking. 
ANT. Sound, orthodox. 

Heterogeneous. Unlike, vari- 
ant, various, confused, con- 
glomerate, mingled, mixed, dis- 
cordant, miscellaneous, dissim- 
ilar, non-homogeneous ; alien, 
strange, different, opposed, con- 
trary, contrasted. 

ANT. Homogeneous, identi- 
cal, like, same, pure, uniform, 
similar, alike, accordant, con- 

Hew. Cut, chop, hack; smooth, 
fashion, form ; mold, model, en- 
grave, carve, sculpture, turn. 
ANT. Leave intact. 

Hibernal. Wintry, brumal, arc- 
tic, glacial, frigid. 

ANT. Summery, balmy, zeph- 
yrous, halcyon, tropical. 

Hide. Conceal, secrete, mask, 
dissemble, protect, store, dis- 
guise, screen, cover, burrow, en- 
sconce; suppress, shelter, with- 
hold, cloak, veil, bury, inter, 
entomb, overwhelm. 

ANT. Expose, disclose, dis- 
cover, exhume, show, tell, raise, 
reveal, unveil, unmask, uncover, 
exhibit, confess, betray, avow, 
divulge, disinter, make known, 
lay bare, lay open, publish, ad- 
vertise, manifest, promulgate, 
admit; strip. 

Hideous. Frightful, dreadful, 

[ 149 ] 




appalling, horrible, ghastly, 
terrible, horrid, grim, shock- 
ing, grisly; unshapely, ugly, 

ANT. Graceful, beautiful, at- 
tractive, captivating. 

High. Prominent, superior, dis- 
tinguished, preeminent; dig- 
nified, great, admirable; recon- 
dite, abstruse, occult, profound, 
dark, obscure, transcendental; 
proud, haughty, arrogant, su- 
percilious, lordly; boastful, os- 
tentatious, bragging, vain-glo- 
rious ; despotic, domineering, 
overbearing, tyrannical; turbu- 
lent, violent, strong, tumultu- 
ous, boisterous; extreme; 
complete, full; dear; shrill, 
acute, sharp, high-pitched ; 
northerly, southerly ; early, 
primeval ; capital, principal ; 
strong-flavored; noble, exalted, 
steep, tall, towering, uplifted, 
elevated, eminent, lofty. 

ANT. Low, base, degraded, 
inferior, mean, short, stunted, 
depressed, dwarfed, ignoble. 

Hinder. Delay, embarrass, op- 
pose, prevent, stay, stop, re- 
tard, hamper, impede, baffle, en- 
cumber, check, bar, clog, coun- 
teract, frustrate, foil, inter- 
rupt, obstruct, resist, thwart, 
block, balk, debar. 

ANT. Quicken, hasten, speed, 
accelerate, expedite, enable, fa- 
cilitate, promote. 

Hinge. Turn, depend, hang, be 
dependent; move, work, rotate, 

ANT. Halt, jar, grate, pre- 
cipitate, abrade; give, fail. 

Hire. Engage, commission, rent, 
employ; bribe, buy up; lease, 

ANT. Buy, purchase. 

History. Annals, chronicle, re- 
cital, memoir, narrative, rec- 
ord, register, story, account, 

archives, narration, muniment, 
memorial, autobiography, bi- 

ANT. Fiction, fable. 

Hit. Strike; reach, attain, win, 
secure, gain ; suit, accord with ; 
clash, collide; succeed, be suc- 
cessful; chance, hazard, touch, 

ANT. Fail, err, miss, mis- 
chance, swerve, deflect, over- 

Hitch. Catch, get stuck or im- 
peded; go by jerks; fasten, 
unite, connect, tie, attach; bar,, 
stick, stitkle, jam. 

ANT. Run, glide, slide, ro- 
tate, flow, continue. 

Hoard. Store, deposit, save, gar- 
ner, husband, hive, accumu- 
late, amass, treasure. 

ANT. Waste, squander, dis- 
sipate, scatter. 

Hoarse. Husky, raucous; gra- 
ting, rough, harsh, low, gut- 
tural, gruff. 

ANT. Melodious, rich, mel- 
low, sweet, mellifluous. 

Hoary. Hoar, white, gray, sil- 
very, frosty. 

ANT. Dark, raven, jet, black. 

Hoax. Deceive, cheat, impose 
upon; befool, bamboozle, trick, 

ANT. Guide, enlighten, in- 
form, undeceive, direct, regu- 
late, correct. 

Hobby. Nag, hobby-horse; pur- 
suit, whim, amusement, spe- 
cialty, idiosyncrasy. 

ANT. Nuisance, horror, aver- 
sion, incubus, bugbear, scare- 

Hold. Possess, retain, have, oc- 
cupy; clasp, grasp, clutch, 
clinch ; restrain, confine, im- 
prison, detain; bind, fasten, 
unite, connect; stop, stay, ar- 
rest, suspend, withhold; sup- 
port, maintain, sustain, con- 

[ 150 ] 




tinue, prosecute; embrace, en- 
tertain, cherish; heed, regard, 
consider, notice, judge, esteem, 
count, reckon, deem; contain, 
admit; celebrate, solemnize; as- 
semble, convene ; cohere, ad- 
here, cling, stick, cleave; be 
firm, be fast, persist, last, en- 
dure; be derived; think, be of 
opinion, believe; stand, be 

ANT. Drop, surrender, fail, 
abandon, desert, release, forego, 
vacate, concede, break, cease; 
speed, accelerate; give, dis- 
pense; disperse. 

Hollow, a. Empty, void, va- 
cant, vacuous, cavernous ; in- 
sincere, false, faithless, hypo- 
critical, treacherous, deceitful, 
false-hearted, pharisaical ; ar- 
tificial, concave, insubstantial, 
flimsy, transparent, senseless, 
unsound; deep, low, rumbling. 
ANT. Full, solid, firm, sin- 
cere, well-stored, strong, true, 
sound, genuine, substantial. 

Holy. Hallowed, sacred, conse- 
crated, blessed, devoted, set 
apart; righteous, saintly, spir- 
itual, devout, saintlike, godly, 
religious, heavenly-minded, pi- 
ous, pure; reverend, sanctified, 

ANT. Cursed, polluted, un- 
sanctified, unconsecrated, un- 
hallowed, wicked, worldly, ab- 
ominable, common, impure, un- 
holy, secular, profane, evil. 

Homage. Fealty, allegiance, de- 
votion, loyalty, fidelity; rever- 
ence, obeisance, respect, def- 
erence, duty, service, honor; 
worship, adoration ; affiance, 
submission, veneration. 

ANT. Treason, rebellion, de- 
fiance, insubordination, disaf- 

Home. Habitation, hearth, resi- 
dence, house, abode, dwelling, 

domicil, fireside, hearthstone, 

Homely. Domestic, homelike ; 
plain, coarse, uncomely, inele- 
gant, homespun; rather ugly. 

ANT. Handsome, beautiful, 
courtly, refined, elegant. 

Honest. Honorable, fair, open, 
straightforward, equitable; up- 
right, virtuous, conscientious, 
just, true, faithful, trusty, re- 
liable, trustworthy; genuine, 
thorough ; decent, reputable, re- 
spectable, creditable, suitable, 
proper; chaste; truthful, in- 
genuous, sincere, frank, unre- 
served, candid, good. 

ANT. Lying, unscrupulous, 
mendacious, untrue, deceitful, 
dishonest, false, hypocritical, 
fraudulent, disingenuous, per- 
fidious, faithless, treacherous, 
unfaithful, traitorous; dishon- 
orable, improper, wrong, insin- 
cere, vicious. 

Honesty. Integrity, upright- 
ness, probity, justice, fairness, 
equity, honor, fidelity, faithful- 
ness; truth, truthfulness, ve- 
racity; genuineness, thorough- 
ness; chastity, virtue; sincer- 
ity, candor, frankness, open- 
ness, unreserve, ingenuousness ; 
straightforwardness, rectitude. 
ANT. Insincerity, trickery, 
dishonesty, guile, fraud, decep- 
tion, unfairness, chicanery. 

Honor. Veneration, reverence, 
respect, homage, deference, civ- 
ility; dignity, elevation, dis- 
tinction ; majesty ; reputation, 
repute, fame, esteem, credit, 
glory, consideration; integrity, 
probity, rectitude; pride, nobil- 
ity, eminence, high-mindedness, 
spirit, self-respect, grandeur, 

ANT. Contempt, irreverence, 
disrespect, slight, obscurity, de~ 
moralization, degradation, de~ 



basement, disgrace, cowardice, 
infamy, dishonor. 

Honorable. Honest, upright, 
high-minded, illustrious, noble, 
great, just, fair, trustworthy, 
conscientious, virtuous, esti- 
mable, reputable, right, proper, 
creditable, equitable. 

ANT. Dishonorable, dishon- 
est, false, treacherous. 

Honorary. Unofficial, nominal, 
gratuitous, titular, unremuner- 

ANT. Professional, official, 
remunerative, jurisdictional. 

Hoot. Shout ; cry like an owl ; 
denounce, hiss, execrate, cry 
down, decry, sibilate. 

ANT. Salute, welcome, cheer, 
"honor, acclaim, eulogize. 

Hope. Trust, confidence, faith, 
reliance ; expectancy, expecta- 
tion, possibility ; dependence ; 
anticipation, prospect, longing, 
vision, desire. 

ANT. Despair, despondency, 
distrust, abandonment, disbe- 
lief, abjuration. 

Horizontal. Plain, flat, level, 
even, plane. 

ANT. Vertical, inclined, un- 
even, slanting, sloping, hilly, 
"broken, irregular, rough, roll- 
ing, rugged. 

Horrible. Horrid, frightful, ter- 
rible, terrific, alarming, dire, 
portentous, appalling, horrific, 
horrifying, formidable, awful, 
harrowing, dreadful, hideous, 
fearful ; abominable, ghastly, 
detestable, hateful, direful. 

ANT. Lovely, desirable, en- 
joyable, attractive, beautiful, 
fair, pleasant, amiable. 

Horror. Fright, alarm, dread. 
fear, consternation, terror, af- 
fright, dismay, panic; abomi- 
nation, abhorrence, detestation, 
disgust, hatred, shuddering, an- 
tipathy; shrinking. 

ANT. Love, attraction, en- 
ticement, allurement. 

Horse. Steed, charger, stallion, 
gelding, mare, colt, pony, nag, 
courser, barb, filly, palfrey; 
cavalry, horsemen; stand, sup- 
port, frame. 

Hospitable. Generous, liberal, 
bountiful, open, kind, uncon- 
strained, unreserved, receptive, 
large-minded; sociable, neigh- 
borly, charitable. 

ANT. Unsociable, exclusive, 
retired, recluse, unneighborly t 

Host. Entertainer ; innkeeper, 
landlord; army, legion; multi- 
tude, horde, throng, number, as- 

ANT. Handful, sprinkling, 
group, knot, corps, section; 
guest, traveler, boarder, lodger. 

Hostage. Sponsor, bail, surety. 
ANT. Dictator, conqueror. 

Hostile. Inimical, unfriendly ; 
adverse, opposite, contrary, re- 
pugnant, opposing, opposed. 

ANT. Friendly, kindly, ami- 
cable, neighborly, cordial, con- 

Hostility. Enmity, animosity, 
hatred, unfriendliness, ill will; 
opposition, repugnance, vari* 
ance, contrariety. 

ANT. Companionship, con- 
geniality, sympathy, harmony, 
fellow-feeling, concord, alliance, 
kindliness, friendship. 

Hot. Burning, fiery, scalding, 
heated, very warm; irascible, 
impetuous, excitable, passion- 
ate, hasty, furious, violent; ar- 
dent, fervent, vehement, eager, 
glowing, animated, fervid; bit- 
ing, pungent, sharp, acrid, pep- 
pery, stinging, piquant, high- 
flavored; choleric. 

ANT. Cold, frigid, cool, arc- 
tic, chilled, chilly, boreal, bleak, 
wintry, frosty, icy; apathetic f 

[ 152 




unresponsive, unfeeling, stoical, 
passionless, uninspiring, dull, 
dead, indifferent, unconcerned. 

Huge. Immense, enormous, co- 
lossal, vast, bulky, stupendous, 
gigantic, elephantine, Hercu- 
lean, Cyclopean, large, great, 
monstrous, prodigious. 

ANT. Petty, pigmy, puny, 
undersized, small, minute. 

Human. Cosmical, ethnical, an- 
thropological, rational, civil- 

ANT. Inhuman, beastly, ir- 
rational, animal, brutish. 

Humane. Kind, benevolent, be- 
nignant, accommodating, ten- 
der, compassionate, charitable, 
sympathetic, gentle, clement, 
kind-hearted ; tender-hearted ; 
elevating, refining, cultivating, 
rational, spiritual, humaniz- 
ing; benign, merciful, gracious, 
pitying, human, forgiving. 

AXT. Barbarous ; inhuman, 
unkind, cruel, unmerciful. 

Humanity. Mankind ; benevo- 
lence, kindness, philanthropy, 
tenderness, sympathy, charity, 
humaneness, good nature; hu- 
man spirit, rationality, reason, 
culture; man, compassion, sen- 

ANT. Unkindness, cruelty, 
inhumanity, irrationality, bes- 
tiality, barbarity. 

Humanize. Soften, make hu- 
mane ; civilize, cultivate, re- 
fine, polish, improve, enlighten, 
reclaim, educate; ameliorate, 

ANT. Barbarize, degrade, de- 
base, brutalize, depress. 

Humble. Meek, modest, unas- 
suming, unobtrusive, lowly, un- 
pretending, submissive, small, 
poor, low; obscure. 

ANT. High, lofty, assuming, 
pretentious, proud, boastful, ar- 
rogant, eminent. 

Humid. Damp, wet, moist, va- 
porous, dank, spongy. 

ANT. Dry, arid, moisture' 
less, parched. 

Humor, n. Disposition, temper, 
bent, propensity, bias, predilec- 
tion; mood, frame of mind, 
fancy, caprice, whim, freak, va- 
gary, crotchet; pleasantry, fun, 
jocularity, wit, facetiousness. 

ANT. Nature, personality t 
mind, purpose, will, seriousness. 

Humorous. Facetious, jocular, 
jocose, funny, comical, sport- 
ive, comic, ludicrous, pleasant, 

ANT. Grave, serious, sober, 
matter-of-fact, solemn, sad. 

Hurry, n. Flutter, flurry, pre- 
cipitation, confusion, bluster, 
bustle, agitation, perturbation; 
haste, despatch, celerity, expe- 
dition, quickness, promptness. 
ANT. Slowness; composure. 

Hurry, v. Haste, hasten, move 
quickly; urge, speed, expedite, 
despatch, accelerate. 

AXT. Delay, retard, slow 
down; loiter, saunter, move 

Hurt, n. Damage, harm, injury, 
mischief, disadvantage, detri- 
ment, wound. 

ANT. Benefit, pleasure. 

Hurt, v. Injure, harm, damage, 
impair, mar; pain, wound; 
grieve, afflict, bruise. 

ANT. Heal, soothe, console, 
repair, benefit, compensate, re- 

Hurtful. Harmful, injurious, 
mischievous, detrimental, dele- 
terious, disadvantageous, bane- 
ful, noxious, prejudicial, per- 
nicious, baleful. 

ANT. Helpful, beneficial, ad- 
vantageous, wholesome, salubri- 
ous, good, sanative, remedial. 

Hybrid. Mixed, impure, mon 
grel, mule, half-breed. 

153 ] 




ANT. Pure, unmixed, thor- 

Hypocrisy. Formalism, Pharisa- 
ism, cant, pietism, sanctimoni- 
ousness, assumed piety; deceit, 
deception, dissimulation, false 
profession, imposture ; sancti- 
mony, pretense, sham, affecta- 

ANT. Sincerity, transpar- 
ency, truth, honesty, genuine- 
ness, candor, frankness, open- 
ness, ingenuousness, truthful- 

Hypocrite. Deceiver, impostor, 
pretender, cheat, dissembler ; 
Pharisee, formalist. 

ANT. Saint, believer, Chris- 
tian; dupe, bigot, fanatic, sim- 

Hypocritical. Canting, Phari- 
saical, sanctimonious; insin- 
cere, dissembling, false, hollow, 
faithless, deceitful, unctuous, 
smug, smooth, mincing. 

ANT. Candid, truthful, sin- 
cere, plain-spoken, transparent, 

Hypothesis. Scheme, specula- 
tion, system, supposition, con- 
jecture, guess, surmise, theory. 

ANT. Certainty, demonstra- 
tion, evidence, fact, proof, dis- 

Idea. Concept, conception, im- 
pression, judgment, plan, opin- 
ion, purpose, conceit, design, 
fancy, pattern, thought, theory, 
belief, image, imagination, no- 
tion, supposition, ideal, appre- 
hension, fantasy, model, senti- 
ment, archetype; doctrine, un- 
derstanding; fiction. 

ANT. Object, form, subject; 
substance, fact, actuality, re- 

Ideal, n. Idea, archetype, orig- 
inal, model, standard, proto- 

ANT. Fact, performance, re- 
ality, practice, act, accomplish- 
ment, achievement, action, re- 
alization, attainment, develop- 
ment, doing, incarnation, em- 
bodiment, execution. 

Ideal, a. Mental, conceptional, 
intellectual, notional, creative, 
spiritual, poetical, suppositi- 
tious, unreal, fictitious, imagi- 
nary, fanciful, imaginative, 

ANT. Physical, material, 

visible, tangible, historical, 
substantial, real, actual, pal- 

Ideality. Imagination, concep- 
tion, invention, fancy, creative- 
ness, genius. 

ANT. Imitation, uninven- 
tiveness, copyism, unimagina- 
tiveness; literaliti/. 

Identical. Same, selfsame, not 
different; particular. 

ANT. Different, separate, 

Identify. Prove identical, make 
identical, confound; unite, in- 
tegrate, incorporate, recognize, 

ANT. Divide, disunite, con- 
found, confuse, overlook, mis- 

Identity. Sameness, unity, one- 
ness, union, personality, indi- 
viduality, convertibility. 

ANT. Difference, separate- 
ness, distinctness, contrariety, 

Idiocy. Imbecility; foolishness, 
fatuity, irrationality ; aberra- 

[ 154 ] 




tion, insanity; stupidity, folly, 
senselessness, incapacity. 

ANT. Intelligence, sagacity, 
wisdom, capacity, brilliancy, as- 
tuteness, acuteness, sense, com- 
mon sense, soundness; sanity, 

Idiom. Specialty, phrase, turn, 
peculiarity, characteristic. 
ANT. Barbarism, solecism. 

Idiosyncrasy. Peculiarity, idi- 
ocrasy; constitution, tempera- 
ment, specialty, characteristic, 
individuality, singularity, ec- 

ANT. Community, univer- 
sality, generality. 

Idiot. Fool, natural, imbecile. 

ANT. Sage, authority, lu- 

Idle. Unbusied, unused, leisure ; 
useless, ineffectual, fruitless, 
bootless, unavailing, vain, abor- 
tive, futile; trifling, trivial, un- 
important, trashy, foolish, un- 
profitable; waste, empty; indo- 
lent, inert, lazy, slothful, unoc- 
cupied, vacant, inactive, slug- 
gish, unemployed. 

ANT. Active, busy, diligent, 
industrious, employed, work- 
ing; occupied; tilled; filled, 
populated; assiduous. 

Idolize. Deify; adore, worship, 
reverence, venerate. 

ANT. LoatJie, abominate, ex- 
ecrate, abhor. 

Ignoble. Plebeian, vulgar, un- 
titled, baseborn, low, mean, 
rustic, peasant; worthless, in- 
significant, contemptible; dis- 
honorable, disgraceful, inferior, 
unworthy; humble. 

ANT. Honorable, eminent, 
exalted, noble, lordly, illustri- 
ous, grand, notable. 

Ignominious. Dishonorable, in- 
famous, disgraceful, shameful, 
scandalous, disreputable, op- 
probrious; despicable, base, de- 

serving ignominy, contempt- 

ANT. Honorable, creditable, 
reputable, estimable, worthy. 

Ignominy. Dishonor, disgrace,, 
discredit, shame, infamy, dis- 
repute, contempt, obloquy, 
opprobrium, scandal, abase- 
ment, odium; reprobation, re- 

ANT. Credit, honor, reputa- 
tion, glory, luster, distinction* 

Ignoramus. Smatterer, novice, 
wiseacre, dunce, simpleton, dul- 
lard, greenhorn, numskull. 

ANT. Savant, sage, lumi- 

Ignorance. Illiteracy, stupid- 
ity, nescience, blindness, dark- 

ANT. Knowledge, wisdom,, 
sense, learning, erudition. 

Ignorant. Illiterate, unlearned, 
unlettered, unskilled, untaught, 
untutored, uneducated, ill-in- 
formed, uninstructed, unin- 

ANT. Educated, learned, in- 
structed, sage, wise, skilled, cul- 
tured, trained, well-informed* 

Ignore. Disregard, neglect, over- 
look, not recognize; set aside,, 
reject; disown, repudiate. 

ANT. Own, notice, recognize, 
mark, visit, avow, claim. 

HI, n. Wickedness, depravity, 
evil ; misfortune, calamity, af- 
fliction, misery, harm, pain. 

ANT. Oood, blessing, for- 
tune; righteousness, integrity t 

HI, a. Bad, evil, unfortunate, 
unfavorable ;. wicked, wrong, in- 
iquitous, naughty; sick, ailing,, 
diseased, disordered, poorly, in- 
disposed; cross, crabbed, surly, 
peevish, hateful, malicious; ill- 
favored, ugly. 

[ 155 ] 




ANT. Well, strong, good, vig- 
orous, healthy, robust, hearty, 

Ill-bred, impolite, uncivil, un- 
courteous, uncourtly, uncouth, 
unpolished, rude, ill-behaved, 

ANT. Polite, well-behaved, 
civil, refined, courteous. 

Illuminate. Light, illumine, il- 
lume ; enlighten, make wise, in- 
struct, inspire; emblazon, irra- 

ANT. DarJcen, obscure, be- 
dim, mislead, delude. 

Illusion. Delusion, hallucina- 
tion, deception, error, fallacy, 
mockery, fantasy, phantasm, 
chimera; dream, vision, myth. 

ANT. Body, substance, form, 
reality, actuality, essence. 

Illusive. Delusive, deceptive, de- 
ceitful, fallacious ; visionary, 
unreal, disappointing, fugitive, 
erroneous, false, imaginary, il- 
lusory, chimerical. 

ANT. Substantial, real, true, 
satisfactory, solid, permanent. 

Illustrate. Elucidate, explain, ex- 
emplify, make clear; interpret, 
demonstrate, represent, embody, 
paint, image; adorn with pic- 

ANT. Obscure, misinterpret, 
confuse, mystify, darken, mis- 

Illustrious. Glorious, splendid, 
brilliant, bright, radiant; fa- 
mous, famed, noted, renowned, 
distinguished, celebrated, emi- 
nent, signal, remarkable, con- 
spicuous; deathless, noble. 

ANT. Ignominious, disgrace- 
ful, infamous, inglorious, dis- 

HI will. Malevolence, unkind- 
ness, malice, enmity, hatred, 
hate, rancor, envy, grudge, un- 
charitableness, ill nature; an- 
tipathy, dislike, aversion. 

ANT. Good will, benevolence, 

Im- or In-. This prefix, which 
is regularly in-, and which be- 
comes il- before I, ir- before r, 
and im- before a labial, means 
in, into, on, or among, or de- 
notes the negative not, or, occa- 
sionally, has a simple intensive 
meaning. Such words as begin 
with this prefix without modi- 
fication of the combined mean- 
ing of the prefix and root word, 
will be easily derived from the 
antonyms and synonyms of the 
root words. Others of more de- 
rived meaning are found here. 

Image. Statue; idol, object of 
worship; likeness, effigy, figure, 
resemblance, similitude, repre- 
sentation, picture; trope, meta- 
phor; idea, copy, conception, 
fiction, shadow, vision. 

ANT. Person, original, sub- 
stance, subject, object, reality, 
truth, verity. 

Imagery. Phantasm, phantom, 
vision, dream; tropes, figures 
of speech, poetry, fancy, illus- 
tration, metaphor, similitude. 
ANT. Prose, statement, fact. 

Imagination. Conception, in- 
vention, ideality, fancy, fan- 
tasy, creative power; esemplas- 
tic faculty; idea, notion; con- 
trivance, scheme, device, plot; 

Imaginative. Inventive, crea- 
tive, plastic, poetical, esem- 
plastic, poetic; conceptive, ro- 
mantic, ideal, original. 

ANT. Unimaginative, unpo- 
etical, prosaic, unromantio, lit- 
eral, uninventive, matter-of~ 

Imagine. Conceive, think, im- 
age, fancy, picture; devise, con- 
trive, frame, project, invent, 
create, mold; suppose, assume; 
deem, apprehend, believe; sur- 

I 156 ] 




mise, understand, fabricate, pre- 

ANT. Represent, exhibit, de- 
pict, prove, demonstrate, verify, 

Imbecile, a. Weak, feeble, help- 
less, infirm, decrepit; foolish, 
witless, idiotic, driveling, fat- 

ANT. Shrewd, clever, saga- 

Imbecility. Weakness, debility, 
feebleness, infirmity, helpless- 
ness; foolishness, childishness, 
idiocy, fatuity, dotage, senil- 

ANT. Strength, energy, vi- 
rility, vigor, power. 
Imbibe. Absorb, take in, suck 
in, swallow up ; receive, gather, 
gain, acquire, get, pick up; as- 
similate, learn. 

ANT. Discard, reject, re- 
nounce, disavow, abjure, repudi- 

Imitate. Copy, follow, pattern 
after; mimic, ape, mock, im- 
personate, take off; burlesque, 
travesty, parody; represent, re- 
semble, portray, depict, repeat, 

ANT. Misrepresent, carica- 
ture, alter, vary, distort, re- 
model, differentiate, dissimilate, 

Imitative. Imitating, copying, 
mimicking, aping, apish, cari- 
caturing, unoriginal, servile. 

ANT. Original, creative, in- 

Immaculate. Spotless, unspot- 
ted, stainless, unsullied, un- 
soiled, untainted, unblemished, 
untarnished, clean, pure, un- 
defiled; innocent, guiltless, 
sinless, faultless, fair, holy, 
saintly; virgin, unpolluted. 

ANT. Impure, corrupt, sin- 
fid, contaminated, defiled, pol- 
luted, tainted, spotted. 

Immanent. Intrinsic, inherent, 
internal, indwelling; empiri- 
cal; innate, subjective, congen- 
ital, ingrained, natural, implic- 

ANT. Emanant, transitive, 
developed, projectile, exsilient, 
phenomenal, explicit, acciden- 
tal, transcendental, transeunt. 

Immaterial. Incorporeal, un- 
bodied, unfleshly, spiritual, su- 
persensible ; unimportant, in- 
significant, unessential, non- 
essential, trivial, trifling. 

ANT. Material, physical, im~ 
portant, corporeal, essential. 

Immature. Unripe, crude, raw, 
green, unformed, unprepared, 
imperfect, rudimentary, unfin- 
ished ; premature, hasty, unsea- 
sonable, untimely ; undeveloped, 
ANT. Ripe, complete, devel- 
oped, mature, finished. 

Immeasurable. Illimitable, un- 
bounded, boundless, limitless, 
measureless, immense, infinite; 
vast, unfathomable. 

ANT. Finite, limited, air" 
cumscribed, restricted, shallow, 

Immediate. Proximate, close, 
near, next; direct, unmediated; 
instantaneous, instant, pres- 
ent; contiguous. 

ANT. Distant, remote, medi- 
ate, future. 

Immediately. Presently, thi 
instant, straightway, directly, 
forthwith, at once, now, right 
off, instantly, without delay. 

ANT. Hereafter, by and by, 
after a while, sometime. 

Immemorial. Olden, ancient, 
hoary, archaic, primitive, re- 
mote, time-honored, primor- 

ANT. Recent, modern, late, 
fresh, upstart. 

Immerse. Dip, plunge, sub- 
merge, sink, douse, duck, bury; 

[ 157 3 




soak, steep, macerate, drown, 
inundate, overwhelm. 

ANT. Dry, drain, parch, ven- 
tilate, air, ground, strand. 
Immigration. Migration, colo- 
nization, settlement. 

ANT. Exodus, emigration. 
Imminent. Impending, hover- 
ing, threatening. 

ANT. Improbable, doubtful, 
unexpected, unlikely, contin- 
gent, chimerical, problematical; 
tcarded, staved, escaped. 
Immunity. Freedom, exemp- 
tion, release, exoneration; pre- 
rogative, privilege, right, lib- 
erty, charter, franchise; dis- 

ANT. Liability, obligation, 
jurisdiction, impost, amenabil- 
ity, burden. 

Imp. Sprite, hobgoblin, demon, 
devil, flibbertigibbet, scamp, 

ANT. Cherub, angel. 
Impact. Impulse, shock, impres- 
sion, stroke; collision, contact, 
striking, impinging ; applica- 

ANT. Isolation, separation, 
interval, removal, avoidance, 
non-contact, shave. 
Impair. Deteriorate, vitiate, in- 
jure, harm, make worse; les- 
sen, diminish, decrease; ener- 
vate, weaken, enfeeble; reduce, 

ANT. Enhance, improve, re- 
pair, augment, better, increase. 
Impassioned. Passionate, vehe- 
ment, impetuous, animated, ex- 
citing, glowing, intense, fervid, 
fervent, warm, ardent, zealous; 

ANT. Cool, impassive, unim- 
passioned, apathetic, indiffer- 

Impatience. Uneasiness, dis- 
quietude, restlessness ; haste, 
vehemence, eagerness, precipi- 

tation, impetuosity; heat, vio- 
lence of temper, irritability, ir- 

ANT. Patience, calmness, en- 
durance, composure, leniency, 
submission, forbearance, long- 

Impediment. Bar, hindrance, 
obstacle, obstruction, difficulty, 
clog, encumbrance, stumbling- 
block, check. 

ANT. Assistance, aid, bene- 
fit, help, relief, succor, advan- 
tage; aidance, support, further 

Imperative. Commanding, au* 
thoritative, peremptory; bind- 
ing, obligatory; urgent, irre- 
sistible, dictatorial, inexorable, 

ANT. Indulgent, lenient, sup~ 
plicatory, mild, optional, di*- 
cretional, entreative. 

Imperial. Belonging to an em- 
pire, kingly, regal, sovereign, 
royal; majestic, grand, magni- 
ficent, exalted, great, noble, SU' 
preme, consummate, superb. 

ANT. Ignoble, servile, slav* 
ish, beggarly, mean, paltry. 

Imperious. Magisterial, dicta- 
torial, despotic, domineering, 
tyrannical, overbearing, lordly, 
haughty, arrogant, authorita- 
tive, exacting. 

ANT. Yielding, compliant, 
submissive, gentle, mild, docile, 

Impetuous. Fierce, vehement, 
violent, furious, passionate, pre- 
cipitate, hasty, headlong, over- 
zealous, reckless, rash, exciti 

ANT. Careful, slow, deliber- 
ate, thoughtful, reflective, lei- 

Implement. Utensil, tool, appli- 
ance, instrument. 

ANT. Labor, work, science, 
art, agriculture, manufacture. 

[ 158 ] 




Implicate. Entangle, enfold, in- 
volve, connect, associate, com- 
promise, charge, incriminate. 

ANT. Disconnect, extricate, 
acquit, dissociate. 

Implication. Entanglement, in- 
volution ; inference, conclusion ; 
intricacy, complication; con- 
cealment, latency; allusion, in- 
sinuation, innuendo, adumbra- 

ANT. Arrangement, system, 
orderliness; manifestation, ex- 
pression, exposition, demonstra- 
tion, production. 

Implicit. Understood, implied, 
inferred, tacit; unreserved, un- 
hesitating, firm, steadfast, un- 
shaken, undoubtlng; involved. 

ANT. Expressed, explicit, de- 
veloped, stated, plain, specific, 

Imply. Involve, import, include, 
signify, mean, indicate, suggest, 
hint, denote. 

ANT. Express, declare, state, 

Import, n. Meaning, sense, pur- 
port, drift, signification, gist, 
spirit, bearing, tenor, inten- 

ANT. Statement, proceeding. 

Import, v. Bring into; purport, 
denote, imply, betoken, signify, 
mean; concern, be of signifi- 
cance to; introduce. 

ANT. Export, banish, exile, 
send abroad. 

Importance. Consequence, mo- 
ment, weight, significance, mo- 
mentousness, import, concern; 
avail; self-importance, pompos- 

ANT. Nothingness, insigni- 
ficance, unimportance, immate- 

Important. Grave, weighty, mo- 
mentous, serious, material, sig- 
nificant; influential, prominent, 
pompous, self-important, con- 

sequential; expressive, leading, 
main, relevant, considerable, es- 
sential, great, dignified. 

ANT. Insignificant, trivial, 
inconsiderable, irrelevant, sec- 
ondary, petty, mean, uninfluen- 
tial, minor, unimportant. 

Importunate. Urgent, pertina- 
cious, pressing, teasing, busy,, 
solicitous, overurgent, overen- 

ANT. Modest, diffident, self- 
reliant, self-respecting. 

Importune. Urge, entreat, press,, 
solicit, dun, beset, pester, tease, 
worry, trouble. 

ANT. Surrender, sacrifice, 
abandon; grant, bestow. 

Impose. Put, set, lay, place;, 
appoint, enjoin, prescribe; ob- 
trude, palm off, pass; inflict, 

ANT. Remove, disburden, un- 
load, free; hold up, arrest, dis- 

Imposing. Stately, august, ma- 
jestic, grand, noble, command- 
ing, impressive; striking, effec- 
tive, dignified. 

ANT. Petty, undignified, un- 
imposing, insignificant, paltry, 

Imposition. Imposing, putting, 
placing, laying; burden, levy, 
tax, constraint, oppression, in- 
junction ; deception, fraud, arti- 
fice, trickery, imposture, cheat- 
ing; presumption, exaction, en- 

ANT. Sanction, warrant, at*. 
thority ; truth, verity, fact, cer- 
tainty, verification, genuine", 
ness, authenticity, honesty. 

Impost. Tax, duty, custom, ex- 
cise, levy, toll, tribute, rate; im> 

ANT. Revenue, proceeds, ex- 
emption, immunity. 

Impostor. Deceiver, pretender,, 
cheat, hypocrite, knave, charla- 

[ 159 ] 




tan, mountebank, rogue, Phari- 
see, trickster, dissembler. 

ANT. Guide, enlightener, de- 
tector, undeceiver. 

Imposture. Cheat, trick, de- 
ception, imposition, fraud, ruse, 
delusion, dodge, artifice, wile, 
deceit, stratagem, hoax. 

ANT. Truth, fact, verity, re- 

Impotence. Disability, inca- 
pacity, incompetence, power- 
lessness, weakness, inefficiency, 
infirmity, frailty, imbecility, 
inability, incapability, help- 
lessness, disqualification. 

ANT. Capacity, vigor, qual- 
ification, ability. 

Impoverish. Make poor or in- 
digent, exhaust, deplete, rob, 
beggar, fleece, denude. 

ANT. Enrich, aggrandize, 
augment, store, enhance, en- 

Impregnable. Invincible, tin- 
assailable, invulnerable, im- 
movable, inexpugnable, secure, 
tenable, irrefragable. 

ANT. Pregnable, weak, ex- 
posed, defenseless, expugnable. 

Impregnate. Fecundate, imbue, 
infuse, tincture, saturate, fill, 
fertilize; mix, combine, insert, 
steep, vivify, teach. 

ANT. Remove, evolve, extri- 
cate, separate, destroy, quench, 
extinguish, be studious, learn. 

Impression. Printing, stamp- 
ing, imprinting; stamp, im- 
press, brand; mark; sensation, 
effect, influence; notion, idea, 
opinion, fancy. 

ANT. Concept, apprehension, 

Impressive. Affecting, touch- 
ing, moving, stirring, power- 
ful, striking, overpowering; 
forcible, solemn, imposing, im- 
ANT. Weak, feeble, vapid, 

tame, unimpressive, dry, insig- 

Improve. Mend, gain, become 
better, get on, gain ground; in- 
crease, rise, be enhanced; bet- 
ter, amend, ameliorate, rec- 
tify; progress; avail one's self 
of, use, make productive; cor- 
rect, reform. 

ANT. Debase, deteriorate, vi- 
tiate, spoil, mar, impair, in- 
jure, depress. 

Improvement. Amending, bet- 
tering, amelioration, amend- 
ment, progress, efficiency, pro- 
ficiency, advancement, use, bet- 
terment ; increase, correction. 
ANT. Degeneracy, retrograda- 
tion, degeneration, debasement, 
deterioration, retrogression. 

Impudence. Assurance, bold- 
ness, impertinence, pertness, 
rudeness, sauciness, effrontery, 
forwardness, incivility, inso- 
lence, presumption, officious- 
ness, intrusiveness. 

ANT. Bashfulness, humil- 
ity, diffidence, meekness, lowli- 
ness, modesty, submissiveness ; 
coyness, obsequiousness, sub- 
serviency, abasement. 

Impugn. Attack, assail, contra- 
dict, oppose, resist, gainsay, 
controvert, deny, blame. 

ANT. Declare, state, allege, 
approve, commend, defend, re- 
pel; propose, propound, con- 
front, face. 

Impulse. Thrust, push, impe- 
tus; passion, instinct, procliv- 
ity, inclination, appetite; mo- 
tive, influence, incitement, in- 
stigation, incentive, force, sud- 
den thought. 

ANT. Deliberation, premedi- 
tation, rebuff, repulse. 

Impulsive. Propulsive, impell- 
ing, moving; hot, quiek, rash, 
hasty, passionate ; wayward, 

[ 160 




ANT. Discreet, hesitating, 
reluctant, timid, calculating, 
wary, cautious. 

Impute. Ascribe, refer, charge, 
attribute, imply, insinuate. 

ANT. Withdraw, retract, re- 
call; clear, justify, acquit. 

Inane. Empty, void; worthless, 
trifling, vacuous, vain, puer- 
ile, frivolous; pointless, feeble, 
vapid, characterless. 

ANT. Significant, pointed, 
powerful, sensible, forcible. 

Inanition. Emptiness, vacuity, 
inanity; vanity, folly, pueril- 
ity, worthlessness, frivolous- 
ness; exhaustion, starvation. 

ANT. Fulness, repletion, 
plethora; significance, mean- 

Inaugurate. Install, invest, in- 
duct; celebrate; commence, be- 
gin, initiate, originate. 

ANT. Divert, deprive, con- 
clude, terminate. 

Inauguration. Investiture, in- 
stallation, induction, consecra- 
tion, institution, initiation ; 
commencement, formal open- 
ing, beginning, origination. 

ANT. Dismissal, discharge; 
valediction, valedictory; close, 
conclusion, end, termination. 

Incandescence. White heat, in- 
calescence, glow. 

ANT. Iciness, refrigeration, 
congelation, crystallization. 

Incantation. Sorcery, charm, en- 
chantment, spell, magic, con- 
juration, witchcraft, witchery, 
necromancy ; recitation, invo- 

ANT. Evocation, exorcism. 

Incarnation. Embodiment, im- 
personation, manifestation, ex- 
emplification, personification. 

ANT. Disembodiment, ab- 
straction, spiritualization. 

Incendiarism. Arson ; confla- 

ANT. Extinction, quenching, 

Incense, v. Enrage, exasper- 
ate, irritate, provoke, inflame, 
anger, excite, heat, chafe, sting, 
nettle, gall. 

ANT. Allay, soothe, pacify, 
appease, conciliate, mollify. 
Incentive. Inducement, incite- 
ment, spur, impulse, stimulant, 
goad, motive, cause, encour- 
agement, rousing, excitation. 

ANT. Deterrent, prohibition, 
learning, discouragement, dis- 

Inception. Beginning, inaugu- 
ration, commencement. 

ANT. Ending, finis, conclu- 
sion, termination. 
Incessant. Ceaseless, continual, 
unceasing, unremitting, per- 
petual, constant, everlasting, 
eternal, uninterrupted, unin- 

ANT. Periodic, occasional, 
intermittent, interrupted. 
Incidence. Impact, stroke, im- 

ANT. Reflection, resilience, 

Incident, n. Event, occurrence, 
circumstance, chance, accident, 
fact, adventure, casualty. 

ANT. Cause, antecedent, rea- 
son, tendency, inducement, in- 

Incident, Incidental, a. Hap- 
pening, liable ; belonging, per- 
taining, appertaining, natural, 
relating; falling, impinging; 
casual, occasional, pertinent, 
fortuitous, concurrent, concom- 
itant, accidental. 

ANT. Regular, systematic, 
disconnected, independent, ir- 
relative, inherent, essential, im- 
manent, invariable, uniform. 
Incipient. Beginning, inchoate, 
commencing, embryonic. 

ANT. Final, terminal. 

[ 161 ] 




Inclemency. Harshness, sever- 
ity, rigor, roughness, boister- 
ousness, storminess, tempestu- 

ANT. Clemency, mildness, 
leniency, gentleness, 
Inclement. Harsh, tyrannical, 
cruel, unmerciful, severe, rig- 
orous, stormy, rough, boister- 

ANT. Benign, clement, mild, 
genial, merciful. 

Inclination. Inclining, slope, 
leaning, slant; trend, verging, 
obliquity; disposition, predi- 
lection, bent, bias, proclivity, 
proneness, tendency, leaning, 
aptitude, propensity ; desire, 
wish, fondness, liking, partial- 
ity; aptness, attachment, af- 

ANT. Tangency, disinclina- 
tion, divergence, ineptitude, in- 
aptness, dislike. 

Incline, v. Slant, lean, slope; 
trend, verge, tend; be disposed, 
have a desire or propensity; 
dispose, predispose, turn, bias; 
bend, bow; bear, dip, induce, 

ANT. Deter, restrain, check; 
ascend, rise; indispose, disin- 

Include. Hold, contain; com- 
prise, embody, comprehend, em- 
brace, take in. 

ANT. Exclude, leave out. 
Inclusive. Enclosing, encircling ; 
including, comprehending, em- 
bracing; comprehensive, addi- 
tive, implied. 

ANT. Exclusive, except ed; 
adversative, opposite, contrary, 

Income. Revenue, profits, gains ; 
proceeds, pay, allowance. 

ANT. Expenditure, disburse- 
ment, outlay, expense. 
Incongruous. Inconsistent, un- 
suitable, absurd, conflicting, 

discordant, discrepant, repug- 
nant, mismated, incompatible, 
inapposite, contrary, contradic- 
tory, inappropriate, inharmoni- 
ous, ill-matched, irreconcilable, 

ANT. Consistent, harmoni- 
ous, suitable, accordant, agree' 
ing, compatible. 

Increase, n. Accession, growth, 
extension, augmentation, addi- 
tion, enlargement, expansion, 
increment ; product, produce, 
gain, profit; offspring, issue, 
progeny, descendants. 

ANT. Deduction, detraction, 
diminution, contraction, loss, 
waste, detriment, curtailment, 
reduction, expenditure, impov- 

Increase, v. Advance, heighten, 
pile up, enhance, aggregate, di- 
late, magnify, spread, augment, 
greaten, enlarge, raise; extend, 
prolong; aggravate, intensify; 
grow; multiply, be fruitful. 

ANT. Decrease, lessen, di- 
minish, decline, abate, lower, 
reduce, curtail, retrench. 

Inculcate. Infuse, impress, en- 
force, instil, implant, ingraft, 
urge, teach. 

ANT. Insinuate, suggest, ab- 
jure, disavow, denounce. 

Incumbent. Obligatory, bind- 
ing, devolving; lying, leaning, 
reclining, resting, weighing 
down, prone; coercive, indis- 
pensable, urgent; threatening, 

ANT. Optional, discretional, 
elective, voluntary. 

Incur. Contract, become liable 
to; bring on; meet, run. 
ANT. Avoid, shun. 

Incursion. Inroad, raid, inva- 
sion, irruption, descent, foray, 
sally, encroachment. 

ANT. Encampment, retreat, 
abode, settlement. 

t 162 ] 




Indebted. Owing, obliged, be- 
holden, under obligation. 
ANT. Disobliged, unbeholden. 

Indeed. Truly, really, verily, 
positively, absolutely, in fact, 
veritably, certainly, in truth; 
strictly, in point of fact. 

ANT. By no means, not at 

Indefatigable. Unwearied, un- 
tiring, persevering, persistent, 
assiduous, sedulous, unremit- 
ting, never -tiring, unflagging; 
incessant, indomitable. 

ANT. Idle, indifferent, indo- 

Indelible. Ineffaceable, inde- 
structible, ingrained, indefeas- 
ible, irreversible, persistent. 

ANT. Mutable, evanescent, 
transient, effaceable. 

Indemnify. Secure, save; com- 
pensate, remunerate, reimburse, 
requite; satisfy. 

ANT. Fine, mulct, amerce. 

Indicate. Show, denote, mark, 
betoken, signify, point out, des- 
ignate, specify ; evidence, evince, 
betray, manifest, declare. 

ANT. Conceal, misdirect, fal- 
sify, misindicate, negative, con- 

Indication. Indicating sign, 
mark, note, index, symptom, 
token, hint, suggestion, mani- 
festation; evidence, demonstra- 
tion, proof, prognostic. 

ANT. Silence, surmise, mis- 
direction, undemonstrativeness, 
misguidance, misindication. 

Indictment. Indicting, present- 
ment; accusation, charge, im- 
peachment, arraignment, crim- 

Indifference. Neutrality, im- 
partiality, disinterestedness ; 
unconcern, apathy, coolness, 
negligence, carelessness, inat- 
tention, heedlessness ; trivial- 
ity, insignificance, unimpor- 

tance; inferiority; insensibil- 
ity, composure. 

ANT. Importance, interest, 
significance, weight, gravity, af- 
fection, ardor, eagerness. 

Indifferent. Neutral, unbiased, 
impartial, disinterested; cool, 
unconcerned, unmoved, cold, in- 
attentive, apathetic, dead, re- 
gardless, heedless, unmindful ; 
equal, all the same, all one, 
just the same; passable, toler- 
able, ordinary, middling, me- 
diocre, rather poor; lukewarm, 

ANT. Anxious, careful, sus- 
ceptible, sympathetic, sensitive. 

Indigent. Poor, needy, desti- 
tute, necessitous, reduced, pen- 
niless, moneyless, distressed, in- 
solvent, in want; impecunious, 

ANT. Wealthy, moneyed, 
rich, affluent, opulent. 

Indignation. Resentment, anger, 
ire, wrath, fury, rage, exasper- 
ation, choler ; denunciation, dis- 
pleasure, protestation. 

ANT. Gratification, admira- 
tion, approval, applause, com- 

Indignity. Insult, outrage, af- 
front, slight, dishonor, abuse, 
disrespect, contumely, reproach, 
opprobrium, obloquy; rude- 
ness, contemptuousness, igno- 
miny, disgrace. 

ANT. Deference, compliment, 
honor, respect. 

Indiscriminate. Undistinguish- 
ing, undiscriminating; mixed, 
confused, mingled, promiscuous, 
indistinguishable ; ill-assorted, 

ANT. Careful, sorted, select, 

Indisposed. Averse, disinclined, 
unwilling, reluctant, backward, 
loath; ill, ailing, sick. 
ANT. Prompt, willing, eager, 

[ 163 ] 




desirous, inclined; healthful, 

Indite. Compose, write, dictate, 
pen ; prompt, suggest, word, de- 
scribe, phrase. 

ANT. Transcribe, copy, imi- 
tate, duplicate. 

Individual, n. Person, person- 
age, character, some one; unit, 
single instance; personality. 

ANT. Species, genus, family, 

Individual, a. Particular, spe- 
cial, separate, single, unique, 
one; peculiar, personal; posi- 
tive, decided, unconventional, 
independent, specific, indivis- 
ible, singular, identical, idio- 

ANT. General, common, col- 
lective, plural, universal. 

Individuality. Personality, dis- 
tinct existence; character, de- 
cision, self-direction, original- 
ity, self-determination, unique- 
ANT. Generality, mediocrity. 

Indolence. Laziness, sloth, in- 
ertness, idleness, sluggishness, 

ANT. Activity, energy. 

Indomitable. Unyielding, un- 
conquerable, invincible; untam- 
able, irrepressible, indefati- 

ANT. Effortless, feeble, lan- 

Indorse. Superscribe; sanction, 
approve, vouch for, confirm, 
ratify; accept. 

ANT. Protest, repudiate, re- 
nounce, abjure, cancel. 

Induce. Influence, impel, move, 
prompt, instigate, persuade, ac- 
tuate, urge, incite, spur, pre- 
vail upon; cause, produce, ef- 
fect, bring on. 

ANT. Prevent, disincline, dis- 
suade, deter, hinder, restrain. 

Induction, introduction, instal- 

lation, inauguration, institu- 
tion; conclusion, inference, gen* 
eralization, inductive method | 
collection, collation, applica- 

ANT. Statement, hypothesis; 
deduction; subtraction; prin- 
ciple, class, law, proposition, 
argumentation, discourse. 

Indulge. Gratify, yield, sat- 
isfy ; humor, pamper, favor ; al- 
low, permit, suffer, cherish, fos- 
ter, harbor ; spoil, revel, grovel. 
ANT. Thwart, deny, disap- 
point, discard, contradict, re- 
nounce, counteract, mortify, ab- 
jure, discipline. 

Indulgence. Gratification, hu- 
moring, pampering; leniency, 
kindness, tenderness, favor, lib- 

ANT. Abstinence, self-sacri- 
fice, repression, restraint. 

Indulgent. Yielding, compli- 
ant; lenient, mild, clement, 
tolerant, gentle, kind, tender, 

ANT. Harsh, severe, rough, 
austere, self-controlled, absti- 

Industrious. Diligent, active, 
busy, assiduous, engaged, em- 
ployed, sedulous, occupied, la- 
borious, hard-working; brisk, 
persistent, persevering. 

ANT. Lazy, shiftless, idle. 

Industry. Diligence, labor, ap- 
plication, assiduity, attention, 
constancy, exertion, intentness, 
patience, perseverance, persis- 
tence, sedulousness, pains, ef- 
fort, activity, toil. 

ANT. Idleness, inattention, 
neglect, negligence, sloth, re- 
missness, changeableness, in- 
dolence, inconstancy, inactiv- 
ity, fickleness, ease, indiligence. 

Ineffable. Unspeakable, inde- 
scribable, inexpressible, unut- 
terable ; inconceivable, unsur- 

f 164 ] 




passable, undeclarable, exqui- 
site, perfect. 

ANT. Common, trivial, su- 
perficial, vulgar, commonplace, 
conversational, colloquial, ob- 

Inert. Inactive, lifeless, dead, 
passive, motionless; dull, indo- 
lent, torpid, lazy, idle, supine, 
sluggish, slothful; heavy, dor- 

ANT. Active, alert, brisk, 
energetic, quick, vigorous. 

Inevitable. Necessary, unavoid- 
able, infallible, certain, fixed, 

ANT. Uncertain, avoidable, 

Infamy. Dishonor, shame, dis- 
grace, discredit, ignominy, op- 
probrium, scandal, obloquy, 
abasement; villainy, disgrace- 
fulness, wickedness, atrocity, 
shamef ulness ; despair, degra- 

ANT. Honor, reputation, re- 
nown, glory, celebrity. 

Infantile. Young, childish, ten- 
der; babyish, weak; childlike, 
babylike; puerile, imbecile. 

ANT. Manly, vigorous, ma- 
ture, robust. 

Infatuation. Folly, stupefac- 
tion, foolishness, prepossession, 
obsession ; fatuity, hallucina- 
tion, madness, self-deception. 

ANT. Sagacity, soundness, 
wisdom, sanity, clear-sighted- 

Infection. Contagion; contami- 
nation, taint, bane, pest, poi- 
son, corruption, defilement, vi- 
tiation, pollution. 

ANT. Purification, disinfec- 
tion, antidote, antisepsis. 

Infectious. Contagious, catch- 
ing, pestilential, pestiferous; 
contaminating, corrupting, de- 
filing, polluting, poisoning, vi- 

[ 1 

ANT. Wholesome, sanative, 
beneficial, antiseptic. 

Infer. Deduce, conclude, gather, 
collect, consider probable; de- 
rive, argue. 

ANT. State, enunciate, as- 
sume, guess, conjecture, pro- 
pound, anticipate, prognosti- 

Inference. Conclusion, deduc- 
tion, corollary, consequence ; 
generalization, induction. 

ANT. Statement, proposi- 
tion, enunciation. 

Inferiority. Subordination; de- 
ficiency, imperfection, minor- 
ity, poverty, subjection, servi- 
tude, depression ; mediocrity. 
ANT. Superiority, eminence, 
excellence, majority, elevation, 
independence, mastery, exalta- 

Infernal. Hellish ; diabolical, 
devilish, fiendish, demoniacal, 
satanic, atrocious, nefarious, 
dark, accursed, abominable. 
ANT. Angelic, cherubic. 

Infest. Throng, overrun, beset, 
swarm in; disturb, plague, an- 
noy, tease, harass, trouble, mo- 
lest, torment, worry, pester. 

ANT. Comfort, refresh, re- 
gale, gratify. 

Infidel. Unbeliever, disbeliever, 
atheist, denier, freethinker, de- 
ist, skeptic, heretic. 

ANT. Believer, pietist, devo- 
tee, Christian. 

Infidelity. Unbelief, disbelief, 
skepticism ; faithlessness, un- 
faithfulness, disloyalty. 

ANT. Fidelity, belief, faith, 
religiousness, credulity, credu- 
lousness; faithfulness, loy- 

Infinite. Absolute, illimitable, 
limitless, boundless, intermi- 
nable, eternal, unlimited, un- 
measured, measureless, unfath- 
omable, unconditioned, num- 




berless, unbounded, immeasur- 
able, innumerable, countless. 

ANT. Brief, bounded, rela- 
tive, short, limited, finite, re- 
stricted, transient, transitory, 
small, little, evanescent, cir- 
cumscribed, measurable, mod- 
erate, narrow, shallow; infini- 

Infinitesimal. Minute, atomic, 
microscopic, inappreciable, in- 
conspicuous, undiscernible, in- 
finitely small. 

ANT. Enormous, vast, infi- 
nite, immeasurable. 

Infinitude, Infinity. Bound- 
lessness, vastness, immensity ; 
infiniteness ; eternity, absolute- 
ness, self-determination, self- 

ANT. Relativity. 

Infirm. Weak, feeble, frail, de- 
bilitated, enfeebled, weakened; 
faltering, wavering, irresolute, 
vacillating; unsound, unstable, 
insecure; decrepit, lame, fail- 
ing, impotent. 

ANT. Sound, forcible, firm, 
strong, sure, cogent, healthy, 

Infirmity. Weakness, decrepi- 
tude, debility, feebleness, frail- 
ness, frailty; foible, fault, fail- 
ing, defect; disease, malady, 

ANT. Strength, vigor, un- 
healthfulness, soundness. 

Inflame. Excite, stimulate, in- 
cite, enkindle, rouse, animate, 
inspirit, work up, fire; irri- 
tate, exasperate, anger, nettle, 
provoke, enrage, incense, mad- 
den, infuriate; fan, embitter. 

ANT. Quench, extinguish, 
allay, cool, pacify, quiet. 

Inflate. Distend, expand, swell, 
bloat, blow up; puff up, make 
conceited; increase, enlarge. 

ANT. Exhaust, empty, fiat- 
ten, squeeze, compress. 

Inflated. Distended, swollen, 
bloated; tumid, turgid, bom- 
bastic, st-ilted, declamatory, 
rhetorical, sophomorical, high- 
flown; pompous. 

ANT. Simple, plain, unaf- 
fected, concise, laconic, explicit, 

Inflection. Bend, bending, cur- 
vature, flexure, crook; varia- 
tion, declension, conjugation, 
comparison; flexion. 

ANT. Straightness, direct- 
ness, rectilinearity. 

Inflict. Impose, lay on, put on; 

ANT. Spare, remove, allevi- 
ate, suspend. 

Infliction. Imposition, inflict- 
ing; punishment, judgment; 
grievance, trouble, nuisance. 

ANT. Remission, sparing; 
pleasure, gratification; accom- 
modation, condoning. 

Influence, n. Authority, ascend- 
ency, control, predominance, 
sway; reputation, weight of 
character, credit; influx, in- 
flow; effect, causation, impulse, 
affection, power, weight, pres- 

ANT. Inefficiency, ineffec- 
tiveness, inefficacy, nullity, in- 
operativeness, neutrality. 

Influence, v. Induce, incite, in- 
cline, persuade, move, stir, ac- 
tuate, sway, compel, urge, in- 
stigate, prompt, lead, impel, ex- 
cite, drive, draw, direct, bias. 

ANT. Prevent, restrain, re- 
tard, deter, discourage, impede, 
inhibit, hinder, dissuade. 

Influential. Potent, poAverful, 
controlling; efficacious, persua- 
sive, forcible, guiding, consid- 
erable ; authoritative. 

ANT. Weak, ineffective, in. 
operative, inconsiderable, un- 

Inform. Quicken, animate, in- 

[ 166 ] 




spire; acquaint, apprise, men- 
tion to, notify, advise, tell; ed- 
ucate, enlighten, instruct, im- 
part, communicate. 

ANT. Misinstruct, misjudge, 
deceive, hoodwink, misinform, 

Information. Advice, notice, 
intelligence; knowledge; accu- 
sation, complaint, denuncia- 
tion; instruction, counsel, no- 

ANT. Concealment, mysti- 
fication, ignorance, occultation. 

Infringe. Transgress, violate, 
break, disobey, nullify. 

ANT. Preserve, observe, con- 
serve, maintain. 

Infuse. Instil, inspire, intro- 
duce, inculcate, implant, dif- 
fuse, shed, steep, soak, water, 
infiltrate, insinuate, breathe 

ANT. Strain, dry, drain, di- 
vert, retract. 

Ingenious. Inventive, gifted, 
able, clever, bright, ready, sa- 
gacious, adept, skilful. 

ANT. Unskilful, uninven- 
tive, slow, unready, unresource- 
ful, unprepared, unapt. 

Ingenuity. Inventiveness, in- 
geniousness, acuteness, skill, 
ability, readiness, faculty, ap- 
titude, cunning, turn, gift, ge- 

ANT. Inability, ineptitude, 

Ingenuous. Artless, open, can- 
did, frank, sincere, straight- 
forward, honest, transparent, 
guileless, truthful, childlike, 
naive, noble, generous, honor- 

ANT. Mean, reserved, sly, 
insincere, disingenuous. 

Ingratiate. Commend one's self 
into favor, insinuate, recom- 

ANT. Alienate, estrange. 

Ingredient. Element, compo- 
nent, constituent. 

ANT. Refuse, residuum, in- 
congruity, counteragmt. 

Inherent. Sticking fast, adher- 
ing; essential, immanent, in- 
born, inbred, native, natural, 
subjective, innate, intrinsic, in- 
hering, congenital, indispen- 
sable, indwelling, infixed, inter- 
nal, ingrained, inseparable, in- 

ANT. Extrinsic, superficial, 
fortuitous, casual, accidental, 
external, outward, superfluous, 
transient, unconnected, supple- 
mental, incidental, subsidiary, 
superadded; foreign, extrane- 
ous, separable, temporary. 

Inherit. Get as legacy; occupy, 
possess, enjoy. 

ANT. Acquire, earn, gain, 
squander, bequeath, leave, de- 
mise, devise; dissipate, alien- 

Inheritance. Inheriting; her- 
itage, patrimony; bequest, pos- 
session, legacy. 

ANT. Acquisition, purchase, 
donation; forfeiture, lapse; es- 
cheatment, alienation. 

Inheritor. Heir, successor, lega- 
tee, devisee. 

ANT. Testator, devisor. 

Inimical. Antagonistic, hostile, 
unfriendly ; adverse, opposed, 
contrary, repugnant, noxious, 
pernicious, hurtful, harmful. 

ANT. Friendly, companion- 
able, comradely; unanimous, 
agreeable, beneficial. 

Iniquity. Injustice, wickedness, 
sin, unrighteousness; crime, of- 
fense, misdeed, grievance, evil- 

ANT. Justice, integrity, vir- 
tue, holiness, honesty, upright- 

Initiation. Introduction, en- 
trance, admission; instruction; 

167 ] 



opening, beginning, inaugura- 
tion, commencement. 

ANT. Termination, comple- 
tion, finish, fulfilment, out- 

Initiative. Commencement, be- 
ginning; power to originate or 
begin; start, leadersnip, ex- 

ANT. Termination, wake, 
rear; prosecution, progress, per- 
severance, accomplishment. 

Injunction. Command, order, 
mandate, precept, exhortation. 
ANT. Disobedience, non-ob- 
servance, non-compliance, in- 

Injure. Maltreat, wrong, abuse ; 
harm, damage, spoil, mar, dis- 
figure, wound, cripple, sully. 

ANT. Benefit, profit, advan- 
tage, advance, repair. 

Injurious. Wrong, unjust, ini- 
quitous; hurtful, detrimental, 
pernicious, deleterious, noxious, 
deadly, mischievous, baneful, 
fatal, destructive, damaging, 
ruinous, disadvantageous; li- 
belous, slanderous; prejudicial. 
ANT. Helpful, advantageous, 
beneficial, salutary, profitable. 

Injury. Blemish, damage, evil, 
disadvantage, detriment, hurt, 
loss, wron<?, prejudice, injus- 
tice, mischief, impairment, out- 
rage, harm. 

ANT. Remedy, advantage, 
amelioration, benefit, service, 
toon, help, blessing, improve- 
ment, utiJitv. 

Injustice. Wrong, unrighteous- 
ness, iniquity, grievance, un- 
fairness, injury. 

ANT. Equity, fairness, jus- 
tice, right, rectitude, integrity, 
honesty, impartiality, upright- 
ness, lawfulness, righteousness, 
honor, faithfulness, fair play. 

Inlet. Opening, entrance, com- 
mencement, ingress. 

ANT. Outlet, egress, de~ 

Inmate. Occupant, dweller, den- 
izen, inhabitant, tenant, resi- 

ANT. Visitor, intruder, for- 
eigner, stranger, traveler. 

Inn, Hotel, public house, tav- 

Innate. Inherent, inborn, natu- 
ral, inbred, native, congenital, 

ANT. Unnatural, adventi- 
tious, assumed. 

Inner. Inmost, within, interior, 
secret, close, vital. 

ANT. Outer, outermost, ex- 
terior, open. 

Innocence. Harmlessness, inof- 
fensiveness, innocuousness ; sin- 
lessness, purity, stainlessness, 
simplicity, guilelessness, guilt- 
lessness, blamelessness. 

ANT. Guilt, offensiveness, 
contamination, tinfulness, im- 
purity, guile, corruption. 

Innocent. Pure, sinless, virtu- 
ous, upright, stainless, right, 
faultless, guileless, clear, clean, 
blameless, guiltless, harmless, 
inoffensive, righteous, spotless, 
immaculate, innocuous. 

ANT. Criminal, culpable, im- 
moral, guilty, blameworthy. 

Innocuous. Harmless, innocent, 
inoffensive, wholesome, innox- 

ANT. Hurtful, deleterious, 
insidious, obnoxious. 

Innovation. Change, alteration, 
novelty, reversal. 

ANT. Archaism, conserva- 
tion, maintenance, old fashion, 

Inoculate. Vaccinate, impreg- 
nate, indoctrinate, instil, in- 
sert, imbue, ingraft, ingrain. 

ANT. Prune, divest; dis- 

Inquiry. Query, interrogation. 

[ 168 ] 




question, interrogatory; study, 
investigation, research, explo- 
ration, examination, scrutiny; 
asking, search. 

ANT. Ouess, intuition, con- 
jecture, assumption, supposi- 
tion, hypothesis. 

Inquisitive. Curious, meddle- 
some, intrusive, searching, pry- 
ing, inquiring, meddling, peep- 
ing, scrutinizing. 

ANT. Uninterested, uncon- 
cerned, careless, heecless, apa- 
thetic, inattentive, indifferent. 

Inroad. Incursion, foray, raid, 
irruption, encroachment, tres- 
pass, infringement, dragon- 

ANT. Occupation, sally, re- 
treat, settlement, evacuation, 
excursion, egress. 

Insane. Crazy, lunatic, mad, de- 
ranged, demented, crazed, de- 

ANT. Sane, sound, sensible, 
quiet, composed, sober. 

Insanity. Delirium, dementia, 
frenzy, lunacy, mania, aberra- 
tion, madness, alienation, de- 
rangement, monomania, hallu- 
cination, craziness. 

ANT. Sanity, clearness, ra- 
tionality, lucidity, good sense, 
reason, intellect, intelligence. 

Inscribe. Write, engrave, im- 
press, imprint; address, dedi- 
cate; label, letter, mark, deline- 

ANT. Erase, efface, cancel, 
expunge, obliterate. 

Inscrutable. Incomprehensible, 
unsearchable, impenetrable, un- 
intelligible, hidden, mysterious, 
untraceable, insolvable, pro- 

ANT. Obvious, intelligible, 
explainable, self-evident, famil- 

Insert. Set in, place in, intro- 

ANT. Exclude, follow, add. 

Inside. Within, internally. 

ANT. Without, outside, ex- 

Insidious. Artful, crafty, schem- 
ing, cunning, intriguing, tricky, 
designing; secret, deceptive. 

ANT. Straightforward, sin- 
cere, undesigning. 

Insinuate. Push slily, ingrati- 
ate; infuse, inculcate; hint, in- 
timate, suggest; introduce, in- 

ANT. Withdraw, extract, re- 
tract, alienate. 

Insipid. Tasteless, stale, flat; 
spiritless, heavy, stupid, unin- 
teresting, prosaic, tame, prosy, 
dull, unentertaining, charac- 
terless, flavorless. 

ANT. Racy, interesting, en- 
gaging, piquant, spirited, lively. 

Insist. Demand, maintain, urge, 
contend, persist, press, perse- 

ANT. Abandon, surrender, 
concede, yield, waive, forego. 

Insolence. Rudeness, contempt, 
disrespect, contumely; imper- 
tinence, pertness, impudence; 
frowardness, disobedience, in- 
subordination ; arrogance, as- 

ANT. Consideration, defer- 
ence, modesty, respect, polite- 
ness, bashfulncss. 

Insolvent. Bankrupt, penniless, 
beggared, ruined. 

ANT. Solvent, wealthy, flush, 
flourishing, thriving. 

Inspect. Examine, scrutinize, 
investigate, oversee, superin- 
tend, supervise, overhaul. 

ANT. Overlook, connive, dis- 
miss, glance, pretermit. 

Inspector. Examiner, critic, vis- 
itor, superintendent, censor, 

Inspiration. Inhalation; affla- 
tus, obsession; exaltation, an- 

[ 169 ] 




thusiasm, frenzy, impulse, rev- 
elation, intuition; insight, ge- 

ANT. Study, education, ac- 
quirement, learning, elabora- 
tion, observation, deduction. 

Instance. Request, impulse, in- 
stigation, incitement; solicita- 
tion, importunity, pressure, 
urgency; illustration, example, 
citation, case, exemplification, 
specification ; entreaty, point, 
prompting, persuasion, occur- 

ANT. Dissuasion, warning, 
deprecation, reluctance; rule, 
principle, statement. 

Instant, n. Moment, twinkling, 
second, minute, flash, trice, 
jiffy; particular hour or mo- 

ANT. Period, time, cycle, du- 
ration; eternity, permanence, 

Instant, a. Immediate, instan- 
taneous, quick; pressing, ear- 
nest, urgent; current, present, 

ANT. Continuous, contin- 
ual; perpetual, eternal. 

Instantly. Immediately, forth- 
with, directly, at once, pres- 
ently, straightway. 

ANT. In the future, after a 

Instigate. Incite, impel, move, 
urge, prompt, provoke, stimu- 
late, rouse, influence, encour- 
age, persuade, prevail upon. 

ANT. Repress, restrain, dis- 
courage, unthhold, retard. 

Instil. Infuse, insinuate; im- 
plant, enforce, impress, incul- 
cate, import, introduce. 

ANT. Extract, remove, elim- 
inate, eradicate, drain, extir- 

Instinct, n. Impulse, proclivity, 
tendency, inclination, prompt- 
ing, intuition. 

ANT. Reason, deliberation, 
experience, judgment, elabora- 
tion, experiment. 

Instinctive. Natural, spontane- 
ous; impulsive, unreflecting; 
voluntary, intuitive. 

ANT. Rational, cultivated, 
logical, judicious, reasonable, 

Institute, v. Found, establish, 
originate, appoint, settle, fix; 
ordain, enact, pass ; begin, com- 
mence; invest, instal, appoint, 
induct, organize. 

ANT. Subvert, degrade, de- 
prive, disestablish. 

Institution. Establishment, in- 
vestiture, custom, practice; col- 
lege, school, academy, seminary, 

Instruct. Teach, inform, train, 
educate, enlighten, indoctri- 
nate; direct, command, order; 
acquaint, discipline, initiate. 

ANT. Misinform, misguide, 
mislead, deceive, neglect; bru- 
talize; learn, study. 

Instruction. Teaching, educa- 
tion, training, schooling, infor- 
mation, discipline, tuition, ad- 
vice, counsel, direction, precept, 
order, command, mandate. 

ANT. Misguidance, misinfor- 
mation, misdirection; pupilage, 

Instrument. Tool, utensil, im- 
plement; agent, medium, ma- 
chine; document, deed, writ- 
ing, charter, indenture, record. 
ANT. Obstruction, bar, stop, 
preventive; counteragent, op- 
ponent, neutralizer ; misappli- 
cation, counteraction. 

Instrumentality. Intervention, 
medium, means, agency, medi- 
ation; use, employment. 

ANT. Property, quality, vir- 
tue, force, efficacy; non-inter- 
vention, spontaneity; counter- 
agency, neutralization. 




Insult, n. Offense affront, in- 
dignity, outrage, abuse, rude- 
ness, dishonor, slight, disre- 

ANT. Respect, hcmage, com- 
pliment, deference. 

Insult, v. Outrage, offend, dis- 
honor, abuse ; provoke, mock, 

ANT. Respect, salute, honor, 
compliment, flatter, praise. 

Insure. Make secure; assure; 
underwrite; provide, warrant, 
secure, guarantee, stabilitate. 

ANT. Imperil, jeopardize, 
shake, stake. 

Insurgent, n. Rebel, malcontent, 
mutineer, traitor, rioter. 

ANT. Patriot, adherent, sup- 
porter; ruler, magistrate. 

Insurgent, a. Rebellious, diso- 
bedient, mutinous, unruly, in- 
subordinate, seditious. 

ANT. Obedient, loyal, patri- 

Insurrection. Rebellion, revolt, 
uprising, mutiny, sedition, riot, 
tumult, anarchy; pronounce- 

ANT. Law, order, peace, sub- 
jection, obedience, submission, 
bondage, subsidence, acquies- 
cence; government, pacification. 

Intact. Untouched, unhurt, un- 
harmed, uninjured, scatheless; 
whole, entire, unbroken, un- 
diminished ; safe, inviolate, sa- 
cred, undefiled, uncorrupted, 

ANT. Defiled, hurt, touched, 
injured, corrupt, affected, con- 

Integrate. Unite, combine, con- 
solidate, solidify, incorporate; 
sum, complete. 

ANT. Analyze, dismember, 
detach, remove, amputate, dis- 

Integrity. Completeness, en- 
tirety, wholeness; honesty, rec- 

titude, virtue, goodness, prin- 
ciple; uprightness, honor, prob- 
ity, candor, truthfulness, con- 

ANT. Fraud, meanness, ras- 
cality, duplicity, unfairness, 
underhand fdness. 

Intellect. Reason, mind, sense, 
brains, understanding; con- 
sciousness, instinct; ability, ge- 
nius, talent. 

ANT. Matter, mechanism, 
force; passion; spirit, soul. 

Intellectual. Mental, psycho- 
logical, inventive, learned, cul- 
tured; philosophical, metaphys- 

ANT. Illiterate, unlearned, 

Intelligence. Knowledge, infor- 
mation, understanding, appre- 
hension, discernment, acumen, 
penetration, quickness, bright- 
ness, comprehension; news, an- 
nouncement, tidings, report, 
rumor, statement, notice, no- 
tification, publication, advice^ 
instruction; intellect, spirit. 

ANT. Misinformation, mis- 
understanding; ignorance, con- 
cealment, stupidity, misappre- 
hension, dulness, suppression, 

Intelligible. Clear, plain, un- 
derstandable, distinct, compre- 
hensible, explainable, familiar, 
self-evident, obvious. 

ANT. Inscrutable, mysteri- 
ous, hidden, insolvable, impen- 
etrable, ttnfathomable. 

Intend. Design, resolve, mean, 
propose, purpose, contemplate, 
determine, meditate. 

ANT. Venture, risk, hazard, 

Intense. Close, severe, strict, 
intent, strained; extreme; for- 
cible, energetic, powerful; ar- 
dent, earnest, vehement, exces- 

sive, immoderate. 

[ 171 ] 




ANT. Relaxed, easy, mod- 
.erate, forceless, impotent, in- 
different, cool, languid. 

Intensity. Intenseness, close- 
ness, severity, strictness; ten- 
sion, force, concentration, at- 
tention, strain; vehemence, vi- 
olence, excess; ardor, energy, 
eagerness, power, vigor, activ- 
ity, strength. 

ANT. Laxity, relaxation, de- 
bility, languor, coolness, indif- 

Intent, n. Purpose, aim, ob- 
ject, design, end, meaning, in- 
tention, purport, scope, drift, 

ANT. Chance, lot, accident, 

Intent, a. Eager, fixed, earnest, 
close, bent, set. 

ANT. Distracted, diverted, 

Intention. Design, purpose, in- 
tent, meaning, purport. 

ANT. Chance, fortune, luck. 

Intentional. Deliberate, con- 
templated, designed, intended, 
studied, purposed, premedi- 

ANT. Casual, accidental, un- 
designed, fortuitous. 

Inter. Bury, entomb, inhume. 
ANT. Exhume, disinter. 

Inter-. The synonyms and an- 
tonyms of words beginning 
with the prefix inter-, signify- 
ing between, among, amidst, 
mutually, may be obtained by 
adding this meaning to that of 
the synonyms and antonyms of 
the root word, in such cases as 
are of simple derivation. 

Intercede. Mediate, arbitrate, 
interpose, plead, make interces- 
sion, advocate, interfere. 

ANT. Abandon, excuse, in- 
criminate, inculpate. 

Intercept. Stop, cease; arrest, 
catch; obstruct, interrupt. 

ANT. Send, despatch, dele- 
gate, forward, commission, in- 

Intercourse. Converse, commun- 
ication, communion, commerce, 
connection, correspondence, in- 
timacy, dealing, intercommuni- 

ANT. Cessation, suspension, 
reticence, disconnection, inter- 

Interdict. Prohibit, forbid, pro- 
scribe, inhibit, restrain, stop, 
debar, disallow. 

ANT. Indulge, grant, allow, 

Interest, n. Advantage, benefit, 
profit, good; part, portion; re- 
gards, sympathy, concern, at- 
tention, curiosity, selfishness, 
behalf, share; authority, in- 
fluence ; premium. 

ANT. Disadvantage, loss; 
inattention, unconcern, indif- 
ference; disconnection, repudi- 

Interfere. Intermeddle, inter- 
pose; clash, conflict, intervene, 
be opposed. 

ANT. Withdraw, retract, re- 
tire, recede. 

Interior. Inside, internal, in- 
ner, inward, inland. 

ANT. Outside, exterior. 
Interloper. Intruder, meddler, 

ANT. Member, constituent. 
Intermediate. Intervening, in- 
terposed, interjacent, included, 
comprised, middle, moderate. 

ANT. Surrounding, enclos- 
ing, outside, embracing, cir- 
cumjacent; extreme; exclu- 

Interment. Burial, sepulture, 

ANT. Exhumation, resur- 

Intermission. Suspension, in- 
terruption, stoppage, rest, stop, 

[ 172 ] 




pause, suspense, respite, inter- 
lude, remission, cessation, dis- 
continuance, interval, interreg- 

ANT. Continuity, continu- 
ance, constancy, uninterrupt- 
edncss, permanence, perpetuity. 

Intermit. Suspend, interrupt, 
relax, discontinue, break, stop, 
cease, abate, subside. 

ANT. Continue, prosecute; 
urge, despatch. 

Internal. Inner, interior, in- 
side; within. 

ANT. Outer, exterior, out- 

Internecine. Destructive, ex- 
terminating, deadly, inextin- 
guishable, irreconcilable, mor- 
tal, internecinal. 

ANT. Desultory, incursive, 
marauding, skirmishing, buc- 
caneering, guerilla, freeboot- 

Interpolate. Introduce, insevt, 
foist in, intercalate; interlard, 
interweave, import, garble, in- 
tersperse, gloss. 

ANT. Expunge, erase, ex- 
purgate; verify, authenticate; 

Interpose. Interfere, intercede, 
interrupt, mediate, meddle, ar- 
bitrate, intermeddle. 

ANT. Avoid, shun, retire, 
withdraw, hold aloof, let be, 
keep clear, stand aside. 

Interpret. Explain, define, ex- 
pound, elucidate, Unfold, de- 
cipher; translate, render, con- 
strue; declare, represent, solve. 
ANT. Mistake, misconceive, 
misunderstand, falsify, misin- 
terpret, distort, misrepresent. 

Interpretation. Exposition, ex- 
planation, elucidation; version, 
construction, rendering, trans- 
lation; sense, meaning, defini- 
tion, signification, solution. 
ANT. Misinterpretation, mis- 

rendering; problem, text, diffi- 

Interrogate. Question, ask, ex- 
amine, inquire of, catechise. 

ANT. Affirm, answer, assert t 
indorse, pronounce. 

Interrupt. Disturb, stop, hin- 
der, delay, interfere with; sep- 
arate, disconnect, divide, sever, 
sunder, cut, dissolve; suspend, 
discontinue, break off; inter- 

ANT. Continue, prosecute, 

Interstice. Crevice, hole, inter- 
val, chink, cleft, cranny, gap, 
crack, fissure, interspace. 
ANT. Seam, suture, stop-gap. 

Interval. Interstice; spell, sea- 
son, period, term, intermedi- 
ate time, interim, meantime, 
intermission, interspace, cessa- 

ANT. Continuity, uninter- 
ruptedness, simultaneousness. 

Intervention. Interposition, in- 
terference, intrusion, interces- 
sion, insinuation; agency, me- 

ANT. Continuance, non-in- 

Interview. Meeting, parley, con- 
ference, consultation, colloquy, 

ANT. Isolation, exclusion, in- 
dependence, avoidance. 

Intestate. Unwilled, undevised, 

ANT. Willed, bequeathed, de- 

Intestine, a. Internal, domestic, 
interior, inward ; civil ; subjec- 

ANT. External, outward, for- 
eign, federal; objective. 

Intimate, n. Confidant, associ- 
ate, crony, familiar, companion, 

Intimate, v. Suggest, hint, in- 
sinuate, allude to, remind of; 

[ 173 ] 




announce, declare, communi- 
cate, tell. 

ANT. Conceal, reserve, with- 
hold, repress. 

Intimate, a. Near, close, famil- 
iar, friendly, confidential; in- 
ternal, interior, inward, deep- 
seated, hearty; thorough, com- 
plete, direct, exact; conversant. 
ANT. Distant, strange, unfa- 
miliar; superficial. 

Intimidate. Frighten, alarm, 
scare, daunt, dismay, threaten, 
appal, terrify, deter, dishearten. 
ANT. Calm, compose; en- 
courage, inspirit, animate, reas- 

Intolerable. Insufferable, un- 
endurable, insupportable, un- 

ANT. Endurable, comfort- 
able, tolerable, supportable, pos- 
sible to be borne. 

Intolerant. Bigoted, unforbear- 
ing; extreme. 

ANT. Tolerant, forbearing, 
large-minded, indulgent. 

Intoxication. Inebriety, inebri- 
ation, drunkenness ; excitement, 
infatuation, exhilaration, delir- 
ium, bewilderment, hallucina- 
tion, ecstasy; poison, venom. 

ANT. Antidote, sobriety, san- 
ity, gravity, melancholy, depres- 
sion; abstinence, abstemious- 

Intrenchment. Ditch, dike, for- 
tification, earthwork, moat; de- 
fense, protection, shelter, inva- 
sion, inroad, encroachment, in- 
fringement, trespass. 

ANT. Wall, rampart, mole, 
embankment, mound, bastion; 
forbearance, deference, respect. 

Intrepid. Bold, brave, fearless, 
undaunted, courageous, valor- 
ous, unterrified, dauntless, chiv- 
alrous, heroic, undismayed, un- 
awed, valiant, doughty. 

ANT. Cautious, timid, fear- 

ful, cowardly, dismayed, terri- 

Intricacy. Complexity, compli- 
cation, entanglement, perplex- 
ity, difficulty, intricateness, ob- 
scurity, confusion. 

ANT. Directness, obvious- 
ness; system, method; disposi- 
tion, array. 

Intricate. Involved, perplexed, 
complicated, entangled, com- 
plex; mazy, labyrinthine, tor- 

ANT. Simple, direct, obvious, 
plain, uninvolved. 

Intrigue. Plot, scheme, cabal, 
conspiracy, machination, arti- 
fice, cunning, duplicity, trick- 
ery, chicanery, ruse; liaison, 

ANT. Insurrection, assault, 
rebellion, force, violence; sin- 
cerity, candor, honesty, open- 
ness, straight fonvardness. 

Intrinsic. Inward, internal, es- 
sential, real, genuine, true, in- 
herent, native, innate, natural, 
immanent, inbred, inborn. 

ANT. Extrinsic, acquired, ap- 
parent, accidental, borrowed, 
assumed, pretended, added, ex- 
ternal, adventitious. 

Introduce. Lead in, usher in, 
present, conduct in, commence, 
make acquainted, make known, 
begin, preface. 

ANT. Come after, succeed, 
follow; end, conclude. 

Introduction. Introducing, pres- 
entation, ushering in; preface, 
prelude, preamble, proem, exor- 
dium; induction, importation, 
insertion, commencement, pre- 
liminary; portico, gate, vesti- 
bule, entrance. 

ANT. Eduction, ejection; 
extraction, exportation, elimi- 
nation, estrangement; comple- 
tion, conclusion, end; egress. 

Introductory. Prefatory, initia- 

[ 174 ] 



tory, preliminary, precursory, 
preparatory ; commendatory. 

ANT. Final, conclusive, ter- 
minal, valedictory, supplemen- 
tal; alienative. 

Intrude. Obtrude, encroach, in- 
fringe, trespass, trench, inter- 
fere, meddle. 

ANT. Withdraw, retire, re- 
cede; remove, retract. 
Intrusion. Encroachment, in- 
terference, intruding, obtrusion, 

ANT. Withdrawal, removal, 
retirement, retraction. 
Intuition. Apprehension, cogni- 
tion, perception, beholding; in- 
stinct, insight, recognition. 

ANT. Information, instruc- 
tion, learning, experience, ac- 
quirement, induction. 
Inundate. Flood, deluge, over- 
flow, submerge, cover, over- 

ANT. Drain, dry, reclaim, 
desiccate, parch. 

Invade. Attack, infringe, vio- 
late, encroach on, trench upon; 
march into, enter in, assault, 
assail, occupy. 

ANT. Abandon, relinquish, 
vacate, evacuate. 

Invalid, a. Week, feeble, infirm, 
sick, frail; null, void; unsound, 
baseless, untrue, unfounded, fal- 

ANT. Strong, well, healthy, 
vigorous; sound, legal, constitu- 
tional; legitimate, authorized; 
genuine, true, correct, exact. 
Invalidate. Nullify, cancel, an- 
nul, overthrow, make void. 

ANT. Conserve, maintain, es- 
tablish, confirm, enact, insti- 

Invasion. Trespass, incursion, ir- 
ruption, encroachment, inroad. 

ANT. Evacuation, abandon- 
ment, relinquishment ; settle- 
ment; retreat. 

Invective. Satire, sarcasm, dia- 
tribe, railing, abuse; obloquy, 
denunciation, vituperation, re- 
proach, castigation. 

ANT. Praise, commendation, 
encomium, eulogy, panegyric. 

Invent. Discover, find out, de- 
vise, contrive, produce; design, 
concoct, elaborate ; conceive, 
contrive, fabricate, originate, 
forge, frame. 

ANT. Copy, imitate, repro- 
duce; execute. 

Invention. Contrivance, con- 
struction, device; fiction, fab- 
rication, falsehood; thought, 

ANT. Material. 

Inventive. Ingenious, skilful, 
clever, adept, resourceful. 

ANT. Slow, unskilful, unin- 

Inventor. Contriver, origina- 
tor, author, creator. 
ANT. Destroyer. 

Inventory. List, catalogue, reg- 
ister, record, enrolment, enu- 

Inversion. Reversal, transposi- 
tion, alteration, deflection, vio- 
lation, permutation. 

ANT. Erectness, verticality; 
stability, permanence, fixity, 
state, order, sequence; conser- 

Invert. Upset, overthrow, re- 
verse, subvert. 

ANT. Restore, set up, make 

Invest. Clothe, dress, array, en- 
dow; attend, surround; lay out. 
ANT. Divest, dismantle, un- 
clothe, strip, disrobe; deprive. 

Investigate. Inquire, examine, 
test, scrutinize, prove, search, 
explore, inspect, criticize, dis- 
cuss, study. 

ANT. Conjecture, guess. 

Investigation. Search, exami- 
nation, inquiry, research, ex- 

t 175 1 




ploration, inquisition, sifting, 
scrutiny, study. 

ANT. Discovery, clue, indi- 
cation; solution, thread. 
Investiture. Installation, induc- 
tion, investment, habilitation. 

ANT. Divestiture, divest- 

Inveterate. Long-established, 
obstinate; malignant, spiteful, 
virulent; besetting, confirmed, 
chronic, ingrain, incarnate, ha- 
bitual, deep-rooted, hardened, 

ANT. Undeveloped, incipient, 

Invidious. Hateful, offensive, 
odious; unfair, partial, incon- 
siderate ; gratuitous. 

ANT. Fair, just, consider- 
ate, impartial, due. 
Invigorate. Strengthen, brace, 
harden, nerve, refresh, stimu- 
late, animate, exhilarate. 

ANT. Weaken, enfeeble, de- 
bilitate, deteriorate, relax, un- 
string, enervate. 

Invitation. Solicitation, allure- 
ment, enticement. 

ANT. Rebuff, snub, check, re- 

Invite. Ask, summon, bid, re- 
quest, solicit, call, attract, en- 
tice, persuade, allure; tempt, 
incite, challenge. 

ANT. Repel, forbid, depre- 
cate; exclude, discard. 

Invoke. Supplicate, implore, 
solicit, summon, call, beseech, 
invite, challenge, invocate, ap- 
peal to, conjure, imprecate. 

ANT. Defy; deprecate, de- 
ter; ignore, elude; warn, in- 

Involution. Complication, en- 
tanglement; envelope; implica- 
tion, mingling. 

AWT. Evolution, disconnec- 
tion, evolvement, extrication, 

Involve. Envelop, wrap, cover; 
comprise, embrace, contain ; 
connect, unite, mingle, blend, 
twine, interweave; implicate, 
entangle, complicate, embroil, 
embarrass, include, overwhelm, 

ANT. Extricate, remove, dis- 
connect, separate, disentangle, 
distinguish, explicate. 

Inward. Secretly, privately; in- 
ternal, interior, inner; within. 
ANT. Outward, external, ex- 

Iota. Jot, tittle, particle, atom. 
ANT. Whole, mass. 

Irate, Irascible. Hasty, angry, 
enraged, incensed, choleric, ir- 

ANT. Good-tempered, calm, 
forbearing, gentle, mild. 

Ire. Anger, wrath, rage, fury, 
choler, indignation, resentment, 
displeasure, vexation. 

ANT. Good will, patience, for- 
bearance, mildness, forgiveness, 
reconciliation, peaceableness. 

Irridescent. Prismatic; opal- 
ine, polychromatous, nacreous. 
ANT. Blanched, neutral, col- 
orless, dingy, achromatic. 

Isolate. Separate, detach, dis- 
sociate; insulate. 

ANT. Associate, unite. 

Isolation. Separation, loneli- 
ness, segregation, detachment, 
disconnection, insulation; soli- 
tariness, solitude. 

ANT. Organization, commu- 
nity, co-membership, connec- 
tion; continuity, concatenation. 

Issue. Egress, exit, outlet; de- 
livery; copy, number, edition, 
impression; event, outcome, re- 
sult, end, conclusion, consum- 
mation, effect, termination; 
children, offspring, posterity, 
progeny ; antagonism, contro- 
versy, contest. 

ANT. Cause, principle, n- 

[ 176 ] 




fluence, action, working, oper- 
ation; laic, system, commence- 
ment; ancestry, paternity. 
Iteration. Recital, repetition, 
reiteration, recurrence, harp- 
ing, succession. 

Single statement. 

Itinerant, a. Traveling, wan- 
dering, roving, roaming, jour- 
neying, unsettled, nomadic. 

ANT. Stationary, domestic, 
settled, fixed, local. 

Itinerary. Guide, guidebook, 

Jade, v. Tire, weary, fatigue, 
exhaust, fag ; worry, harass, op- 

ANT. Refresh, recruit, in- 
vigorate, inspirit. 

Jagged. Notched, indented, un- 
even, ragged. 
ANT. Smooth. 

Jangle, n. Jargon, babel, bick- 
ering, wrangle, quarrel, squab- 
ble, contention. 

ANT. Argument, discourse, 

Jar, v. Shake, agitate ; clash, in- 
terfere; wrangle, quarrel, con- 
tend, bicker, spar, squabble, 

ANT. Agree, harmonize, ac- 
cord, concur. 

Jarg-on. Gabble, gibberish; non- 
sense, twaddle, flummery, trash, 
stuff, gabble; slang; lingo, pa- 

ANT. Speech, conversation; 
discourse, oration; literature. 

Jaundiced. Biased, prejudiced, 
warped, prepossessed; bilious. 
ANT. Unprejudiced, unbi- 

Jaunty. Airy, showy, finical, 
fluttering, gay, fine, bedizened, 
flighty, fantastic, flaunting. 

ANT. Staid, sober, sedate, 
dignified, demure. 

Jealous. Envious, suspicious, 
resentful, covetous, invidious ; 
anxious, apprehensive, solici- 
tous, zealous, watchful. 

ANT. Indifferent, genial, tm- 
envious, liberal, self-denying. 
Jealousy. Suspicion, envy, ri- 
valry, solicitude. 

ANT. Vigilance, watchful- 
ness, magnanimity, generous- 
ness, friendliness; certainty. 
Jeer, v. Scoff, taunt, jibe, sneer, 
flout, mock, jest, deride, banter. 
ANT. Flatter, compliment, 
praise; adulate, faum, cringe. 
Jejune. Empty, barren, meager, 
dry, sterile, bare, lean, unin- 
teresting, thin, scant, poverty- 
stricken, poor, void. 

ANT. Full, rich, exuberant, 
racy, interesting, overwrought, 
redundant, abundant. 
Jeopardy. Hazard, peril, risk, 
danger, venture. 

ANT. Security, safety, in- 
surance, provision. 
Jest, n. Joke, witticism, quip, 
sally, raillery, fun, sport. 

ANT. Seriousness, gravity, 

Jest, v. Joke, sport, rally, ban- 
ter, ridicule, mock, grin. 

ANT. Preach, sermonize. 
Jocose. Humorous, facetious, 
witty, droll, funny, comical, 
jocular, sportive, merry, wag- 

ANT. Melancholy, serious, 
earnest, grave, lugubrious. 
Jocund. Joyous, joyful, merry, 
frolicsome, blithe, jolly, sport- 
ive, lively, playful, airy, gay, 

[ 177 




debonair, jovial, gleeful, care- 
less, blithesome, mirthful, hi- 
larious, sprightly, vivacious. 

ANT. Melancholy, dull, sor- 
rowful, grave, mournful, cheer- 
less, rueful, doleful, careworn, 

Join. Add, attach, annex; con- 
nect, couple, link, unite, con- 
join, cement; adjoin, be adja- 
cent to, connect with; associ- 
ate with, confederate, league. 

ANT. Separate, disconnect, 
disjoin, subtract, sever. 
Joint. Juncture, union; flexure, 
elbow, knee, articulation. 

ANT. Disconnection, contin- 
uity, uniformity, solution, dis- 

Jollification. Revelry, convivial- 
ity, festivity, revel, carousal, 
wassail, carouse, fun, carnival. 

ANT. Weariness, tedium, 
tediousness, soberness, monot- 

Jolly. Merry, joyous, gay, jo- 
vial, mirthful, jocund, sportive, 
jocular, funny, sprightly, face- 
tious, waggish, blithe, blithe- 
some, cheery, cheerful; portly, 
bouncing, stout, plump. 

ANT. Sad, mournful, cheer- 
less, mirthless, joyless, lugu- 
brious, gloomy, morose. 
Jostle. Push, crowd, hustle, col- 
lide, strike against; shake, in- 
commode, joggle, jog, jolt. 

ANT. Clear, lead, convoy, 
escort, pilot, precede, extricate, 

Jot. Iota, whit, tittle, particle, 
atom, grain, bit, mite, scrap, 
scintilla, cipher, trifle, idea, 
thought, morsel, fraction. 

ANT. World, mass, volume, 
heap, bulk. 

Journey. Travel, transit, expe- 
dition, excursion, tour, voyage, 
trip, pilgrimage. 

ANT. Sojourn, tarrying, de- 

lay, stop, stay, abiding, stop- 

Jovial. Merry, joyous, gay, fes- 
tive, mirthful, jolly, gleeful, 
hilarious, genial, convivial. 

ANT. Ungenial, gloomy, lu- 
gubrious, melancholy, satur- 

Joviality. Merriment, jollity, 
mirth, hilarity, gaiety, frolic, 

ANT. Sadness, seriousness, 

Joy. Gladness, delight, pleasure, 
happiness, transport, felicity, 
exultation, ecstasy, bliss, rap- 
ture, gaiety, hilarity, glee, be- 
atitude, ravishment. 

ANT. Sorrow, grief, melan- 
choly, affliction, tears, depres- 
sion, despondency, pain, mis- 
ery, trouble, despair. 

Joyful. Glad, joyous, merry, ju- 
bilant, jocund, happy, jolly, 
jovial, elate, elated, delighted, 

ANT. Grave, solemn, mourn- 
ful, sad, melancholy, lugubri- 

Jubilant. Rejoicing, exultant, 
triumphant, joyous, festive, ex- 
ulting, congratulatory. 

ANT. Doleful, sorrowful, re- 
morseful, wailing, penitent, lu- 

Jubilee. Festival, season of re- 
joicing, feast, holiday, festiv- 
ity, revel, carnival, merriment* 
ANT. Fast, mourning, hu- 
miliation, penitence. 

Judge. Justice, referee, arbiter, 
arbitrator, ximpire ; magistrate, 
authority; critic, connoisseur. 

ANT. Criminal, novice, tyro, 

Judgment. Discernment, esti- 
mate, award, criticism, under- 
standing, discrimination, intel- 
ligence, taste, sagacity, pene- 
tration, wisdom, brains, pru- 

[ 178 ] 




dence, sense ; determination, 
decision, opinion, notion, con- 
clusion; judiciousness, intel- 
lect; verdict, sentence, reward, 

ANT. Argument, specula- 
tion, inquiry, proposition, in- 
vestigation, consideration, evi- 
dence, pleading, pronounce- 
ment; fickleness, insagacity, 

Judicial. Just, well-balanced, de- 
liberative; juridical, forensic. 

ANT. Legislative, executive, 
or administrative; impulsive. 

Judicious. Discreet, wise, pru- 
dent, sagacious, sensible, rea- 
sonable, rational, sober, sound, 
staid, politic, enlightened, well- 
considered, well-chosen; dis- 
cerning, thoughtful. 

ANT. Silly, imprudent, in- 
discreet, ill-judged, inexpedient, 
rash, impolitic, blind, foolish. 

Juggle, v. Cheat, conjure, im- 
pose, trick, practice jugglery, 
deceive, defraud ; bamboozle, 
beguile, swindle, mystify, mis- 
lead, overreach. 

ANT. Expose, enlighten, un- 
deceive; detect, reveal, correct. 

Jumble, n. Confusion, disorder, 

ANT. Order, system, neat- 
ness, arrangement. 

Jump, v. Leap, skip, bound, hop, 
spring, vault, caper; bounce, 
jolt, overleap; coincide, agree, 

ANT. Walk, pace, prome- 
nade; dance. 

Junction. Joining, union, com- 
bination, coalition, connection, 
linking, coupling; joint, junc- 
ture, angle; fastening, attach- 
ment; alliance, confederacy. 

ANT. Division, separation, 
disconnection, hiatus, chasm, 
uncoupling, disunion; continu- 

Jungle. Thicket, brake, wilder- 
ness, labyrinth, underbrush, en- 

ANT. Open, clearing; order, 
arrangement, system. 

Junior. Younger ; subordinate, 
less advanced. 

ANT. Senior, elder, older; 
more advanced, superior. 

Jurisdiction. Right, authority, 
sphere, judicature, legal power; 
government, control, sway, ad- 
ministration, magistracy. 

ANT. Immunity, exemption, 
freedom, independence. 

Just. Upright, righteous, hon- 
est, true, conforming to justice ; 
exact, normal, reasonable, due; 
equitable, fair, impartial, right, 
rightful, lawful ; fair-minded, 
blameless, honorable, straight- 
forward, virtuous, uncorrupt; 
accurate, correct; deserved, fit, 
merited, appropriate, suitable, 
happy, proper, harmonious. 

ANT. Evil, untrue, unjust, 
dishonest, prejudiced, unfair, 
unreasonable, partial, unlawful, 
unequitable; blameworthy, cor- 
rupt, dishonorable; inaccurate, 
incorrect; undeserved, unfit, in- 
appropriate, inharmonious. 

Justice. Legality, eqtiity, recti- 
tude, fairness, law, lawfulness, 
right, truth, uprightness, vir- 
tue, fair play, faithfulness, im- 
partiality, integrity, righteous- 
ness ; reasonableness, desert, 

ANT. Injustice, dishonesty, 
favoritism, partiality, wrong, 
unlawfulness, unfairness, un- 

Justification. Vindication, de- 
fense, exoneration, exculpation ; 
absolution; apology, advocacy, 
plea, maintenance. 

ANT. Censure, condemna- 
tion, conviction, implication, 
crimination, inculpation. 

[ 179 ] 




Justify. Vindicate, maintain, 
defend; absolve, clear, exoner- 
ate; pardon, exculpate; adjust; 

ANT. Condemn, convict, cen- 
sure, criminate. 

Justness. Exactness, propri- 
ety, correctness, accuracy, ex- 
actitude, strictness, fidelity, 

ANT. Incorrectness, inexact- 
ness, slovenliness. 

Juvenile. Young, youthful, pu- 
erile, childish, boyish, girlish, 
infantine, immature, adoles- 

ANT. Mature, elderly, aged, 
senile, adult, manly, womanly, 

Juxtaposition. Nearness, con- 
tiguity, adjacency, proximity, 

ANT. Distance, remoteness, 
separateness; opposition. 

Keen. Sharp; acute; bitter, se- 
vere, piercing, stinging; eager, 
vehement, fierce; prompt, ar- 
dent, cutting, biting, sarcastic, 
penetrating, satirical, shrewd; 
poignant, acrimonious, caustic; 
discerning, quick, astute. 

ANT. Blunt, dull, languid, 
blind, indifferent, obtuse, undis- 
cerning, slow, simple. 

Keep. Retain, hold, reserve, de- 
tain, preserve, restrain, with- 
hold, maintain, support, sus- 
tain, continue, guard, protect, 
adhere to, obey, fulfil; cele- 
brate, honor, conduct, commem- 
orate, solemnize; haunt, fre- 
quent; observe, perform; con- 
ceal, suppress; hinder, prevent, 

ANT. Release, speed, liter- 
ate, send, dismiss; neglect, be- 
tray, abandon, discard; disre- 
gard, disobey, transgress, for- 
sake, desert, forget. 

Keeping. Charge, guardianship, 
custody, care ; holding, preser- 
vation, restraint; maintenance, 
support, feed, provision; har- 
mony, consistency, congruity, 
conformity, agreement. 

ANT. Neglect, abuse, disre- 
gard; abandonment, destruc- 

tion; nonsupport, betrayal; dis- 
agreement, incongruity. 

Keepsake. Souvenir, token, re 
membra ncer. 

Ken. Sight, view, cognizance, 
knowledge, survey, range. 

ANT. Ignorance, oversight, 
inexperience, inobservance. 

Kernel. Seed, grain; nucleus; 
core, gist. 

ANT. Peeling, meat, shell, 

Key. Lock opener; clue, guide, 
solution, explanation; keynote, 
tonic; wedge, clamp; lever. 

ANT. Mystification, confu- 
sion, mystery, secret, problem. 

Kick. Strike or thrust at with 
the foot; recoil; resist, rebel, 
spurn, be calcitrant. 

ANT. Caress, soothe, flatter, 

Kill. Murder, massacre, as- 
sassinate, butcher, execute, des- 
patch, slay, slaughter, put to 

ANT. Resuscitate, vivify, re- 
animate, revivify, quicken, en- 

Kin. Family, birth, blood, con- 
sanguinity, descent, race, rela- 
tionship, kind, kindred, affin- 
ity, alliance. 

[ 180 ] 




ANT. Strangership, inaffin- 
ity, alienage, foreignership. 

Kind, n. Race, family, species, 
breed, class, genus; character, 
sort, variety, nature, fashion, 
description, denomination, des- 

ANT. Dissimilarity, differen- 

Kind, a. Benign, indulgent, hu- 
mane, compassionate, gentle, 
tender, beneficent, propitious, 
generous, forbearing, lenient, 
bounteous, clement, mild, good, 
obliging, bland, friendly, ami- 
cable, philanthropic, charitable, 
sympathetic, affectionate, ten- 

ANT. Harsh, severe, hard, 
cruel, unkind, rough, stern, for- 
bidding, austere, crabbed, il- 

Kindle. Light, ignite, inflame, 
enkindle, set on fire; excite, 
arouse, awaken, stir up, stimu- 
late, incite, animate, foment; 
exasperate, provoke, enrage. 

ANT. Quench, suppress, ex- 
tinguish, allay. 

Kindness, Kindliness. Benevo- 
lence, humanity, charity, sym- 

^ pathy, compassion, amiability, 
good nature; mildness, gentle- 
ness, softness. 

ANT. Harshness, cruelty, se- 
verity, sternness, roughness, au- 

Kindred, n. Relationship, con- 
sanguinity, affinity; relations, 
kin, kith and kin, relatives, 
kinsmen, kinsfolk. 

ANT. Disconnection, unre- 
latedness; strangers, foreign- 

Kindred, a. Related, cognate, 
akin, allied, congenial; respon- 
sive, sympathetic. 

ANT. Unrelated, uncongen- 
ial, unallied; different, unre- 

Kingdom. Empire, monarchy, 
sovereignty, domain, dominion. 

Kingly. Regal, royal, monar- 
chical, imperial, august, sov- 
ereign, noble, splendid, mag- 
nificent, imposing, grand, ma- 

ANT. Plebeian, humble, pop- 
ular, commonplace, simple, vul- 

Knack. Toy, plaything, gim- 
crack; dexterity, skill, adroit- 
ness, facility, aptness, aptitude, 
expertness, quickness. 

ANT. Clumsiness, awkward- 
ness, ineptitude. 

Knave. Villain, rascal, rogue, 
scoundrel, cheat, scamp, mis- 
creant, swindler, scapegrace. 

ANT. Gentleman, hero; gull, 
dupe, simpleton. 

Knavish. Trickish, cheating; 
mischievous, roguish, waggish; 
fraudulent, villainous. 

ANT. Honest, upright, hon- 

Knot, n. Tie, bond, intricacy, 
connection; entanglement, com- 
plication; joint; group, band, 
clique, gang, crew. 

ANT. Loosening, unfasten- 
ing, unraveling, dispersion; so- 
lution, simplification; evenness, 
smoothness; individual. 

Knotty. Knotted, difficult, in- 
tricate, perplexed, tough, hard, 

ANT. Plain, simple, obvious, 
easy, smooth, uninvolved. 

Know. Perceive, apprehend, un- 
derstand; be convinced or as- 
sured; acquaint, recognize; dis- 
tinguish, comprehend. 

ANT. Be ignorant or illit- 
erate, overlook, misunderstand, 

Knowing. Intelligent, skilful, 
competent, well-informed, pro- 
ficient, qualified, experienced, 
accomplished; conscious, per- 

[ 181 ] 




cipient, thinking; cunning, ex- 
pressive, significant; shrewd, 
astute, discerning, sagacious. 

ANT. Simple, innocent, gul- 
lible, stolid, silly; dull, stupid, 
inefficient; unresponsive, non- 

Knowledge. Learning, wisdom, 
scholarship, science, compre- 
hension, cognition, erudition, 
intelligence, light, lore, percep- 

tion, recognition, acquaintance, 
intuition, experience, informa- 
tion, apprehension, notice, un- 
derstanding, conversance, cog- 
nizance, familiarity, instruc- 
tion, enlightenment; acquire- 
ments, attainments. 

ANT. Ignorance, illiteracy, 
unfamiliarity, rudeness, inex- 
perience, misapprehension, r/n's- 
conception, misunderstanding. 

Labor, n. Toil, exertion, work, 
effort, task, travail; drudgery, 
industry, painstaking; burden, 

ANT. Ease, indolence, rest, 
respite, recreation, refreshment, 
vacation, inactivity, laziness. 

Labored. Elaborate, studied, 
highly wrought, overwrought, 
stiff, heavy. 

ANT. Easy, natural, simple. 

Laborer. Workman, operative, 
workingman, hand, employee, 
ANT. Employer. 

Laborious. Toilsome, difficult, 
tiresome, onerous, wearisome, 
fatiguing, arduous, hard, bur- 
densome, tedious, irksome; in- 
dustrious, diligent, toiling, as- 
siduous, hard-working, pains- 
taking, sedulous, indefatigable, 

ANT. Easy, light, simple, fac- 
ile, feasible; lazy, indolent, in- 
diligent, idle. 

Labyrinth. Maze, confusion, in- 
tricacy, windings ; perplexity, 
complexity, bewilderment, in- 
volutions ; difficulty. 

ANT. Simplicity, calm, per- 
spicacity ; insight, understand- 

Lack, n. Deficiency, want, need, 

destitution, failure, scantiness, 
dearth, scarcity, fault, deficit, 
shortness, insufficiency. 

ANT. Plenty, fulness, abun- 
dance, supply, sufficiency, com- 
petence, satisfaction. 

Laconic, Laconical. Short, epi- 
grammatic, brusk, brief, con- 
cise, pithy, sententious, terse, 

ANT. Wordy, tedious, pro- 
lix, diffuse, prosy, loquacious, 

Laggard, n. Loiterer, lingerer, 
sluggard, saunterer, dawdler, 

Laical. Laic, lay, unprofession- 
al; secular, temporal; civil, 

ANT. Clerical, professional, 
theological, sacred, divine, ec- 
clesiastic, ministerial, priestly, 
canonical, legal, sacerdotal. 

Laity. Laymen, the people. 

ANT. Clergy, professional 

Lame. Hobbling, crippled, limp- 
ing; inefficient, imperfect, de- 
fective ; weak, feeble, poor, un- 
satisfactory, insufficient ; halt, 
faltering, impotent. 

ANT. Robust, strong, potent, 
efficient, cogent, effective, con- 
vincing, telling, satisfactory. 

[ 182 ] 




Lament, v. Mourn, bemoan, be- 
wail, deplore, sorrow over, re- 
gret, grieve. 

ANT. Rejoice, enjoy, hail, 

Language. Idiom, speech, dia- 
lect, tongue, patois, barbarism, 
diction, expression, vernacu- 
lar, vocabulary, mother tongue, 
phraseology, discourse, conver- 
sation, talk; articulation, ac- 
cents; style, utterance, voice. 

ANT. Jargon, gibberish, cry, 
howl, roar; speechlcssness, in- 
articulateness, muteness, dumb- 

Languid. Drooping, indisposed, 
inanimate, feeble, weak, faint, 
sickly, pining, weary, listless, 
heavy, dull, exhausted, heart- 
less ; enervated, flagging, spirit- 
less, unnerved, unbraced. 

ANT. Strong, vigorous, ro- 
bust, active, braced, healthy, en- 
ergetic, animated, alert. 

Languish. To be languid, pine, 
droop, sink, faint, decline. 

ANT. Luxuriate, thrive, pros- 
per, flourish, bloom. 

Languor. Feebleness, weakness, 
faintness, weariness, lassitude, 
listlessness, heaviness, dul- 

ANT. Strength, vigor, energy, 
freshness, lithesomencss. 

Lank. Slender, thin, shrunken, 
lean, loose, slim, long, lax. 

ANT. Plump, fat, chubby, 
short, full, rounded. 

Lapse, n. Slipping, falling, slip, 
fault; termination, failure; es- 
cheatment, flow, flux, progress, 
reversion, elapsing; apostasy. 
ANT. Stability, fixedness, re- 
tention, fixture, stoppage, up- 
rightness; inheritance, posses- 

Large. Colossal, ample, broad, 
bulky, extensive, vast, massive, 
spacious, wide, commodious, 

enormous, coarse, grand, long, 
gigantic, immense, huge, great, 
big, capacious, considerable, 
abundant; diffuse, comprehen- 
sive, profuse, plentiful, popu- 
lous, copious, liberal; enlight- 
ened, catholic. 

ANT. Circumscribed, illib- 
eral, contracted, niggardly, sor- 
did, bigoted; small, little, mi- 
croscopic, mean, minute, tiny, 
slender, trifling, trivial, dimin- 
utive, inconsiderable, slight, in- 
finitesimal, limited, short, insig- 
nificant, scanty, petty, narrow, 

Lash, v. Strike, whip, scourge, 
flog, beat, tie, fasten; censure, 
satirize, castigate. 

ANT. Soothe, smooth, ca- 
ress; eulogize, compliment, ex- 

Lassitude. Languor, weariness, 
weakness, debility, inertia. 

ANT. Energy, strength, ro- 
bustness, vigor, freshness. 

Last, v. Continue, endure, per- 
sist, remain, hold, abide, live. 

ANT. End, stop, terminate, 
depart, fade, cease, fail, die. 

Last, a. Final, hindmost, far- 
thest; next, past; highest or 
lowest, supreme, utmost; most 
unlikely, least fit; latest, final, 
concluding, ultimate. 

ANT. First, foremost, open- 
ing, introductory, initiatory; 
ensuing, next, nearest. 

Lasting. Durable, permanent, 
unending, enduring, abiding, 

ANT. Temporary, transient, 
ephemeral, momentary, occa- 
sional, periodic, recurrent. 

Late. Slow, tardy; deceased, de- 
parted; far advanced; recent; 
not long past; delayed. 

ANT. Early, coming, pres- 
ent, future, forthcoming, exist- 

[ 183 ] 




Lately. Recently, of late, not 
far past, but just. 

ANT. Formerly, remotely, 
distantly in past or future. 

Latent. Hidden, secret, invis- 
ible, dormant, unobserved, con- 
cealed, inapparent, potential, 
implicit, undeveloped, inherent. 
ANT. Visible, explicit, ap- 
parent, exposed, developed, ac- 
tive, conspicuous, manifest. 

Lateral. At the side, oblique; 
indirect, secondary, resultant, 
parallel, incidental. 

ANT. Direct, primary, im- 
mediate, lineal. 

Latter. Later, modern, more re- 
cent; last, final. 

ANT. Former, previous, an- 
oient; penultimate. 

Laudable. Praiseworthy, com- 

ANT. Blameworthy, exe- 

Laughter. Laughing, mirth, 
merriment, glee; derision, ridi- 
cule, contempt. 

ANT. Weeping, tears, sor- 
row, mourning, lamentation; 
respect, veneration, admira- 

Launch, v. Hurl, throw, let fly; 
set afloat ; start, propel, move ; 
expatiate, enlarge. 

ANT. Recall, repress, retain; 
ignore, avoid, shun. 

Lavish, a. Profuse, prodigal ; 
superabundant, excessive, ex- 
travagant, bountiful, wasteful. 
ANT. Sparing, economical, 
close, niggardly, chary. 

Law. Code, canon, edict, decree, 
order, mandate, legislation, or- 
dinance, rule, regulation, ju- 
risprudence, enactment, com- 
mand, commandment, economy, 
formula, polity, principle, stat- 
ute; mode, method, sequence, 
adjudication, jurisdiction. 
ANT. Misrule, anarchy, dis- 

order, insubordination, rebel- 
lion; caprice, chance, irregu- 
larity, accident, casualty. 

Lawful. Conformable to law, 
legitimate, competent, consti- 
tuted, authorized; legal, con- 
stitutional, rightful, regular ; 
permissible, orderly, right, al- 
lowable, fair. 

ANT. Illegal, impermissible, 
unlawful, wrong. 

Lawless. Contrary to law, ille- 
gal ; unrestrained, unregulated ; 
wild, rebellious, savage, disor- 

ANT. Peaceful, law-abiding, 
loyal, civilized, honest, tract- 
able, well-disposed. 

Lawyer. Counselor, attorney, 
counsel, advocate. 
ANT. Client. 

Lax. Slack, vague, unconfined; 
dissolute, licentious ; incoher- 
ent; unprincipled, loose, re- 
miss, flabby. 

ANT. Concise, strict, rigid, 
coherent, compact; conscien- 
tious, principled. 

Lay. Put, place, establish, de- 
posit, arrange, spread, dispose, 
set down; allay, prostrate. 

ANT. Raise, erect, lift up; 
excite, disorder, disarrange. 

Lazy. Shirking, idle, inactive, 
slothful, slow, sluggish. 

ANT. Industrious, energetic, 
active, assiduous. 

Lead, n. Guidance, direction, in- 
itiative, control ; precedence, 
priority, preeminence. 

ANT. Following, submission, 
subordination; inferiority. 

Lead, v. Guide, conduct, direct, 
counsel; precede, draw, induce, 
entice, allure; convoy; com- 
mence, inaugurate ; persuade, 

ANT. Follow; dissuade, mis- 
lead, misguide; leave, aban- 

[ 184 ] 




Leader. Guide, conductor; di- 
rector, chief, head. 
ANT. Follower, disciple. 

League. Alliance, compact, co- 
alition, confederacy, confedera- 
tion, bond, combination, union. 
ANT. Neutrality; divorce, 
disruption, disunion, secession, 
disconnection, alienation, dis- 

Lean, v. Incline, deviate, bend, 
rest, rely on; conform; tend, 
depend, hang; slope; repose, 

ANT. Support, raise, erect, 
stabilitate, rise, straighten. 

Lean, a. Slender, spare, meager, 
thin, lank, gaunt, skinny, bare, 
scant, barren, mean; shriveled, 
emaciated, bony, scraggy. 

ANT. Fat, plump, brawny, 
well-conditioned, obese, stout. 

Leaning. Tendency, proclivity, 
propensity, bias, liking, parti- 
ality, inclination. 

ANT. Loathing, aversion, re- 
pugnance, avoidance, dislike. 

Leap, v. Jump, vault, spring, 
bound, hop, bounce. 

ANT. Walk, dive, swim, run. 

Learn. Acquire, imbibe, attain, 
collect, know, gather, under- 
stand, study. 

ANT. Forget, lose; teach, 

Learned. Erudite, versed, well- 
informed, scholarly, skilled, lit- 
erary, conversant, read. 

ANT. Ignorant, unlearned, 
illiterate, unscholarly. 

Learner. Pupil, scholar, stu- 
dent, disciple, novice. 

ANT. Teacher, professor, 
authority, adept, master, doc- 

Learning. Knowledge, erudi- 
tion, skill, literature, science, 
lore, letters, education, culture, 
tuition, acquirements, attain- 
ments, scholarship. 

ANT. Ignorance, illiteracy, 
boorishness, stupidity; inspira- 
tion, revelation. 

Least. Smallest, shortest, low- 
est, most unimportant, mean- 
est, last. 

ANT. Greatest, longest, no- 
blest, highest, most important, 
first, principal, main, leading, 

Leave, v. Quit, abandon, give 
up, forego, resign, surrender, 
forbear; cease, stop, desist; de- 
part, go from; bequeath. 

ANT. Persist, stay, hold, re- 
tain; continue; arrive. 

Legal. Authorized, legitimate, 
constitutional, licit, lawful, al- 

ANT. Illegal, unlawful, un- 
constitutional, lay, illegitif 

Legend. Chronicle ; myth, fable ; 
inscription, motto ; hearsay, 

ANT. Fact, history, trut\, 

Legible. Distinct, plain, appar- 
ent, discernible, clear, manifest, 
decipherable, well-written. 

ANT. Illegible, cryptograph- 
ic, cabalistic, undecipherable, 

Legitimate. Lawful, valid; au- 
thorized, real, genuine, licit, al- 
lowable, normal, standard. 

ANT. Illegitimate, unallow- 
able, unfair, unauthorized, il- 
licit, false. 

Leisure. Freedom, ease, vaca- 
tion, convenience; opportunity, 
retirement, spare time. 

ANT. Occupation, employ- 
ment, absorption, work, labor, 
constraint, engagement, busi- 
ness, toil. 

Leisurely. Deliberate, conveni- 
ent, easy, sauntering. 

ANT. Hurried, hasty, diffi- 
cult, speedy, industrious, <uid- 

185 ] 



uous, eager, precipitate, expe- 

Lend. Let, afford, furnish, loan, 
advance, grant. 

A_NT. Refuse, withhold, re- 
tain, appropriate, withdraw; 

Lengthen. Elongate, stretch, 
extend, prolong. 

ANT. Shorten, contract, con- 
fine, narrow. 

Lengthy. Long, drawn out, te- 
dious, verbose, diffuse, prolix. 

ANT. Concise, comprehen- 
sive, laconic, short, brief, con- 
densed, succinct, compact. 

Lenient. Merciful, mild, relax- 
ing, assuasive, softening, com- 

ANT. Harsh, cruel, hard, se- 
vere, stern. 

Lessen. Diminish, reduce, de- 
crease, abate, lower, impair, de- 
grade, weaken. 

ANT. Increase, enlarge, ex- 
tend, develop, heighten, multi- 
ply, strengthen, spread, en- 

Lesson. Instruction, precept, 
doctrine, study; reproof, warn- 
ing, rebuke, lecture, homily. 

ANT. Misguidance, misin- 
formaton, deception. 

Let. Permit, allow, suffer; rent, 
lease, hire out; assign, grant, 
give, contract. 

ANT. Prevent, hinder, check, 
thioart; refuse, deny, withhold, 

Lethal. Fatal, deadly, mortal, 
poisonous, venomous, baneful, 

ANT. Remedial, wholesome, 
salutary, vital, invigorating, 

Lethargy. Drowsiness, torpor, 
swoon, trance, stupor, oblivion ; 

ANT. Alertness, liveliness, 
vigilance, wakefulness, life, ac- 

tivity, quickness; eagerness, at- 
tention, interest. 

Letter. Epistle; mark, charac- 
ter; note, communication, mes- 
sage, missive; (pi.) erudition, 

Level, n. Plane; surface, floor; 
rank, standard, degree, posi- 
tion ; ground ; horizontality, 
equality, platform. 

ANT. Unevenness, acclivity, 
inequality, vertically, decliv- 

Level, v. Smooth, flatten, even; 
overthrow; aim, direct; plane, 
raze, equalize. 

ANT. Roughen, furrow, grad- 
uate, grade. 

Level, a. Flat, horizontal, even, 
plane, smooth. 

ANT. Rough, uneven, broken, 
rolling, undulating, hilly. 

Levity. Inconstancy, unsteadi- 
ness, thoughtlessness, frivolity, 
fickleness; flightiness, volatil- 

ANT. Gravity, earnestness, 
seriousness, sobriety, dignity, 

Levy, v. Raise, collect, assess, 
seize, exact; attack; tax, im- 
pose, muster. 

ANT. Pay, forego, surrender, 
reimburse, repay, liquidate. 

Liable. Accountable, bound, re- 
sponsible, answerable, subject, 
exposed, obnoxious; amenable. 

ANT. Irresponsible, refrac- 
tory, independent, autocratic. 

Libel, n. Lampoon, satire, def- 
amation, detraction, slander, 
calumny, traducement. 

ANT. Retraction, vindica- 
tion, apology; puff, praise, en- 
comium, advocacy, panegyric. 

Liberal. Generous, munificent, 
beneficent, large, free, catholic, 
unselfish, unrestrained, toler- 
ant; ample, profuse. 
ANT. Mean, grasping, greedy, 

[ 186 ] 




niggardly, avaricious; narrow- 
minded, bigoted, prejudiced, in- 
adequate, contracted, scanty. 

Liberate. Deliver, set free, dis- 
engage, release. 

ANT. Confine, imprison, ar- 
rest; sentence, doom, condemn. 

Libertine. Rake, debauchee, dis- 
solute person, profligate. 
ANT. Ascetic, anchorite. 

Liberty. Emancipation, choice, 
freedom, license, independence, 
leave, permission, exemption; 
privilege, franchise, immunity. 
ANT. Slavery, captivity, serv- 
itude, serfdom, compulsion, ne- 
cessity, constraint, imprison- 
ment, oppression, thraldom, su- 
perstition, obligation., n. Permission, leave, 
privilege, right, warrant; lax- 
ity, disorder, anarchy, lawless- 

ANT. Obligation, constraint, 
compulsion, submission, neces- 
sity, restraint, restriction, mod- 
eration, temperance. 

License, v. Permit, authorize, 

ANT. Prohibit, restrain, for- 
bid, constrain, inhibit, interdict, 
withhold, withdraw; annul, dis- 

Licentious. Excessive, abusive; 
unrestrained, uncurbed, unruly, 
lawless, immoral, lewd, riotous, 
ungovernable, wanton, lax, dis- 
solute, profligate, loose, sensual, 
impure, unchaste, lascivious. 

ANT. Temperate, strict, mod- 
erate, controlled, self-controlled, 
ascetic, austere, sober, self-de- 
nying, puritanic, renuncia- 

Licit. Lawful, legal. 

ANT. Illegal, illicit, unlaw- 
ful, unlicensed, unauthorized, 
illegitimate, improper, forbid- 

Lie, n. Untruth, fiction, fable, 

deception, falsehood, falsifica- 
tion; delusion, illusion. 

ANT. Truth, verity, reality, 
fact; veracity, exactness, pre- 
cision, principle, honesty, sin- 

Lie, v. Utter a lie; rest, recline, 
be situated; abide, remain, con- 
tinue; exist, belong, consist; 
lodge, sleep. 

ANT. Rise, stir, move, walk, 
Z>e active, go, change, run. 

Life. Being, soul, spirit; af- 
fairs; animation, vivacity, en- 
ergy v ig r i living being; bi- 

ANT. Death, mortality, de- 
cease, lifelessness, annihilation, 
nonexistence ; lethargy, coma, 
stupor; demise, departure, dis- 

Lift, v. Raise, elevate; exalt, 
improve; steal. 

ANT. Lower, sink, depress, 
let descend; reduce, degrade, 
humble; crush, overwhelm; 
hurl, dash, fling, throw. 

Ligament. Bandage, bond, con- 
nection, ligature, strap, girth, 
band, brace, tie ; tying, bind- 

ANT. Fracture, disconnection, 
dislocation, disruption, sever- 
ance, laceration, splinter, rup- 
ture, break. 

Light, n. Gleam, shine, glitter, 
flame, blaze, illumination, in- 
candescence, glow, flash, flare, 
sparkle, twinkle, flicker, glare, 
glimmer, glistening, sheen, lus- 
ter, shimmer, shining, scintil- 
lation, day; open view, public- 
ity; enlightenment, knowledge, 
information ; prosperity, joy, 
happiness, felicity. 

ANT. Dark, gloom, dark- 
ness, dimness, blackness, dusk, 
shade, shadow, gloominess, ob- 
scurity; extinction, night, tene- 
broaity, death; confusion, mya+ 

[ 187 ] 




tification, ignorance, misunder- 
standing, illiteracy, blindness, 

Light, a. Bright, clear, white; 
umveighty, imponderable, port- 
able, easy, volatile, insubstan- 
tial, buoyant; small, trifling, 
inconsiderable, moderate, insig- 
nificant; porous, spongy; un- 
steady, fickle, frivolous, un- 
settled; empty, slight, vain, ca- 
pricious, thoughtless. 

ANT. Weighty, ponderous, 
oppressive, grievous, burden- 
some; onerous, difficult, labori- 
ous, hard; dejected, depressed, 
despondent; dull, inert, inac- 

Like, v. Be pleased with, ap- 
prove, enjoy, love, relish, es- 
teem, fancy, affect. 

ANT. Dislike, hate, loathe, 
detest, abhor, abominate. 

Like, a. Resembling, similar; 
equal; probable, likely; dis- 
posed to, inclined toward; cor- 

ANT. Different, dissimilar, 
counterpart; improbable, un- 
likely; disinclined, indisposed. 

Likelihood. Probability, sem- 
blance, appearance, verisimili- 

ANT. Improbability, incon- 
ceivability, impossibility, un- 
likelihood; distinction, differ- 
ence, uncertainty, contrariety; 

Likely. Probable, presumable, 
reasonable, apt, credible, con- 
ceivable, conjectural. 

ANT. Unlikely, doubtful, in- 
credible, dubious, improbable, 
questionable, unreasonable. 

Likeness. Resemblance, simi- 
larity; guise; portrait, simili- 
tude, correspondence, copy, im- 
itation, image, representation, 
ffigy, picture. 

ANT. Unlikeness, disparity, 

dissimilarity, inequality; 

Likewise. Also, moreover, too, 

ANT. Otherwise. 

Liking. Inclination, pleasure, 
desire, preference, approval, af- 
fection, fondness, taste, parti- 

ANT. Dislike, disrelish, ab- 
horrence, hatred, loathing, re- 
pugnance, aversion. 

Limit. Boundary, termination, 
restriction, confine, enclosure, 

ANT. Expanse, space, inte- 
rior, center, tract, land; void. 

Limitless. Boundless, illimi- 
table, immeasurable, vast, im- 
mense, infinite, interminable, 
unrestricted, unhindered, tun- 

ANT. Bounded, limited, re- 
stricted, circumscribed, defined, 
restrained, hindered, prevented, 
hampered, obstructed, condi- 

Limpid. Clear, transparent, lu- 
cid, pellucid, pure, translucent, 
bright, crystal. 

ANT. Turbid, foul, muddy, 
opaque, dark, black. 

Line, n. Thread, cord, hawser, 
rope; boundary, contour, out- 
line; family, race; track, rail- 
road, course, method; continu- 
ity, sequence, succession. 

ANT. Breadth, icidth; ex- 
panse, space, deviation, diver- 
gency, variation; discontinu- 

Lineage. Ancestry, family, de- 
scendants, house, breed, race, 
descent, progeny. 

ANT. Ancestor, source, an- 
cestry, origin, founder, progen- 

Lineament. Profile, form, fea- 
ture, mark, outline. 

ANT. Face, aspect, counte- 

t 188 ] 




nance, visage, front, expres- 

Linear. Direct, straight, recti- 
linear, lineal. 

ANT. Zigzag, wandering, di- 
vergent, crooked, hooked, in- 

Linger. Lag, saunter, tarry, de- 
lay, halt, stop, hesitate, wait, 

ANT. Hasten, speed, push 
on, go, press forward, advance, 

Liquid, a. Fluid, flowing, flu- 
ent, running, melting, liques- 
cent; mellifluous, soft, limpid, 

ANT. Solid, hard, congealed, 
insoluble, solidified, concrete; 
harsh, discordant. 

List. Roll, catalogue, schedule, 
inventory, record, register, in- 

ANT. Non-registration. 

Listen. Harken, hear, attend, 
hark, heed, list. 

ANT. Ignore, scorn, neglect, 
slight, be deaf to. 

Listless. Indifferent, spiritless, 
heedless, careless, languid, un- 
interested ; indolent, vacant, su- 
pine, torpid. 

ANT. Interested, eager, ear- 
nest, spirited, careful, heedful, 
thoughtful, alert, attentive, ab- 
sorbed, curious, engaged, ac- 

Literal. Unimaginative, matter- 
of-fact; real; accurate, correct, 
exact, grammatical, positive, 
verbal, close, plain, actual; 
word by word, specific. 

ANT. General, free, liberal, 

Literary. Learned, bookish, lit- 
erate, lettered, erudite, schol- 
arly, well-read, studious, in- 
structed, educated. 

ANT. Illiterate, unlettered, 

Literature. Books, literary pro- 
ductions or works, publications, 
writings, belles-lettres; study, 
lore, reading, scholarship, at- 
tainment ; inspiration, genius, 
intuition, the divine afflatus; 
science, learning, letters, eru- 

Lithe. Pliant, flexible, limber, 
supple, elastic, agile, flexile. 

ANT. Stiff, tough, inelastic, 
inflexible, unresponsive, hard, 

Litter. Clutter, disorder, unti- 
diness, rubbish. 

ANT. Order, cleanliness, ar- 
rangement, tidiness, system, 

Little. Small, diminutive; insig- 
nificant, contemptible; short, 
brief; inefficient, weak, slight; 
narrow, mean, illiberal ; pigmy, 
scanty, unimportant, inconsid- 
erable, trivial, petty, paltry, 
dwarf, puny. 

ANT. Great, big, large, huge, 
monstrous, enormous, long, de- 
veloped, bulky, full; important, 
momentous, grave, serious, con- 
siderable, significant; colossal. 

Live, v. Have life; abide, dwell, 
reside; survive, remain, last; 
enjoy; feed, subsist; vegetate, 
grow, continue, behave, act, ex- 
ist, breathe. 

ANT. Die, perish, depart, 
decay, wither, fade, vanish, fail, 
demise, drop, languish, expire, 
decline, faint, sink, fall. 

Live, a. Alive, living, active, 
vigorous, earnest, energetic, an- 

ANT. Defunct, inanimate, 
dead, moribund, deceased, de- 
parted, gone. 

Livelihood. Support, mainte- 
nance, sustenance, subsistence; 
substance, living. 

ANT. Beggary, want, starva- 
tion, penury, inanition. 

[ 189 ] 




Liveliness. Sprightliness, ani- 
mation, gaiety, vivacity, smart- 
ness, briskness, activity. 

ANT. Sloicness, torpor, stu- 
pidity, dulness, insensibility, 
listlessness, languor, inertness. 

Lively. Quick, nimble, smart, 
active, alert, sprightly, brisk, 
animated, prompt, earnest, en- 
ergetic, strong, vivacious, glee- 
ful, blithe, airy, gay, jocund, 
keen, eager, vivid, spirited, vig- 

ANT. Lifeless, dull, torpid, 
inanimate, inert, insensate, list- 
less, languid, indifferent. 

Livery. Release, deliverance ; 
clothing, food, uniform, pecu- 
liar garb; ration, boarding ; de- 
pendence, servitude, badge, ret- 

Living, n. Subsistence, estate, 

ANT. Want, starvation, pri- 
vation, beggary, dearth, insuffi- 
ciency, paucity, poverty, indi- 

Living, a. Active, lively, vigor- 
ous; issuing, flowing; quicken- 
ing, invigorating; burning, ig- 
nited; vegetating, growing. 

ANT. Dead, perishable, de- 
caying, perishing, departed, in- 
animate, vanishing, deceased, 
defunct, withered. 

Load. Burden, charge, weight, 
pack, lading, incubus, clog, en- 
cumbrance, cargo, freight, drag, 
oppression, pressure. 

ANT. Support, solace, alle- 
viation, lightness, refreshment, 

Loan, n. Advance, mortgage, hy- 

ANT. Foreclosure, recall, re- 

Loath, o. Averse, unwilling, re- 
luctant; backward, indisposed, 

ANT. Eager, ardent, zealous, 

enthusiastic, ananous, desirous, 
impatient, impetuous, earnest, 
forward, fervent. 

Loathe, v. Abominate, execrate, 
abhor, dislike, detest, hate. 

ANT. Desire, like, long for, 

Locality. Position, location; 
town, village, city; situation, 
place, habitat. 

Locate. Place, set; designate, 
define; establish, settle, lodge, 
fix, dispose. 

ANT. Remove, leave, dises- 
tablish, dislodge, displace. 

Lock, n. Clasp, catch, bar, bolt, 
fastening, hasp, hook, latch. 

Locomotion. Movement, travel, 
passage, migration. 

ANT. Rest, abode, stoppage, 
remanence, fixture, stationari- 
ness, permanence. 

Lodge, v. Rest, remain, shelter, 
stay, abide, stop. 

ANT. Remove, travel, pass 
on, go, move, journey. 

Lofty. Tall, sublime, exalted, 
dignified, stately, majestic, sub- 
lime, proud, haughty, elevated, 
towering, high, eminent. 

ANT. Low, stunted, ordi- 
nary, unimposing, unassuming, 
undignified, depressed. 

Logical. Dialectical, reasonable, 
coherent, consistent, sound, ar- 
gumentative, close, discriminat- 

ANT. Illogical, unsound, in- 
consistent, unreasonable, inco- 
herent, undiscriminating, falla- 
cious, inconclusive. 

Lonely, Lonesome. Forlorn, for- 
saken, dreary, wild, desolate, 
secluded, solitary, depressed, 
alone, retired. 

ANT. Frequented, populous, 
companioned; cheerful, festive, 
gay, bustling, animated. 

Long-, a. Drawn out, protracted, 
extended; continued; linger- 

[ 190 ] 




ing; distant, far away; exten- 
sive, far-reaching. 

ANT. Short, brief, curtailed, 
contracted, abbreviated, con- 
densed, concise. 

Look, n. Appearance, aspect; 
manner; glance, sight, view. 

Look, v. Behold, see, stare, scan, 
contemplate, view, glance, de- 
scry, watch, discern, gaze, re- 
gard,. inspect, survey; consider; 
seem, appear; face, front, take 
notice; expect, anticipate. 

ANT. Be blind or unseeing; 
overlook, miss, pass, neglect. 

Loose, a. Unbound, untied, free, 
unattached, unfastened, un- 
constrained ; vague ; liberal, un- 
chaste, dissolute; unconnected, 
rambling; lax; detached, flow- 
ing, scattered, sparse; inexact. 
ANT. Tight, close; bound, 
tied, fastened, secured; thick, 
compact, dense; accurate, exact, 
strict, logical, scientific; consci- 
entious, self-controlled, firm, 

Loquacity. Garrulity, talkative- 

ANT. Taciturnity, silence, 
u n responsiv cncss. 

Lordly. Imperious, noble, honor- 
able ; proud, haughty, lofty, ma- 
jestic, magnificent. 

ANT. Humble, mean, servile, 
ignoble, lowly, meek, dishonor- 
able, abject. 

Lordship, n. Manor; dominion, 
power, authority; rule, juris- 

ANT. Subjection, subordina- 
tion, homage, submission, sub- 

Lore. Knowledge ; instruction, 
wisdom, advice, counsel. 

ANT. Ignorance, illiteracy, 
inexperience, folly, imprudence. 

Lose. Part with, deprive of ; de- 
stroy, waste, squander, wander, 
miss, ruin ; fail of. 

ANT. Keep, retain, hold, ob- 
tain, grasp, recover, preserve, 
treasure, hoard, save, husband, 
economize, guard, utilize. 

Loss. Failure, destruction, pri- 
vation; defect, harm; watte; 
squandering, deprivation, for- 
feiture ; detriment, ruin, defeat, 
injury, damage, disadvantage. 
ANT. Restoration, recovery, 
reimbursement, retention, pres- 
ervation, hoarding, guarding; 
utilization; gain, aggrandize- 
ment, augmentation, advantage, 
acquisition, profit, benefit, in- 
crement, earnings. 

Lot. Chance, accident, fate, for- 
tune, hazard; destiny, doom, 
allotment, apportionment; por- 
tion, division, part, parcel, land. 
ANT. Law, arrangement, de- 
sign, purpose, plan, prearrange- 

Loud. Noisy; clamorous, boister- 
ous, vociferous ; obstreperous, 
turbulent, blustering; ostenta- 
tious, gaudy. 

ANT. Gentle, subdued, soft, 
quiet, silent, inaudible; whis- 
pering, murmuring; rustling. 

Love, n. Friendship, liking, ten- 
derness, regard, fondness, devo- 
tion, affection, attachment, at- 
traction, charity, courtship ; 
good will ; kindness, delight, in- 
clination ; benevolence. 

ANT. Antipathy, hatred, en- 
mity; alienation, dislike, dis- 
affection, estrangement, bitter- 
ness, coldness, repugnance, infi- 
delity; desertion. 

Lovely. Beautiful, charming, de- 
lightful, delectable, enchanting, 
lovable, amiable ; pleasing, win- 
ning, sweet, admirable. 

ANT. Hateful, hideous, ugly, 
homely, unattractive, unlovely, 
plain, gawky, unamiable, unlov- 

Low. Sunken ; quiet ; small ; sub- 

[ 191 ] 



missive, humble; mean, vulgar, 
base, ignoble, dishonorable ; 
moderate; feeble, weak; plain, 
simple; reasonable, cheap, ab- 
ject, servile, slavish, degraded, 
vile, groveling; deep; reverent; 
dejected, depressed, dispirited. 
ANT. High, tall, lofty, ele- 
vated, exalted; eminent, noble, 
illustrious, rising, strong, in- 
fluential; honorable; elabo- 
rate, ornate; notable; costly, 
expensive, precious, dear; arro- 
gant, haughty, proud, masterly, 
lordly; high, loud, violent; ir- 
reverent, sacrilegious, blatant; 
elated, excited; intensified. 

Xower, v. Depress, sink, reduce, 
diminish, humble; let down, 
drop; degrade, disgrace, de- 

base; lessen. 

ANT. Raise, exalt, elevate, 
hoist; increase, aggrandize, 

Lower, a. Inferior. 

ANT. Higher, superior, more 

Lowering. Gloomy, threaten- 
ing, sullen; cloudy, overcast, 
murky, dark. 

ANT. Clear, bright, light; 

Lowly. Low, humble, unimpor- 
tant, meek, modest; mean, un- 
pretending, mild. 

ANT. Lofty, eminent, proud, 
arrogant, lordly, haughty, ele- 
vated; supercilious, conceited, 

Loyal. Faithful, true, constant, 

,. devoted, staunch, trusty, obe- 
dient, submissive. 

ANT. Inconstant, untrue, 
traitorous, mutinous, seditious, 
insurgent, insubmissive, rebel- 
lious, disobedient, unfaithful, 
disaffected, dastardly. 

Loyalty. Allegiance, fidelity, 
fealty, faithfulness, constancy. 
ANT. Treason, treachery, un- 
faithfulness, disloyalty; sedi- 

tion, rebellion, inconstancy, in- 

Lucid. Luminous, transparent, 
sane, reasonable; shining, re- 
splendent, bright; clear; radi- 
ant, brilliant; limpid, lucent; 
distinct, intelligible, perspicu- 
ous, sober, sound. 

ANT. Dark, opaque, muddy, 
black, somber, turbid, obscure; 
indistinct, unintelligible, mys- 
tifying, insane, unsound, con- 
fused, involved; illegible. 

Luck. Chance, hap, fate, for- 
tune, hazard, casualty, acci- 
dent; success, good fortune. 

ANT. Rule, law, causation, 
purpose, design, certainty; 

Luckless. Unfortunate, unsuc- 
cessful, unlucky, ill-fated, un- 
prosperous, ill-starred, unpro- 
pitious, unhappy. 

Lucky. Fortunate, successful, 
auspicious, prosperous, happy, 
favored, blessed. 

Lucrative. Profitable, gainful, 
paying, remunerative. 

ANT. Disadvantageous, un- 
remunerative, unprofitable, use- 
less, fruitless, vain, unproduc- 

Lucre. Gain, profit, riches, pelf, 
emolument, greed, mammon. 

ANT. Loss, poverty, failure, 

Lucubration. Nocturnal study, 
meditation, speculation, cogi- 

ANT. Idleness, dulness, stu- 
pidity, torpor, vacuity. 

Ludicrous. Laughable, comic, 
burlesque, droll, sportive, ri- 
diculous, comical, odd, funny, 
farcical, absurd. 

ANT. Grave, serious, impor- 
tant, momentous; sad, sorrow- 
ful, melancholy, tragic, mourn- 
ful, lugubrious. 

Lugubrious. Mournful, woful, 

[ 192 ] 




pitiable, doleful, sad, sorrow- 
ful, melancholy, complaining. 

ANT. Ludicrous, droll, ridicu- 
lous, comic, witty, jovial, ab- 
surd, funny, laughable, comical. 

Lull, v. Compose, calm, quiet, 
soothe, hush, tranquilize, still. 
ANT. Excite, aggravate, in- 
cite, stimulate, exasperate, pro- 
voke, inflame. 

Luminous. Shining, brilliant, 
bright; illuminated; enlight- 
ened, intelligent, clear, intel- 

ANT. Dark, black, gloomy; 
unintelligible, unintelligent, in- 
volved, mixed, confused. 

Lunacy. Derangement, mania, 
craziness, insanity, madness, 

ANT. Sanity, intellect, rea- 
son, rationality, lucidity, in- 
telligence, brains; mind; self- 

Lunatic, n. Insane person, ma- 
niac, madman. 

ANT. Philosopher, sage, lu- 
minary, savant, scholar, scien- 
tist, intellectual person. 

Lunatic, a. Insane, mad, crazy, 
cracked, deranged. 

ANT. Sane, rational, intelli- 
gent, reasonable, reasoning, in- 
tellectual, knowing, sound. 

Lure, n. Enticement, decoy; al- 
lurement, bait, temptation, at- 

Lure, v. Allure, entice, decoy, 
tempt, attract, inveigle, se- 

ANT. Warn, guide, alarm, 
premonish, ward, instruct, con- 
duct, guard; extricate, save. 

Lurid. Yellow, pale, wan, dis- 
mal, ghastly, gloomy, murky, 

ANT. Bright, luminous, ra- 
diant, clear. 

Lurk. Lie hid, lie in wait, hide, 

ANT. Rise, spring, emerge, 
appear, reveal. 

Luscious. Sweet, delicious, ful- 
some, cloying, savory, delight- 
ful, pleasing, grateful; sugary, 
honeyed; rank, nauseous, unc- 

ANT. Sour, sharp, tart, bit- 
ter, pungent, acid. 
Luster. Brilliancy, brightness, 
splendor, glitter; renown, dis- 
tinction, glory; gleam, radi- 
ance, resplendence; eminence, 
repute, celebrity, honor. 

ANT. Darkness, tenebrosity, 
blackness, gloom, obscuration; 
detraction, derogation, infamy, 
disrepute, dishonor, notoriety. 
Lustration. Washing, purifica- 
tion, cleansing; lustrum. 

ANT. Defilement, contami- 
nation, infection, desecration; 
soiling, pollution. 
Lustrous. Bright, shiny, gleam- 
ing, luminous, brilliant, radi- 

ANT. Dark, black, gloomy. 
Lusty. Stout, strong, vigorous, 
robust, healthful, able, lively, 
sturdy; bulky, large, fat. 

ANT. Weak, infirm, feeble, 
incapable, ailing, effete, list- 
less, invalid, powerless, conva- 

Luxuriant. Exuberant, exces- 
sive, rank, abundant, profuse, 
plentiful, plenteous. 

ANT. Delicate, frail, scanty, 
scarce, feeble. 

Luxuriate. Grow exuberantly, 
feed luxuriously; flourish, in- 
dulge; revel, wanton; delight, 
indulge to excess. 

ANT. Toil, slave, drudge, la- 
bor, work; pine, waste, droop, 
decay, languish. 

Luxurious. Voluptuous, epicu- 
rean, sensual, intemperate, ef- 
feminate, self-indulgent. 

ANT. Austere, ascetic, hard. 

[ 103 ] 




painful, self-denying, self-con- 
trolled, temperate, restrained, 

Luxury. Voluptuousness, epi- 
curism, effeminacy, sensuality; 
dainty, delicacy, gratification; 
pleasure, enjoyment, delight; 
treat, animalism. 

ANT. Stoicism, asceticism t 
self-denial, austerity, hardship; 

Lying, a. False, mendacious, un- 
truthful, untrue ; recumbent. 

ANT. Truthful, true, vera- 
cious, upright, honest, accurate, 
exact; erect. 


Macerate. Weaken, soften; at- 
tenuate, make lean, waste, wear 
away ; harass, mortify, torture ; 
steep, soak, digest. 

ANT. Fatten, replenish, re- 
pair, pamper, swell. 

Machinate. Plan, contrive, de- 
vise, plot, scheme, harm. 

ANT. Think aloud, speak 
out, lie artless; counterplot, 
compete; expose, defeat, baffle. 

Machination. Plot, conspiracy, 
intrigue, cabal, stratagem, de- 
sign, trick, artifice, contrivance, 

ANT. Detection, counter-ac- 
tion, overthrow, baffling, defeat, 
exposure, defiance, challenge; 
conflict, competition. 

Machine. Engine, instrument; 
tool, puppet; organization, ma- 
chinery, system, supernatural 

Maculate, a. Blotched, defiled, 
impure, spotted, blurred, cor- 
rupt, unclean, mottled. 

ANT. Unspotted, spotless, 
speckless, pure, clean, immacu- 

Mad. Crazy, insane; excited, in- 
flamed, furious, rabid, angry; 
distracted, lunatic, delirious, 
crazed, deranged, demented, ma- 
niac; enraged, raging; exasper- 
ated, provoked, incensed, wrath- 
ful ; wild, infatuated; frenzied, 
frantic, raving. 

ANT. Sane, sound, sensible^ 
quiet, composed, sober, unex~ 

Madden. Make mad, enrage ; ir- 
ritate, provoke, inflame, infuri- 

ANT. Calm, pacify, assuage, 
mesmerize; heal, soothe, re- 

Madness. Insanity, craziness, 
derangement, mania, aberra- 
tion; frenzy, fury, rage, delir- 

ANT. Sanity, calmness, ra- 
tionality, soberness, reason. 

Magazine. Warehouse, recep- 
tacle, storehouse, depository, re- 
pository; periodical. 

Magic. Sorcery, witchcraft, con- 
juration, necromancy, enchant- 
ment, incantation; fascination, 
witchery, charm. 

Magisterial. Stately, pompous, 
august, lordly, dignified, lofty, 
official, imperious, proud, dom- 
ineering, haughty, despotic, ar- 
rogant, dogmatical ; dictatorial, 
consequential, imposing, au- 

ANT. Submissive, docile, un- 
dignified, unimposing, unas- 
suming, modest. 

Magistrate. Judge; civil or po- 
lice officer, chief official. 

ANT. Citizen, prisoner, civil- 
ian, subject. 

Magnanimity. Generosity, dis- 

[ 194 ] 




interestedness, greatness, hero- 
ism, nobleness, forbearance. 

ANT. Meanness, pettiness, 
paltriness, spitefulness, spleen. 

Magnanimous. Great, elevated, 
generous, lofty, noble, coura- 
geous; brave, dauntless, heroic, 
illustrious; unselfish, exalted, 
chivalrous, high-minded, honor- 

ANT. Mean, small, ignoble, 
base, selfish, cowardly, cring- 
ing; mediocre; parsimonious, 

Magnificent. Glorious, grand, 
majestic, splendid, admirable, 
superb, sublime; imposing, gor- 
geous, stately, showy; august, 

ANT. Petty, mean, paltry, 
little, flat, beggarly, ordinary, 
small-minded, tawdry, unim- 
posing, tame. 

Magnify. Enlarge, augment, in- 
crease, amplify; laud, extol; 
exaggerate; celebrate, glorify, 
bless, praise. 

ANT. Diminish, curtail, con- 
tract, palliate, extenuate, de- 

Magniloquent. Pompous, gran- 
diloquent, bombastic, declama- 
tory, stilted, high-flown, turgid, 
inflated, boastful. 

ANT. Simple, vernacular, un- 
affected, plain-spoken. 

Magnitude. Extent, size; gran- 
deur, greatness ; importance ; 
volume, dimension, mass; con- 
sequence; sublimity, loftiness. 
A XT. Smallness, diminutive- 
ness, littleness, meagerness; in- 
significance, meanness, unim- 

Maid. Maiden, girl, damsel, vir- 
gin, lass. 

ANT. Matron, married 

Maim. Disable, cripple, mangle, 
mar, mutilate, disfigure, lame. 

ANT. Restore, strengthen, 
invigorate, mend. 

Main, a. Bulk, majority, body, 
principal, trunk, chief, leading, 
most important, first, cardinal, 
capital; necessary, vital, essen- 
tial, indispensable, requisite; 
huge, enormous; absolute, en- 
tire, mere, direct. 

ANT. Subordinate, non-es- 
sential, auxiliary, minor, tribu- 
tary, inferior. 

Main, n. Ocean, mainland, con- 
tinent; main conduit or pipe; 
force, power, might, strength; 
gross, majority. 

ANT. Bay, gulf ; island; in- 
ability, weakness; tributaries; 

Mainly. Chiefly, principally; 
largely, greatly, mightily, ab- 
solutely, primarily, entirely. 

ANT. Secondarily, subordi- 
nately; partially, somewhat, 

Maintain. Uphold, assert, vin- 
dicate, allege, support, sustain ; 
defend, continue; supply; pro- 
vide; affirm. 

ANT. Retract, deny, with- 
draw; fail, turn traitor to. 

Maintenance. Sustenance, sup- 
port, vindication, defense, jus- 
tification, provisions, subsis- 
tence, livelihood. 

Majestic. August, sublime, mag- 
nificent, regal, royal, pompous, 
stately, dignified, elevated, im- 
perial, princely, grand, impos- 

ANT. Low, humble, mean, 
sordid, groveling; plebeian, vul- 
gar, common; unassuming. 

Majesty. Dignity, power, au- 
thority, loftiness, stateliness, 
augustness, grandeur, eleva- 

ANT. Meanness, paltriness; 

Majority. Superiority, senior- 

[ 195 ] 




ity; eldership, priority; bulk, 

ANT. Minority, inferiority, 

Stake. Produce, falsify; find; 
acquire; travel over; cause; es- 
teem, suppose, represent; com- 
pel, force; be; amount to; at- 
tain, reach, arrive at; manage, 
interfere; proceed, tend, move, 
go ; contribute, increase, accrue, 
constrain, bring about, occa- 
eion, require; shape, fabricate, 
construct, fashion, frame, man- 
ufacture, perform, do; become, 
compose, constitute, create, es- 
tablish, effect, execute, reach, 
get, render. 

ANT. Abolish, demolish, an- 
nihilate, break, disintegrate, 
unmake, undo; destroy, defeat, 
mar, disestablish, miss, lose, 
fail of; upset; misrepresent, 
mismanage; hesitate, stop; de- 
crease, diminish. 

Maker. Creator, former, manu- 
facturer, builder, constructor ; 
author, composer, writer, com- 

ANT. Destroyer, extermina- 
tor, annihilator. 

Make up. Collect; constitute, 
form; reconcile, settle, adjust, 
compose; make good, compen- 
sate; supply, furnish, provide; 

ANT. Distribute, disperse, 
scatter; pi; default. 

Mai- or Male-. A prefix denot- 
ing ill. For words thus com- 
pounded and not found here, 
see the synonyms and anto- 
nyms of the root word, from 
which derivatives may be read- 
ily chosen. 

Malady. Disorder, distemper, 
disease, sickness, ailment, ill- 
ness ; complaint, indisposition. 
ANT. Health, sanity, vigor, 
robustness, soundness. 

Malediction. Curse, cursing, 
execration, imprecation, denun- 
ciation, anathema. 

ANT. Benediction, blessing, 
praise, compliment. 

Malefactor. Evil-doer, culprit, 
felon, criminal, convict, out- 

ANT. Benefactor, hero. 

Malice. Spite, ill will, malevo- 
lence, grudge, pique, bitterness, 
animosity, malignity, rancor, 
maliciousness, virulence. 

ANT. Good will, benevolence, 

Manacle, n. Handcuff, shackle, 

Manacle, . Handcuff, shackle, 
fetter, bind, chain. 

ANT. Unbind, unfetter, un- 

Manage. Direct, govern, con- 
trol, wield, order, contrive, 
concert, conduct, transact; ad- 
minister, regulate, supervise, 
superintend, handle, rule. 

ANT. Mismanage, misgov- 
ern, misconduct, upset, misuse, 
derange; let go. 

Manageable. Tractable, gov- 
ernable, controllable, tamable, 

ANT. Unmanageable, un- 
tamable, uncontrollable, un- 
governable, difficult, impracti- 
cable, impossible, refractory. 

Management. Conduct, admin- 
istration, government, guid- 
ance, direction, care, charge, 
contrivance, intrigue ; skill, 
address ; economy, treatment, 
superintendence, surveillance ; 
negotiations, dealings, trans- 

ANT. Misconduct, malad- 
ministration, mismanagement. 

Manager. Director, superinten- 
dent, supervisor, comptroller, 
governor, overseer, conductor; 

[ IPO 1 




ANT. Workman, follower, 
workingman, employee. 

Mandate. Command, commis- 
sion, order, charge, precept, in- 
junction, requirement, edict. 

ANT. Petition, request, en- 
treaty, suggestion. 

Maneuver (Manoeuvre), . 
Management ; stratagem, arti- 
fice, scheme, plan, trick, ruse, 
intrigue; evolution, movement; 
operation, tactics, contrivance. 
ANT. Countermovement, de- 
feat, check, bafflement, counter- 
action, detection, neutraliza- 

Maneuver, v. Perform an evo- 
lution, move; scheme, plot, in- 
trigue, manage, contrive. 

ANT. Counteract, play up 
to, check, checkmate. 

Mangle. Cut, bruise, mutilate, 
lacerate, maim, hack, tear; de- 
stroy, mar, spoil; polish, cal- 
ender, smooth, press. 
ANT. Restore, heal. 

Manhood. Virility, maturity; 
humanity; courage, resolution, 
bravery, hardihood, fortitude, 
manliness, manfulness. 

ANT. "Womanhood, feminin- 
ity ; effeminacy; coioardliness, 
coicardice, delicacy. 

Mania. Insanity, derangement, 
madness, lunacy, aberration, 
alienation, delirium, frenzy. 

ANT. Sanity, health, sound- 
ness; poise, self-control. 

Maniac. Lunatic, madman, in- 
sane, bedlamite. 

Manifest, a. Open, clear, evi- 
dent, apparent, visible, conspic- 
uous, plain, obvious; patent, 
palpable, unmistakable, dis- 
tinct, indubitable. 

ANT. Hidden, indistinct, in- 
conspicuous, occult, latent, ob- 
scure, confused, hazy, foggy. 

Manifest, v. Reveal, declare, 
evince, make known, disclose, 

discover, display, show, exhibit, 
evidence, expose. 
ANT. Hide, cover, conceal. 

Manifold. Various, duplicate, 
multiplied; numerous, many, 
multitudinous ; diverse, multi- 
farious; sundry. 

ANT. Few, rare, limited, 
scarce, scant; uniform, fac- 

Mankind. Man; humanity, hu- 
mankind; men; society. 

ANT. Womankind; child- 
hood; divinity, deity, Heaven, 
God; earth, world, universe, na- 
ture, creation; cattle, animals, 
minerals, vegetables. 

Manly. Bold, daring, valorous, 
courageous, undaunted, hardy, 
dignified; intrepid, heroic, vig- 
orous, firm, noble, chivalrous; 
mature, masculine, manlike. 

ANT. Womanly, childlike; 
timid, womanish, childish, un- 
manly, boyish, weak, dastardly, 
cowardly; effeminate. 

Manner. Mode, custom, habit, 
deportment, fashion, air, look, 
mien, aspect, appearance; be- 
havior, conduct; method, form, 

ANT. Being, action, proceed- 
ing, life, work, performance, 
project, business. 

Mannerism. Characteristic, pe- 
culiarity, uniformity, self-repe- 
tition, self-consciousness, affec- 
tation, idiosyncrasy, specialty. 
ANT. Unaffectedness, sim- 
plicity, naturalness, character, 

Mannerly. Civil, complaisant, 
respectful, courteous, polite, 
urbane, refined, well-behaved, 
ceremonious, well-bred. 

ANT. Rude, coarse, unman- 
nerly, rough, impolite, uncivil, 

Manufacture, n. Making, pro- 
duction, fabrication ; product, 

[ 197 ] 




composition, construction, ma- 
nipulation, molding. 

ANT. Use, consumption, em- 
ployment, wear, 

Manumission. Release, eman- 
cipation, liberation, deliver- 
ance, enfranchisement, dismis- 
sal, discharge. 

ANT. Slavery, capture, sub- 
jugation; restraint, repression, 

Manumit. Release, liberate, en- 
franchise, free, emancipate. 

ANT. Enslave, capture, sub- 
jugate, enthral. 

Many. Frequent, manifold, di- 
verse, divers, sundry, numer- 
ous, multiplied, various, abun- 
dant, multifarious. 

ANT. Few, rare, scarce, in- 
frequent, scanty. 

Mar. Injure, mark, spoil, ruin, 
blemish, damage, disfigure, de- 
face, hurt, harm, impair, maim, 

ANT. Make, mend, restore, 
improve, reinstate, enhance, re- 
pair, conserve. 

Marauder. Plunderer, robber, 
ravager, pillager, outlaw, ban- 
dit, brigand, freebooter, rover, 

ANT. Guard, sentry, keeper, 
steward, ranger, outpost. 

Margin. Border, edge, brim, lip, 
rim, brink, verge, confine, limit, 
skirt, boundary, extremity; 
loophole, profit, interest, lee- 

ANT. Center, main, space; 
limitation, stringency, restric- 

Marine. Naval, nautical, mari- 

' time; oceanic, salt-water, pe- 

ANT. Terrene, fresh-water, 
terrestrial, land. 

Marital. Connubial, nuptial, hy- 
meneal, conjugal, wedded, mat- 

ANT. Single, unwedded, celi- 

Maritime. Marine, oceanic, nau- 

ANT. Terrene, land. 

Mark, n. Impress, stamp, ves- 
tige, impression, imprint, track, 
evidence, proof, characteristic, 
badge, indication ; distinction, 
eminence, importance. 

ANT. Effacement, oblitera- 
tion, erasure, plainness. 

Mark, v. Remark, notice, regard, 
heed, show, betoken, character- 
ize, denote, stamp, imprint, im- 
press, brand; label, designate, 
observe, stigmatize, signalize, 
specify, specialize; decorate. 

ANT. Overlook, ignore, omit; 
mislabel, misindicate, mis- 

Marked. Noted, notable, promi- 
nent, remarkable, eminent, dis- 
tinguished, conspicuous. 

ANT. Ordinary, mean, com* 
monplace, everyday, undistin- 

Marriage. Matrimony, wedlock, 
wedding, espousal, nuptials, 
conjugal union, spousal, union. 
ANT. Divorce, celibacy, vir- 
ginity, bachelorhood, widow- 
hood, maidenhood. 

Marrow. Medulla, pith, essence, 
quintessence ; gist, substance, 
cream, kernel. 

ANT. Excrescence, surplus- 
age, redundancy, superfluity; 
surface, exterior; amplifica- 
tion; body, volume, mass. 

Marsh. Fen, swamp, quagmire, 
morass, bog, slough. 
ANT. Solid ground. 

Marshal, v. Order, arrange, di- 
rect, guide, lead, rank, array, 
dispose, draw up; herald. 

ANT. Disarray, misguide, 
disarrange, disorder. 

Martial. Warlike, military, sol- 
dierly, brave. 

t 198 ] 




ANT. Peaceful, unmilitary, 

Martyrdom. Martyr like state; 
torture, torment, persecution ; 

ANT. Denial, retraction; ab- 
juration, renegation. 
Marvel, n. Wonder, prodigy, 
miracle ; surprise, astonish- 
ment, amazement, admiration; 
portent, phenomenon. 

ANT. Commonplace, impos- 
ture, cipher, farce, trifle. 
Marvelous. Wonderful, aston- 
ishing, surprising, strange, im- 
probable, incredible ; miracu- 
lous, stupendous, extraordi- 
nary, wondrous, supernat- 
ural, portentous, prodi- 

ANT. Commonplace, every- 
day, regular, normal, custom- 
ary, natural, anticipated, cur- 
rent, calculated, expected. 
Masculine. Male, manly, vir- 
ile, manlike; strong, robust, 
powerful, bold, hardy, cou- 

ANT. Feminine, womanly, 
womanlike, female; effeminate, 

Mask, n. Cover, disguise, pre- 
text, subterfuge, screen; revel, 
frolic, evasion, pretense, ruse, 
plea; redoubt; domino, blind, 
veil; hypocrisy. 

ANT. Truth, nakedness, can- 
dor, verity, openness; exposure, 
detection, unmasking. 
Mask, v. Disguise, cover, hide, 
protect, conceal, veil, shroud, 

ANT. Expose, unmask, dis- 
cover, detect. 

Mass. Quantity, sum, bulk, mag- 
nitude, body, size, main part, 
majority; aggregate, whole, to- 
tality; heap, assemblage, com- 
bination, concretion. 

ANT. Fragment, section, por- 

tion, bit, morsel, minority, seg- 

Massacre, v. Murder, butcher, 
kill, slaughter, slay. 

ANT. Preserve, spare, rescue, 

Massive. Compacted, weighty, 
heavy, massy, ponderous, bulky, 
huge, immense, vast, solid, co- 

ANT. Slight, slender, frail, 
airy; petty, small, light. 

Master, n. Ruler, director, man- 
ager, leader, employer, owner, 
governor, superintendent, com- 
mander, captain; teacher, in- 
structor, tutor; adept; posses- 
sor, proprietor ; professor, head, 

ANT. Servant, slave, pupil, 
employee, subject, learner, stu- 

Master, v. Conquer, subdue, 
vanquish, overcome ; acquire, 

ANT. Tield, fail, surrender, 

Masterly. Imperious, domineer- 
ing, arbitrary, despotic; skil- 
ful, clever, expert, dexterous, 
adroit; finished, excellent, ar- 
tistic, consummate. 

ANT. Humble, obedient, com- 
pliant, rude, clumsy, bungling. 

Mastery. Authority, dominion, 
supremacy ; victory, triumph, 
preeminence, ascendency, su- 
periority; acquirement, attain- 
ment, acquisition; skill, dex- 
terity, cleverness, ability. 

ANT. Subservience, tutelage, 
submission, guidance, obedience, 
inexpertness, ignorance; defeat, 
failure, surrender. 

Masticate. Grind, chew. 

ANT. Bolt, gobble, swallow. 

Match, n. Equal, mate; contest; 
union, marriage ; competition, 
trial; companion; pair. 

ANT. Superior, inferior; dis~ 

[ 199 ] 




parity, mismatch, oddity, in- 

Match, v. Mate, rival, oppose, 
equal; correspond; adapt, fit, 
suit; marry; harmonize; join, 
couple, combine. 

ANT. Fail, exceed, surpass, 
preponderate; separate, disso- 

Matchless. Unequaled, peerless, 
unparalleled, incomparable, in- 
imitable, consummate, exqui- 
site, excellent, surpassing, un- 

ANT. Common, ordinary, me- 
diocre, everyday, commonplace, 

Mate, n. Companion, associate, 
compeer, match, equal; fellow, 
intimate ; assistant, subordi- 
nate; peer. 

ANT. Stranger; superior, in- 
ferior; principal, chief, head. 

Material, n. Substance, solidity, 
weight, stuff, matter. 

ANT. Work, production, de- 
sign; spirit, purpose. 

Material, o. Corporeal, physi- 
cal; important, essential; mo- 
mentous, vital, weighty; bodily. 
ANT. Spiritual, sublimated, 
incorporeal, evanescent, ethe- 

Matrimony. Marriage, wed- 
ANT. Celibacy, virginity. 

Matron. Wife, widow, dame; 
housekeeper, head nurse; dow- 

ANT. Girl, maid, maiden, 
virgin, spinster, miss, lass. 

Matter. Substance, body, ma- 
terial, constituency ; concern, 
affair, business; trouble, diffi- 
culty; amount, portion, space; 
sense, significance, moment; 
import, importance; topic, sub- 
ject, question; thing, event. 

ANT. Immateriality, incor- 
poreality, spirituality; mind, 

soul, spirit, intellect; animus, 
zeal, temper. 

Mature. Ripe, perfect, ready, 
perfected, completed, full- 

ANT. Raw, crude, blighted, 
immature, undeveloped, unripe. 

Matutinal. Morning, dawning, 
early, waking. 

ANT. Vesper, evening, late, 
waning, turilight. 

Maudlin. Tearful, sentimental, 
weak, silly; drunken; intoxi- 
cated, inebriated, tipsy, mud- 

ANT. Dry, sober, sensible, 
unsentimental, unromantic. 

Mawkish. Nauseous, disgusted, 
squeamish; insipid, flat, stale, 
sickly, disgusting, loathsome, 

ANT. Sensible, savory, fine, 
sound, palatable, pungent. 

Maxim. Principle, axiom, prov- 
erb, aphorism, apothegm, ad- 
age, saying, saw, dictum, pre- 
cept, rule. 

ANT. Sophism, quibble, 06- 
surdity, enigma, paradox. 

Maximum. Greatest ; climax, 
zenith, apex, acme, culmina- 
tion, completion, utmost, ulti- 

ANT. Minimum, least; mor- 
sel, fragment: initiative, com- 
mencement; decrease, icane; 
incompletion, abortion. 

Maybe, ad. Perhaps, possibly, 
haply, mayhap. 

Maze. Labyrinth, intricacy; be- 
wilderment, uncertainty, per- 
plexity ; embarrassment. 

ANT. Clue, elimination, ex- 
plication: solution. 

Meager. Thin, lean, lank, poor, 
gaunt, starved, hungry, emaci- 
ated, barren, scanty. 

ANT. Stout, brawny, fat, 
chubby; abundant, fertile, copi- 

I 200 




Mean, n. Middle, medium, aver- 
age, intermediate point; (pi.) 
resources, property, revenue; 

ANT. Extreme, excess, exor- 
bitance, enormity, extrava- 
gance; poverty, end, purpose, 

Mean, v. Purpose, intend, de- 
sign; signify, import, indicate, 
denote, express. 

ANT. Do, perform, execute; 
say, state, enunciate, declare. 

Mean, a. Ignoble, abject, beg- 
garly, wretclied, degraded, de- 
generate, vulgar, vile, servile, 
menial, groveling, slavish, dis- 
honorable, disgraceful, shame- 
ful, despicable, contemptible, 
paltry, sordid. 

ANT. Noble, kingly, heroic, 
princely, exalted, generous, em- 
inent, honorable, spirited, lib- 
eral, masterly, worthy, bounti- 
ful, munificent. 

Meaning. Purpose, aim, inten- 
tion, import, design, object; 
sense, explanation, significance, 
interpretation, force, purport, 

ANT. Statement; proceed- 
ing; affidavit, declaration. 

Meanness. Stinginess, illiber- 
ality, sordidness, vileness, pe- 
nuriousness, niggardliness, ab- 
jectness, baseness; destitution. 
poverty, lowness, scantiness, 
smallness, rudeness, selfish- 

ANT. Nobleness, generosity, 
unselfishness, liberality, large- 

Measure, n. Dimension, capac- 
ity, quantity, amount : moder- 
ation, restraint; extent, limit. 
. proportion, degree; rule, gage, 
standard ; meter. 

ANT. Bulk, mass; segment, 
section, portion; immensity, in- 

Measureless. Unlimited, infinite* 
immeasurable, immense, bound- 
less, limitless, vast, unbounded. 
ANT. Circumscribed, finite, 
limited, bounded, restricted. 

Mechanic. Artificer, artisan, 
handicraftsman, hand, crafts- 
man, operative, workman. 

ANT. Artist, designer, plan- 
ner, architect, constructor. 

Mechanical. Approximate, em- 
pirical; machine-made; auto- 
matic, involuntary, blind; ha- 
bitual, unrefiective, spontane- 
ous, effortless, unimpassioned. 

ANT. Labored, feeling, self- 
conscious, forced, spirited, ap- 
preciative, lifelike, lively, ani- 
mated, impassioned. 

Meddle. Interfere, handle, dis- 
turb; intrude, interpose, inter- 
vene, intercede; mediate, arbi- 

ANT. Withdraw, retire, re- 
move, recede, retreat. 

Meddlesome. Meddling, intru- 
sive, officious; pragmatical, in- 
terfering; impertinent, obtru- 

ANT. Unobtrusive, modest f 
unofficious, shy, retiring, unas- 
suming, reserved. 

Mediate, v. Intervene, reconcile, 
interpose, intercede, arbitrate. 
ANT. Retire, imthdraw, let 
be, leave, abandon. 

Mediation. Interposition, inter- 
cession, intervention, arbitra- 
tion, interference, adjustment, 

ANT. Indifference, neutral- 
ity; non-interference. 

Mediator. Reconciler, interces- 
sor, interceder, advocate, um- 
pire, propitiator. 

Medicament. Remedy, specific, 
medicine, cure, relief, help, re- 

ANT. Irritant, infection, ag- 
gravation, hurt, disease. 

I 201 ] 




Medicate. Drug, treat, heal, 

ANT. Harm, infect; catch, 

Medicine, n. Drug, physic, rem- 
edy, medicament ; antidote, cor- 
rective, salve, cure; therapeu- 

ANT. Poison, virus, bane; 

Mediocre. Moderate, indiffer- 
ent, ordinary, mean, medium, 
average, middling, common- 

ANT. Superior, inferior, ex- 
traordinary, distinguished, dis- 

Mediocrity. Inferiority, aver- 
age, moderate or middle state, 
medium; moderation; common- 
place, mean; sufficiency. 

ANT. Excellence, superior- 
ity, distinction, brilliance, rar- 

Meditate. Consider, ponder, re- 
volve, study, weigh, plan, con- 
trive, devise, scheme, purpose, 
intend; contemplate, muse, re- 
flect, think, cogitate. 

ANT. Execute, enact, com- 
plete, consummate. 

Medium, n. Middle, mean ; mod- 
eration, average ; proportion ; 
mediator, intermediary; means, 
agency, instrumentality. 

Medium, a. Middle, mean, mid- 
dling, intermediate, medial, me- 
diocre, central. 

ANT. Outer, extreme, dis- 
tant, remote. 

Medley. Mixture, jumble, mis- 
cellany, potpourri, hodge- 
podge; tumult, confusion, lit- 
ter, diversity, complexity. 

ANT. Order, harmony, sim- 
plicity; arrangement, classifi- 
cation, assortment, disposition, 

Meed. Merit, reward, recom- 
pense; worth, desert; guerdon, 

premium, prize, award, remun- 
eration; gift, present. 

ANT. Penalty, punishment, 
brand, stigma, amercement. 

Meek. Submissive, yielding, un- 
assuming, gentle; mild, pa- 
tient, humble; lowly, modest. 

ANT. Bold, arrogant, proud, 
self-assertive, irritable, pre- 
sumptuous, high-spirited. 

Meet, u. Join ; confront, encoun- 
ter; be present; perceive, expe- 
rience, suffer; equal, satisfy; 
assemble, congregate; harmon- 
ize, agree, unite; fulfil, com- 
ply, gratify, answer. 

ANT. Miss, escape, elude; 
be absent ; avoid, separate, vary, 
diverge, decline, part, disagree; 
disappoint, fall short, fail. 

Meet, a. Suitable, fit, proper, 
appropriate, qualified, conve- 

ANT. Inappropriate, unfit, 
inconvenient, unsuited, im- 

Meeting. Conference, assembly, 
company, convention, congrega- 
tion, junction, union, conflu- 
ence; interview, encounter; as- 
semblage, concourse, gathering. 

Melancholy, . Melancholia; 
depression, dejection, brooding, 

ANT. Happiness, gladness, 
sanity, merriment, mirth, cheer, 

Melancholy, a. Sad, dispirited, 
low-spirited, down-hearted, un- 
happy, hypochondriac, heavy, 
doleful, afflictive; dejected, de- 
pressed, disconsolate, gloomy, 
sorrowful, moody, desponding; 
grave, somber, dark. 

ANT. Happy, cheerful, glad- 
some, sprightly, lively, merry, 
mirthful, blithesome, gleeful. 

Mellifluous. Smooth, honeyed, 
sweet, mellow, euphonious, sil- 
very, dulcet. 

[ 202 




ANT. Raucous, "hoarse, dis- 
cordant, harsh, rough, broken, 

Mellow. Ripe, soft, tender ; sub- 
dued, delicate; genial, jovial. 

ANT. Unripe, hard, green, 
acid, sour; harsh, glaring; dis- 

Melodious. Musical, agreeable, 
harmonious, dulcet, sweet, tune- 
ful, rhythmical, concordant, 

ANT. Discordant, harsh, dis- 
sonant, raucous, jarring, inhar- 

Melody. Harmony, rhythm, air, 
tune, music, song, sweetness of 
sound, descant, theme, unison, 

ANT. Discord, jarring, disso- 
nance, harshness, discordance. 

Melt. Liquefy, fuse, thaw, mol- 
lify, soften; be dissipated, run, 
blend, flow, dissolve. 

ANT. Harden, combine, con- 
solidate, unite, crystallize. 

Member. Organ, limb ; constitu- 
ent, part; clause, phrase; essen- 
tial; portion, component. 

ANT. Whole, body, entirety, 
aggregate, sum, totality, com- 
munity, society, association, or- 
ganization, constitution. 

Memoir. Memorial, biography, 
record, narrative, chronicle, reg- 

Memorable. Important, illus- 
trious, remarkable, extraordi- 
nary, signal, distinguished, fa- 
mous, celebrated, great, conspic- 
uous, prominent. 

ANT. Ordinary, trivial, com- 
monplace, insignificant, medi- 

Memorial. Monument, record, 
memorandum, memento, sou- 

ANT. Silence, oblivion; non- 
observance; erasure. 

Memory. Remembrance, recol- 

lection, reminiscence; fame, re- 
nown, reputation; monument; 
retrospection, retrospect; per- 
petuation, retention. 

ANT. Oblivion, oversight, un- 
mindfulness, obliviousness, /or- 

Menace, n. Threat, evil inten- 
tion, denunciation, threatening. 
ANT. Good will, benediction, 
blessing, kindness; protection. 

Mend. Help, amend, emend, cor- 
rect, rectify; repair, improve, 
reform, better, restore, amelio- 

ANT. Impair, damage, spoil, 
corrupt; harm, deteriorate, per- 

Mendacity. Lying, deceit, false- 
hood, untruth, duplicity, lie, 
untruthfulness, deception; pre- 

ANT. Truth, honesty, recti- 
tude, uprightness, veracity, ac- 
curacy, exactness. 

Menial. Servile, mean; domes- 
tic; dependent, attendant. 

ANT. Noble, independent, au- 
tocratic, supreme, superior. 

Mental. Intellectual, spiritual, 
metaphysical, subjective, psy- 
chological, psychical, intelli- 

ANT. Physical, corporeal, ob- 
jective, bodily. 

Mention, n. Reference, allusion, 
notice, remembrance, hint, com- 
munication, observation, decla- 

ANT. Omission, silence, sup- 
pression, forgetfulness, neglect. 

Mention, v. Speak of, notice, an- 
nounce, observe, remark, hint, 
declare, tell, state, report, dis- 
close, allude to, name, refer 

ANT. Suppress, omit, be si- 
lent about, forget, silence, drop, 
neglect, disregard, slight. 

Mercantile. Commercial, traffic, 

[ 203 ] 




business; wholesale, retail; in- 
terchangeable, marketable. 

ANT. Professional; unmer- 
cantile, unmarketable, stagnant, 

Mercenary. Paid, hired, hire- 
ling, venal; greedy, sordid, 
avaricious, selfish. 

ANT. Generous, unselfish, 
lavish, prodigal, liberal, phil- 
anthropic, benevolent. 

Merchandise. Wares, commod- 
ities, goods; trade, traffic, com- 
merce; stock. 

Merchant. Trader, shopkeeper, 
dealer, tradesman, trafficker ; 

ANT. Shopman, salesman, 
retailer, pedler, huckster. 

Merciful. Compassionate, ten- 
der, humane, gracious, kind, 
mild, clement, benignant, leni- 
ent, pitiful, forgiving; tender- 

ANT. Remorseless, pitiless, 
inexorable, unrelenting, severe, 
cruel, hard, illiberal. 

Mercy. Compassion, grace, fa- 
vor, helpfulness, clemency, for- 
bearance, tenderness, forgive- 
ness, gentleness, pardon, bless- 
ing, pity, kindness, mildness, 
lenity, benevolence, benignity, 
lenience, leniency. 

ANT. Harshness, rigor, se- 
verity, sternness, penalty, jus- 
tice, vengeance, revenge, pun- 
ishment, hardness, cruelty, im- 
placability, ruthlessness, inhu- 
manity, brutality, exaction. 

Mere. Unmixed, pure, absolute, 
unqualified, simple, bare, un- 
affected; unadulterated. 

ANT. Compound, mixed, im- 
pure, blended, combined, adul- 

Meridian, n. Midday, noon, ze- 
nith, height, culmination, sum- 
mit, apex, pinnacle, acme. 
ANT. Midnight, antipodes, 

depth, profundity, base, depres- 
sion, nadir. 

Merit, n. Desert, worth, excel- 
lence, reward, approbation; 
worthiness, credit, goodness. 

ANT. Worthlessness, error, 
v.nworthiness, demerit, weak- 
ness, imperfection, fault. 

Merry. Gay, jovial, sportive; 
cheerful, happy; blithe, lively, 
sprightly, vivacious, mirthful, 
gleeful, joyous, jocund, hilari- 

ANT. Gloomy, sad, discon- 
solate, dismal, moody, dejected. 

Message. Notice, word, com- 
munication, missive, letter, in- 

ANT. Interception, silence, 
non-communication, neglect. 

Messenger. Carrier, harbinger, 
intelligencer, courier, forerun- 
ner, herald, precursor. 

Metaphysical. Mental, intel- 
lectual, psychological, abstract, 
general, ideal, psychical, sub 
jective, rational, abstruse, con- 

ANT. Physical, substantial, 
physiological, material, practi- 
cal, objective, palpable, exter- 

Method. Order, system, rule, 
way, manner, mode, course, ar- 
rangement, process, means, reg- 

ANT. Disorder, experimen- 
tation, guesswork, conjecture, 
attempt, empiricism. 

Midst. Middle, center, heart; 
thick; press; burden. 

ANT. Circumference, rim, 
surface, border, outside, per- 

Mien. Aspect, manner, bearing, 
look, carriage, deportment, ap- 

ANT. Character, disposition, 
nature, constitution, personal- 

[ 204 ] 




Might. Force, energy, power, 
means, resources; strength, ca- 
pacity, ability. 

ANT. Weakness, feebleness, 
infirmity, impotence; inability, 
inefficiency, incapability; leant, 

Mild. Gentle, pleasant, clement, 
kind, soft, bland; moderate, 
placid, tender, genial, meek. 

ANT. Harsh, fierce, savage, 
rough, wild, violent, merciless, 

Mind. Understanding, intellect, 
soul; opinion, judgment, belief; 
choice, inclination, liking, in- 
tent, will; courage, spirit; re- 
membrance, memory, recollec- 
tion; reason, brain, sense, con- 
sciousness, disposition, intelli- 
gence, thought, instinct. 

ANT. Body, matter, brute 
force, braum, limbs, material 
substance, members; feelings, 
emotions, heart, affections, sen- 
sibilities; conduct; forgetful- 
ness, obliviousness. 

Mindful. Regardful, attentive, 
heedful, observant, thoughtful, 

ANT. Inattentive, regardless, 
careless, forgetful, oblivious, 

Mingle. Combine, join, confuse, 
compound, mix; unite, associ- 
ate; intermarry; blend, amal- 

ANT. Separate, sever, segre- 
gate, dissolve, sift, sort, classi- 
fy, analyze. 

Minister, n. Delegate, official, 
ambassador; clergyman, priest, 
parson, ecclesiastic, preacher, 
divine, vicar, curate; envoy. 

ANT. Monarch, master, supe- 
rior, principal; layman; gov- 

Minor, o. Inferior, less impor- 
tant, smaller, less, junior, un- 
important, younger. 

ANT. Major, greater, older,, 
senior, elder, main, important. 

Minute. Small, tiny, slender, 
diminutive, slight, little; pre- 
cise, particular, detailed, criti- 
cal, circumstantial, exact, fine, 
comminuted, specific; inconsid- 
erable; microscopic. 

ANT. Monstrous, great, enor- 
mous, grand, huge; general, ab" 
stract, broad, comprehensive; 
inexact, superficial. 

Miraculous. Supernatural, su- 
per-physical; wonderful, awe- 

ANT. Natural, ordinary, sci- 

Mis-. A prefix used in the sense 
of amiss, wrong, ill. Words to 
which this prefix but adds this 
meaning are omitted here, and 
their synonyms and antonyms 
may usually be readily found 
by reference to the root words. 

Misanthropy. Cynicism, hatred, 

ANT. Philanthropy, benevo- 
lence, altruism, humanitarian- 

Miscellany. Mass, mixture, col- 
lection, medley, jumble, variety, 
hodge-podge, diversity. 

ANT. Selection, si/stem, ar- 
rangement, order, group, assort- 
ment, classification. 

Mischief. Damage, harm, hurt, 
injury, detriment, evil, ill ; mia- 
hap, trouble. 

ANT. Benefit, good, blessing, 
profit, gratification, compensa- 
tion, favor. 

Miser. Niggard, skinflint, cur- 
mudgeon, churl. 

ANT. Spendthrift, profli- 

Miserable. Abject, forlorn, pit- 
iable, wretched, mean; worth- 
less, despicable, contemptible \ 
unfortunate, unlucky. 

ANT. Comfortable, happy, 

[ 205 ] 




respectable, contented, cheer- 
ful, easy. 

Misery. Unhappiness, wretch- 
edness, woe; calamity, disas- 
ter, misfortune. 

ANT. Happiness, content- 
ment, ease, comfort, pleasure, 

Misfortune. Adversity, failure, 
ill luck, hardship, harm, ill, 
affliction, calamity, blow, dis- 
aster, disappointment, trial, 
tribulation, sorrow, ruin, dis- 
tress, stroke, misery, reverse, 
mischance, visitation, chasten- 
ing, trouble, chastisement, mis- 
adventure, bereavement, mis- 

ANT. Consolation, blessing, 
"boon, happiness, joy, prosper- 
ity, relief, triumph, success, 
comfort, good fortune, gratifi- 
cation, good luck, pleasure. 
Mission. Message, errand, com- 
mission, deputation; embassy; 
ministry, legation; trust, office. 

ANT. Assumption, usurpa- 
tion, self -appointment ; faith- 
lessness, betrayal. 
Mist. Fog, vapor; obscuration, 
cloudiness, perplexity, bewil- 
derment, haze. 

ANT. Clarity, brightness; 
perspicuity, revelation, clear- 
ness, discernment, insight, un- 
derstanding; lucidity. 
Mob. Rabble, masses, dregs of 
the people, the vulgar, popu- 
lace, crowd, canaille, lower 
classes. , 

ANT. Elite, aristocracy, no- 
bility, nobles, patricians. 
Mobile. Movable, excitable, in- 
constant, changeable, fickle ; 
variable, ductile, sensitive. 

ANT. Immovable, firm, set, 
steady, unvarying, unchange- 
able, inexorable. 

Model. Mold, copy, design, ex- 
ample, image, imitation, stan- 

dard, type, representation, pat* 
tern, prototype, facsimile, orig- 
inal, archetype ; norm. 

ANT. Imitation; work, pro- 
duction, execution; accom- 

Moderate, a,. Sparing, temper- 
ate, frugal, calm, mild; lim- 
ited, restrained, reasonable ; 
dispassionate, controlled ; ab- 
stinent, sober; austere, ascetic. 
ANT. Immoderate, intemper- 
ate, luxurious, excessive, ex- 

Modern. New, novel, modish, 
fashionable, present, late, ex- 
tant, recent. 

ANT. Past, ancient, anti- 
quated, old, antique, obsolete, 

Modesty. Humility, lowliness, 
humbleness, meekness, shyness, 
reserve, coldness, bashfulness, 
backwardness, constraint, ti- 
midity, unobtrusiveness, coy- 

ANT. Frankness, freedom, 
impudence, indiscretion, self- 
conceit, sauciness, abandon, ar- 
rogance, confidence, egoism, as- 
sumption, assurance, boldness, 
forioardness, haughtiness, lo- 
quacity, pertness, pride, van- 
ity, self -sufficiency, openness, 

Moment. Instant, twinkling, 
consequence, weight, consider- 
ation, force, value, significa- 
tion, avail ; second, trice. 

ANT. Age, period, decade, 
century, generation; insignifi- 
cance, unimportance, trivial- 

Monarch. Ruler, sovereign ; 
king, prince, emperor, queen. 
ANT. Subject, peer, plebes. 

Money. Coin, cash, currency, 
gold, funds, property, specie, 
silver, bills, bullion, notes, cap- 

[ 208 ] 



Monopoly. Exclusivenesa, pos- 
session, privilege, appropria- 
tion, engrossment, preemption. 
ANT. Community, partner- 
ship, competition, free trade; 
participation, sharing; com- 
munism ; socialism. 

Monotonous. Unvarying, uni- 
form, wearisome, dull, tedious, 
same, unison, humdrum, undi- 
versified; similar, like. 

ANT. Varied, changed, di- 
versified; harmonic; lively; di- 
vergent, variant. 

Monster. Prodigy, enormity, 
marvel, portent ; monstrosity, 
wonder; demon, fiend, dragon, 
sphinx, colossus, leviathan ; 

ANT. Pigmy, dwarf, elf; an- 
gel, beauty, cherub. 

Monstrous. Abnormal, extraor- 
dinary, prodigious, portentous, 
marvelous, unnatural ; vast, 
immense, colossal, stupendous; 
shocking, horrible, hateful, ter- 
rible, hideous. 

ANT. Beautiful, small, rea- 
sonable, little, shapely, regular, 
fair, pretty, comely; ordinary, 
familiar, natural; charming, 

Moral, a. Dutiful, right, virtu- 
ous, just, worthy, ethical ; in- 
tellectual, spiritual, religious, 
pious, righteous, ideal. 

ANT. Immoral, wrong, sin- 
ful, unjust, unworthy, vicious, 
gross; irreligious, impious, sen- 
sual; physical, bodily, carnal. 

Moreover. Besides, further, in 
addition; also, likewise, in ad- 
dition to. 

ANT. Finally, lastly. 

Morose. Gruff, gloomy, crusty, 
crabbed, acrimonious, severe, 
snappish, sullen, surly, churl- 
ish, dogged, ill-humored, ill- 
natured, sulky. 
ANT. Bland, gentle, benig- 

nant, good-natured, kind, lov- 
ing, pleasant, sympathetic, ge- 
nial, amiable, friendly, tender, 
indulgent, complaisant, mild. 

Mortal. Deathlike; deadly, de- 
structive, poisonous ; vulner- 
able, vital; human, perishable, 
ephemeral, transient, transi- 

ANT. Immortal, undying, 
everlasting, eternal, divine, ce- 
lestial, life-fjiving, perennial. 

Motherly. Maternal, mother- 
like, parental; kind, loving, af- 

ANT. Paternal, fatherlike, 
fatherly; harsh, unloving, un- 
kind, hateful. 

Motion. Movement, change, ac- 
tion, act, passage, move, proc- 
ess, transit, transition. 

ANT. Quiescence, quiet, rest, 
repose, stillness, immobility. 

Motive. Incentive, incitement, 
inducement, reason, spur, stim- 
ulus, cause; object, purpose; 
argument, conviction; impulse, 

ANT. Deed, achievement, ex- 
ecution, action, attempt, pro- 
ject; deflector, preventive, dis- 
suasion, deterrent. 

Mourn. Lament, grieve, regret, 
rue, bewail, sorrow. 

ANT. Exult, joy, rejoice, be 
joyful, triumph, make merry. 

Mournful. Lugubrious, heavy, 
sad, sorrowful, grievous, ca- 

ANT. Joyful, jubilant, glad- 
some, cheerful, happy, pleas- 
ant, joyous. 

Move. Stir, agitate, trouble, af- 
fect, persuade, actuate, impel, 
prompt, instigate, incite, offer, 

ANT. Stop, stay, arrest, pre- 
vent, deter; calm, appease, de- 

Movement. Motion ; compul- 

[ 207 ] 




sion, stimulation, incitement, 
agitation, arousing, instiga- 

ANT. Stoppage, stay, pause, 
calm, quiet. 

Much. Great; long; consider- 
able; abundant; far; ample, 

ANT. Little, small, scarce, 
few, scanty, near; narrow. 

Multiplication. Teeming, mul- 
tiplicity, multitude, increase, 
plurality, reproduction, aug- 
mentation, swarming, multifa- 
riousness, multitudinousness. 

ANT. Diminution, division, 
subtraction, reduction; extinc- 
tion; rarity, scantiness; unity, 

Multitude. Throng, crowd, as- 
sembly, assemblage, common- 
alty, swarm, populace; host, 
rabble, mob, concourse. 

ANT. Individual, solitude; 
aristocracy; oligarchy; scanti- 
ness, paucity, scarcity. 

Mundane. Worldly, terrestrial, 
earthly; sublunary; secular, 

ANT. Unworldly, spiritual, 
celestial, eternal, supramun- 
dane, stellar, solar, lunar. 

Munificent. Bounteous, boun- 
tiful, liberal, generous; benefi- 
cent, free, lavish, extravagant. 
ANT. Small, niggardly, sav- 
ing, sparing, mean, close. 

Musical. Melodious, harmoni- 
ous, tuneful, symphonious, mel- 
lifluous, rhythmical. 

ANT. Discordant, inharmo- 
nious, harsh, raucous, unmelo- 

Mute. Silent, dumb, speechless; 
voiceless; still, unpronounced ; 
unresponsive; taciturn. 

ANT. Talkative, chattering, 
garrulous, vocal, speaking, lo- 
quacious, loud, noisy. 
Mutual. Common, correlative, 
reciprocal, joint, interchange- 

ANT. Detached, distinct, 
disunited, separate, severed, 
sundered, unshared, unrecipro- 
cated, unrequited, disconnected. 
Mysterious. Abstruse, enigmat- 
ical, dark, mystical, occult, ob- 
scure, secret, transcendental, 
unknown, unfathomable, mys- 
tic, hidden, inexplicable, in- 
scrutable, cabalistic, incom- 
prehensible, recondite. 

ANT. Clear, plain, appar- 
ent, manifest, bright, light, ex- 
plainable, simple, comprehen- 
sible, obvious, easy, revealed, 

Mystic. Unknowable, obscure, 
mysterious ; allegorical, enig- 
matical ; transcendental ; ca- 
balistic, symbolical. 

ANT. Familiar, simple, or- 
dinary, commonplace, obvious, 

Myth. Fable, tradition, legend; 
parable, invention, fiction, alle- 
gory; falsehood, lie. 

ANT. Truth, fact, history t 
narrative, incident. 

[ 208 ] 





Nabob. Millionaire, Croesus, 
viceroy, governor, Dives. 
ANT. Beggar, suppliant. 

Naked. Nude, bare; defense- 
less, unprotected, destitute ; 
manifest, undisguised; simple, 
mere, plain; unclothed, un- 
draped, denuded ; uncolored, un- 

ANT. Robed, draped, veiled, 
dressed, shrouded, muffled; pro- 
tected, sheltered; colored, var- 
nished, qualified. 

Name, n. Appellation, denomi- 
nation, cognomen, designation, 
surname, title, style, epithet. 

Name, v. Call, indicate, desig- 
nate, specify, mention, denomi- 
nate, style, nominate. 

ANT. Miscall, misname, mis- 
indicate; be nameless or anony- 
mous; hint, suggest, shadow, 
intimate, imply. 

Narrate. Relate, tell, recount, 
describe, detail, rehearse, re- 
port, recite. 

ANT. Misrepresent, mistake; 
suppress, conceal. 

Narrative. Narration, recital, 
account, rehearsal, relation, 
description, story, tale, his- 

Narrow. Not wide, straitened, 
limited, without margin; big- 
oted, illiberal ; parsimonious, 
niggardly, selfish ; close, scruti- 
nizing, exact; slender, spare, 
thin, contracted, cramped. 

ANT. Wide, broad, ample, 
expanded, thick ; generous, be- 
nevolent; unlimited; liberal. 

Nascent. Embryo, rudimental, 
budding, incipient. 

ANT. O-rown, developed, ma- 
ture ; aged; confirmed, set. 

Nasty. Filthy, foul, dirty, of- 

fensive, damp, disgusting, dis- 
agreeable, wet; indecent, ob- 

ANT. Pleasant, sweet, agree- 
able, savory, nice, pure. 

Nation. People, race, stock; 
realm, community, state, com- 

Native. Innate, natal, natural, 
original, indigenous. 

ANT. Alien, artificial, for- 
eign, unnatural, acquired, as- 

Natural. Native; essential, nor- 
mal, regular, intrinsic, cosmi- 
cal, spontaneous, original, art- 
less, ingenuous; kind, affec- 
tionate; genuine, unaffected. 

ANT. Abnormal, monstrous, 
unnatural, improbable, adven- 
titious, fictitious, coarse; art- 
ful, affected. 

Nature. Creation, universe; es- 
sence, constitution; kind, sort, 
character, quality; temper, dis- 
position, mood; mind, intelli- 
gence; vitality. 

ANT. Thing, subject, object, 
man, being, creature, monstros- 
ity, unnaturalness ; art, fiction, 
romance, invention. 

Naught. Nothing, cipher, zero. 
ANT. Anything, everything, 

Naughty. Mischievous, per- 
verse, f reward; bad, corrupt, 
worthless, good-for-nothing; re- 
fractory, wicked. 

ANT. Good, worthy, well- 
behaved, tractable, pure, docile, 

Nausea. Seasickness, loathing, 
disgust, qualm ; repugnance, 

ANT. Enjoyment, taste, de- 
light, relish. 

209 ] 




Nautical. Marine, maritime, na- 
val, oceanic. 

Near, ad. Nigh, not remote, al- 
most, nearly, well-nigh, inti- 
mately, closely. 

Near, a. Nigh, close, adjacent, 
adjoining, approximate; immi- 
nent, impending, forthcoming, 
approaching; familiar, dear, in- 
timate; immediate; literal, ac- 
curate; narrow, parsimonious; 
short ; proximate, contiguous, 
present, ready. 

ANT. Distant, remote, far; 
reserved, uncordial, cool, stiff; 
indistinct, obscure, future. 

Nearly. Almost, well-nigh, inti- 
mately, closely, approximately. 
ANT. Quite, entirely, dis- 
tantly, remotely. 

Neat. Trim, tidy, prim, precise, 
spruce, clean, cleanly, orderly, 
natty, dapper, nice. 

ANT. Negligent, slack, slov- 
enly, slouchy, dirty, soiled, dis- 
orderly, dowdy, untidy, rough, 
unkempt, rude, uncared for. 

Necessary. Essential, inevitable, 
needful, infallible, undeniable, 
indispensable, required, requi- 
site, unavoidable. 

ANT. Optional, useless, con- 
tingent, worthless, casual, non- 
essential, needless. 

Necessitate. Force, compel, co- 
erce, make necessary, oblige, 
constrain, make, drive, impel. 

ANT. Persuade, convince, in- 
duce, tempt, coax, allure; liber- 
ate, release. 

Necessity. Need, requirement, 
want, compulsion, fate, fatal- 
ity, requisite, destiny, essential, 
emergency, extremity, exigency, 
indispensableness, urgency, un- 
avoidableness, sine qua non. 

ANT. Choice, contingency, 
doubt, option, freedom, uncer- 
tainty, fortuity, doubtfulness, 
dubiousness, possibility. 

Need. Exigency, emergency, ex- 
tremity, strait, distress, indi- 
gence, penury. 

ANT. Competence, affluence, 
choice, wealth, luxury, pro- 
fuseness; superfluity, useless- 
ness, dispensableness ; casualty, 
accident; contingency, free- 

Needful. Requisite, needy, ne- 
cessitous, distressful, essential, 

ANT. Contingent, casual, un- 
necessary, unessential, discre- 
tional, optional, needless. 
Needless. Unnecessary, useless, 
superfluous, groundless, gratui- 

ANT. Needful, useful, help- 
ful, obligatory. 

Nefarious. Wicked, abominable, 
iniquitous, execrable, atrocious, 

ANT. Noble, honorable, ad- 
mirable, laudable; benevolent t 
generous, humane. 
Negation. Denial, disavowal, 
disclaimer, contradiction. 

ANT. Assertion, declaration t 
deposition, avowal, affirma- 
tion, allegation, protestation, 

Negative, a. Denying, indirect, 
unaffirmative, privative, dis- 

ANT. Positive, direct, asser- 
tive, attributive, affirmative, de- 

Neglect, n. Negligence, failure, 
omission, disregard, oversight, 
indifference, remissness, slight, 
thoughtlessness, slackness, de- 
fault, carelessness, disrespect, 
heedlessnesa, inadvertence, in- 
attention, scorn. 

ANT. Care, attention, notice, 
regard, esteem, consideration, 

Negotiate. Transfer, sell, pass, 
arrange, treat, bargain, trade, 

[ 210 ] 




communicate, transact, effect, 

ANT. Stop, quash, misman- 
age, misconduct. 

Neighborly. Kind, civil, social, 
friendly, near, adjoining, adja- 
cent, neighboring, friendly, at- 

ANT. Individual, solitary, 
personal, distant, remote, un- 
kind, uncivil, unfriendly. 

Nerve. Steadiness, firmness, for- 
titude, self-command, resolu- 
tion, strength, courage, pluck, 
endurance, coolness, presence 
of mind. 

ANT. Weakness, cowardice, 
timidity, feebleness, nerveless- 

Nervous. Excitable, agitated, 
annoyed, irritable, weak, fear- 
ful ; strong, vigorous, spirited, 
nervy, forceful. 

ANT. Self-possessed, self- 
controlled, poised, calm, com- 
posed; dull, inert, phlegmatic, 

Neutral. Neuter, undecided, in- 
different, unpronounced, unin- 
terfering, negative, impartial, 
unavowed, unaffiliated. 

ANT. Interested, interfering, 
positive, partial, active, allied, 
avowed, declared. 

Neutralize. Render neutral, in- 
validate, counteract, counter- 
balance, countervail, render in- 

ANT. Enhance, intensify, ag- 

New. Fresh, modern, novel, late, 
recent, juvenile, upstart, young, 
new-fangled, youthful, new- 

ANT. Old, antique, ancient, 
old-fashioned, aged, elderly. 

News. Information, tidings, in- 
telligence, advice, word, report, 
account, announcement, ru- 

ANT. Ignorance, silence, non- 
publication, suppression; mis- 
intelligence, misreport. 
Nice. Exquisite, accurate, cor- 
rect, precise, particular, punc- 
tilious, squeamish, tinical, ef- 
feminate, silly, exact, critical, 
definite, strict, fastidious, cau- 
tious, scrupulous ; discerning, 
discriminating; fine, minute, 
refined, delicate, dainty, pleas- 
ant, agreeable. 

ANT. Coarse, rude, rough, 
inaccurate, blind, undiscrimi- 
nating, unscrupulous, incau- 
tious, undiscerning, careless, 
negligent, disagreeable, nau- 

Nicety. Fastidiousness, accur- 
acy, scrupulousness, delicacy, 
precision, daintiness, subtlety, 
distinction, exactness. 

ANT. Coarseness, roughness, 
inaccuracy, rudeness. 
Niggardly. Avaricious, covet- 
ous, parsimonious, miserly, 
sordid, sparing, penurious, 

ANT. Generous, bountiful, 
copious, ample, profuse, abun- 
dant, bounteous, plentiful, mu- 

Nimble. Alert, brisk, bustling, 
lively, prompt, quick, speedy, 
swift, spry, agile, sprightly, ac- 

ANT. Clumsy, dilatory, dull, 
heavy, inert, inactive, slow, un- 
ready, sluggish. 

Nobility. Greatness, dignity, su- 
periority, nobleness, eminence, 
elevation, worthiness; family, 
rank, title, birth; aristocracy, 
peerage, patrician class. 

ANT. Obscurity, meanness, 
serfdom, paltriness, plebeian- 
ism . 

Noble. Honorable, worthy, dig- 
nified, elevated, superior, sub- 
lime, great, eminent, stately. 

[ 211 ] 




generous, liberal, free, aristo- 
cratic, patrician, illustrious, 
grand, lordly, renowned, mag- 
nificent, knightly. 

ANT. Ignoble, plebeian, pal- 
try, vulgar, base-born, low-born, 
rustic, peasant, contemptible, 
unworthy, mean. 

Nobody. No person, no one, not 
anybody, cipher, nonentity. 

ANT. Somebody, notability, 
celebrity, colossus, star. 
Nocturnal. Nightly, dark, tene- 
brose, gloomy. 

ANT. Dally, diurnal, solar, 
brilliant, light. 

Noise. Cry, outcry, clamor, din, 
clatter, uproar; rumor, report, 
rattle, tumult. 

ANT. Music, melody, har- 
mony; silence, hush, stillness, 

Noiseless. Silent, quiet, inau- 

ANT. Noisy, uproarious, tur- 
bulent, clamorous, boisterous, 
brawling, tumultuous, loud. 
Noisome. Noxious, insalubrious, 
unwholesome, mischievous, de- 
structive, nocuous, hurtful, pes- 
tilential, harmful. 

ANT. Wholesome, salutary, 
salubrious, beneficial. 
Noisy. Loud, clamorous, stun- 
ning, boisterous, turbulent. 

ANT. Noiseless, subdued, in- 
audible, whispering; melodious, 

Nominal. Literal, verbal, titu- 
lar; formal, avowed, pretended, 
ostensible, supposititious. 

ANT. Veritable, essential, in- 
trinsic, actual, substantial, im- 
portant, real, serious, true. 
Nominate. Name, specify, ap- 
point, designate, entitle. 

ANT. Suggest, icithdraw, re- 
ject, indicate, cancel, deprive, 
Nonsense. Folly, silliness, ab- 

surdity, trash, inanity, plati- 
tude, pretense. 

ANT. Sense, msdom, fact, 
truth, gravity, reason, science. 

Normal. Regular, ordinary^ nat- 
ural, standard, usual, typical, 
recognized, common. 

ANT. Exceptional, abnormal, 
uncommon, singular, unusual, 
monstrous, irregular, peculiar, 
rare, unprecedented, remark- 
able, unnatural. 

Notable. Plain, evident, noted, 
noticeable, distinguished, mem- 
orable, extraordinary, conspicu- 
ous, manifest; notorious. 

ANT. Ordinary, mean, com,' 
monplace, everyday, undistin- 
guished, unimpressive, insig- 

Note. Memorandum, comment, 
remark, record, scholium; ac- 
count, catalogue, bill ; heed, ob- 
servation; reputation, distinc- 
tion, celebrity, fame, repute, re- 

ANT. Misindicction, misrep- 
resentation, misleader. 

Notice, n. Observation, regard, 
cognizance, information, advice, 
news, intelligence, intimation, 
announcement, premonition, in- 
struction, warning, attention, 

ANT. Oversight, disregard, 
neglect, slight, ignorance, con- 
nivance, omission, hecdlessness, 
m isinforma tion. 

Notice, v. Mark, observe, note, 
heed, regard, perceive, see, re- 
mark, mention, comment on, at- 
tend, mind. 

ANT. Overlook, disregard, 
misjudge, neglect. 

Notification. Information, no- 
tice, declaration, publication, 
announcement, advertisement. 

Notify. Intimate, declare, pub- 
lish, announce, acquaint, warn, 
apprise, communicate, inform. 

[ 212 ] 




ANT. Withhold, conceal, sup- 
press, misinform, misreport. 

Notion. Idea, conception, appre- 
hension, sentiment, judgment, 
opinion, belief, impression, esti- 
mation, conceit, conviction. 

ANT. Misconception, misap- 
prehension, frustration, falsifi- 

Notorious. Distinguished, con- 
spicuous, remarkable, famous, 
celebrated, noted, renowned. 

ANT. Suspected, reputed, re- 

Notwithstanding, conj. Still, 
however, although, but, never- 
theless, howbeit, yet, though. 

Notwithstanding, prep. De- 
spite, in spite of. 

Nourish. Feed, foster, cherish, 
nurse, tend, support, maintain, 
train, educate, promote. 

ANT. Starve, blight, destroy, 

Nourishment. Nutrition, nutri- 
ment, food, aliment, provision, 

ANT. Poison, venom, bane, 
starvation, exhaustion. 

Novel, a. New, recent, modern, 
fresh, stransre, uncommon, rare, 
unusual, fantastic, odd, upstart, 

ANT. 1'eneroblc, ancient, old- 
fashion ed, time- /; onored. 

Noxious. Noisome, injurious, 
hurtful, pernicious, unwhole- 
some, deadly, poisonous. 

ANT. H'.'.'o/rsowe, salutary, 
beneficial, healthful, salubri- 

Nucleus. Kernel, core, center. 

ANT. Exterior, face, appear- 

Nudity. Nakedness, exposure. 

ANT. Clothing, dress, vest- 
ment, drapery. 

Nugatory. Trifling, vain, insig- 
nificant, futile, ineffectual, un- 

availing, trivial, worthless, use- 
less, null. 

ANT. Important, potent, mo- 
mentous, efficacious, successful, 
grave, serious, satisfactory. 

Nuisance. Annoyance, plague, 
pest, affliction, bane, trouble. 

ANT. Pleasure, delight, ben- 
efit, blessing, gratification. 

Nullify. Revoke, annul, cancel, 
abolish, render void, abrogate, 
neutralize, repeal. 

ANT. Enact, confirm, per- 
petuate, establish, stabilitate. 

Numb. Enfeebled, destitute, tor- 
pid, benumbed, insensible, par- 
alyzed, deadened. 

ANT. Alive, alert, sensitive, 
keen, lively, animated, atten- 

Number, n. Aggregation, multi- 
tude, collection, numeral, nu- 
merous, quantity. 

ANT. Scarcity, feioness, pau- 

Number, v. Count, enumerate, 
calculate, tell, compute, reckon, 

ANT. Guess, hazard, conjec- 
ture; lump, mass. 

Numberless. Innumerable, in- 
finite, countless. 

ANT. Few, scarce, rare, infre- 

Numerous. Many, abundant, di- 
verse, multifarious, manifold, 

ANT. Few, scarce, rare, in- 

Nuptial. Wedding, marriage, 
hymeneal, espousal, connubial, 

ANT. Bachelor, virgin. 

Nurse, v. Nourish, cherish, fos- 
ter, attend, manage, train, edu- 
cate, teach, feed, nurture. 

ANT. Starve, kill, destroy; 

Nurture. Nourish, nurse, tend, 
cherish, educate, train, feed. 

[ 213 ] 




ANT. Neglect, deprive, dis- 
regard, slight. 

Nutriment. Aliment, food, sus- 
tenance, nourishment, susten- 
tation, subsistence, nutri- 

ANT. Starvation, detriment, 
exhaustion, poison, decay, in- 

Nutrition. Nutriment, feeding, 

ANT. Poison, venom. 

Oath. Curse, imprecation, pro- 
fanity, swearing, adjuration, 
affidavit, anathema, ban, blas- 
phemy, denunciation, execra- 
tion, malediction, vow, repro- 
bation, sworn statement. 

ANT. Blessing, benediction, 

Obdurate. Firm, unbending, in- 
flexible, unyielding, obstinate, 
stubborn, impenitent, callous, 
unfeeling, insensible. 

ANT. Yielding, teachable, 
tender, docile, amenable, flex- 
ible, toftened. 

Obedience. Submission, duty, 
compliance, respect, dutiful- 
ness, subservience. 

ANT. Resistance, rebellion, 

r transgression, disobedience, an- 
tagonism, insubordination. 

Obedient. Dutiful, respectful, 
compliant, submissive, humble, 
yielding, obsequious, modest, 

ANT. Disrespectful, unduti- 
ful, arrogant, hard, unyielding, 
obstinate, obdurate, stubborn. 

Obesity. Fatness, corpulence, 
fleshiness, corpulency. 

ANT. Leanness, thinness. 

Obey. Submit, yield, comply. 
ANT. Resist, refuse, disobey. 

Object, n. Reality, fact, exis- 
tence, phenomenon; aim, inten- 
tion, end, purpose, appearance, 
motive, design, sight, view, goal. 
ANT. Subject, idea, fancy, 

Objective. Outward, external, 
extrinsic, concrete, universal, 
actual, positive, real. 

ANT. Subjective, intrinsic, 
abstract, notional. 

Oblation. Offering, gift, sacri- 
fice, contribution, presentation. 
ANT. Spoliation, sacrilege, 
withholding, refusal. 

Obligation. Responsibility, en- 
gagement, contract, agreement, 
bond, covenant, stipulation, ne- 
cessity, debt, duty, compul- 

ANT. Choice, freedom, as- 
surance, promise, declaration, 

Oblige. Bind, please, gratify, 
accommodate, favor, constrain, 
compel, force, coerce, benefit, 
necessitate, obligate. 

ANT. Release, acquit; per- 
suade, induce ; annoy, disoblige. 

Obliging. Civil, courteous, com- 
plaisant, kind, considerate, ac- 
commodating, compliant. 

ANT. Discourteous, incon- 
siderate, rude, disobliging, un- 

Oblique. Indirect, slanting, in- 
clined, perverse, disingenuous, 
diagonal, divergent, angular. 

ANT. Straightforward, rec- 

Oblivion. Forgetfulness, disre- 

ANT. Memory, reminiscence, 
remembrance, recollection, cel- 
ebration, commemoration. 

[ 214 J 




Obloquy. Censure, odium, con- 
tumely, reproach, gainsaying, 
reviling, calumny, slander, de- 

ANT. Praise, acclamation, 
encomium, panegyric. 
Obnoxious. Odious, detrimen- 
tal, blameworthy, pernicious, 

ANT. Pleasant, grateful, in- 
dependent, wholesome, benefi- 
cial, salutary. 

Obscure, a. Abstruse, deep, in- 
volved, difficult, hidden, pro- 
found, mysterious, ambiguous, 
unintelligible, cloudy, complex, 
complicated, dark, darksome, 
dense, dim. doubtful, intricate, 
dusky, indistinct, enigmatical, 
incomprehensible, muddy, tur- 
bid, shadowy, misty, unknown, 
secluded, unascertained, re- 

ANT. Clear, luminous, dis- 
tinct, lucid, plain, plain-spoken, 
intelligible, prominent, emi- 

Obsequious. Servile, cringing, 
fawning, compliant, submissive, 
deferential, sycophantic, flatter- 

ANT. Impudent, self-asser- 
tive, independent, arrogant, in- 
submissive, haughty, proud. 
Observance. Observation, heed- 
ing, form, practice, custom, at- 
tention, celebration, ceremony, 

ANT. Inobservance, inatten- 
tion, disuse, disregard, disre- 
spect, omission, unceremonious- 
ness, informality. 
Observant. Observing, watch- 
ful, attentive, regardful, obe- 
dient, mindful, careful, heed- 

ANT. Unmindful, disobedi- 
ent, disregardful, heedless. 
Observation. Contemplation, re- 
mark, study, notice, view, con- 

clusion, judgment, attention, 
comment, note, observance. 

ANT. Inattention, oversight, 
silence, ignorance, inadver- 

Observe. Remark, note, watch, 
heed, see, discover, attend, com- 

ANT. Overlook, misconceive, 

Obsolete. Disused, ancient, ne- 
glected, antiquated, archaic, ef- 
fete, past, old-fashioned, old, 
rare, obsolescent. 

ANT. Fashionable, modern, 
current, customary, new, novel, 

Obstacle. Impediment, obstruc- 
tion, difficulty, hindrance, bar- 
rier, check. 

ANT. Course, proceeding, ca- 
reer, advancement, progress. 
Obstinacy. Pertinacity, firm- 
ness, resoluteness, inflexibility, 
persistency, perverseness, con- 

ANT. Flexibility, docility, 

Obstinate. Perverse, obdurate, 
intractable, determined, stub- 
born, resolved, resolute, inflex- 
ible, unyielding, intractable, in- 
domitable, unflinching, contu- 
macious, decided, dogged, mul- 
ish, heady, headstrong, fixed, 
firm, immovable, opinionated, 
persistent, pertinacious, refrac- 
tory, unconquerable. 

ANT. Pliant, docile, submis- 
sive, dutiful, gentle, obedient, 
compliant, tractable, yielding, 
amenable, complaisant, irreso- 
lute, wavering, undecided, pli- 
able, teachable. 

Obstruct. Bar, barricade, hin- 
der, oppose, impede, stay, stop, 
arrest, check, embarrass, clog, 
choke, retard, interrupt. 

ANT. Aid, facilitate, accel- 
erate, forward, promote, clear, 

[ 215 ] 




advance, open, pave the way 
for, further, free, expedite. 

Obstruction. Obstacle, barrier, 
bar, impediment, check, clog, 

ANT. Course, proceeding, ad- 
vancement, progress, career. 

Obtain. Attain, gain, procure, 
acquire, earn, win. 

ANT. Lose, forfeit, surren- 
der, forego. 

Obtrude. Intrude, force, inter- 
fere, thrust. 

ANT. Suggest, hint, insinu- 
ate; retire, withdraw. 

Obtuse. Blunt, dull, stupid, un- 
intelligent, stolid. 

ANT. Keen, quick, sharp, in- 
telligent, acute, clever. 

Obverse. Opposite, facing. 
ANT. Hinder, reverse. 

Obvious. Opposing; plain, evi- 
dent, clear, manifest, apparent, 
discovered, perceived, open, ex- 
plicit, patent. 

ANT. Remote, obscure, far- 
fetched, involved, latent. 

Occasion, v. Cause, produce, 
create, induce, originate, fur- 
nish, compose, constitute, gen 

Occasionally. Sometimes, casu- 
ally, rarely. 

ANT. A I ways, constantly, 
regularly, frequently. 

Occult. Secrot, concealed, hid- 
den, unknown, invisible, latent, 
eclipsed, unrevealed, mysteri- 

ANT. Developed, plain, ex- 
posed, patent, clear, familiar, 

Occupancy. Possession, occupa- 
tion, tenurv. 

ANT. Kriction, ejection, dis 

Occupation. Occupancy, avoca- 
tion, employment, engagement 
vocation, calling, office, trade. 


ANT. Idleness, leisure, va- 
cancy, vacation, abandonment, 

Occupy. Possess, hold, employ, 

ANT. Abandon, release, de- 
sert, surrender, vacate, concede, 
Occur. Happen, appear, meet, 
befall, betide, take place. 

ANT. Threaten, pass, im- 

Occurrence. Event, happening, 
incident, affair, adventure, cir- 
cumstance, transaction, episode. 

ANT. Cause, antecedent, in- 
ducement, predisposition, ten- 
dency, contribution. 
Odd. Quaint, unmatched, queer, 
unusual, eccentric, fantastical, 
droll, comical, singular, pecul- 

ANT. Common, usual, regu- 
lar, normal, matched. 
Odious. Hateful, detestable, dis- 
gusting, abominable, repulsive, 
forbidding, unpopular, invidi- 
ous, loathsome. 

ANT. Pleasing, pleasant, ac- 
ceptable, agreeable, grateful, 
delectable, bewitching, charm- 

Odium. Hatred, abhorrence, de- 
testation, antipathy, unpopu- 
larity, offensiveness. 

ANT. Welcome, acceptable- 
ness, popularity. 

Oclor. Scent, perfume, smell, fra- 
grance, aroma, redolence; trail, 
effluvium, fume. 

ANT. Inodorcnsness. 
Odorous. Fragrant, perfumed, 
balmy, aromatic, odorant. 

ANT. Scentless, inodorous; 

fni ,V. 

Offend. Displease, affront, harm, 
pain, annoy, transgress. 

ANT. Please, gratify, concili- 

Offense. Umbrage, misdeed, de- 
linquency, transgression, fault, 

[ 216 1 




affront, indignity, outrage, in- 

ANT. Defense, guiltlessness, 

Offensive. Disagreeable, obnox- 
ious, distasteful, impertinent, 
disgusting, rude, saucy, appro- 
brious, insulting, insolent, at- 
tacking, abusive, invading, as- 

ANT. Defensive, pleasing, 
grateful, savory. 

Offer. Propose, propound, ten- 
der, sacrifice, immolate, under- 
take, attempt, try, proffer. 

ANT. Withhold, irithdraio, 
retract, retain, alienate, divert. 

Offhand. Instant, ready, extem- 
poraneous, unpremeditated, un- 
studied, impromptu. 

ANT. Premeditated, elabo- 
rate, studied, thought-out. 

Office. Service, duty, custom, po- 
sition, charge, authority, func- 
tion, business. 

ANT. Leisure, vacancy, sine- 
cure, resignation. 

Officer. Official, functionary, di- 
rector, dignitary, manager, ad- 

ANT. Member, servant, pri- 
vate, employee. 

Official, a. Administrative, au- 
thoritative, functional, profes- 

ANT. Private, unofficial, un- 

Officiate. Act, serve, perform. 
ANT. Witness, retire. 

Officious. Impertinent, meddle- 
some, interfering, forward, in- 
trusive, pushing. 

ANT. Negligent, backward, 
remiss; retiring, modest. 

Often. Frequently, repeatedly, 
commonly, many times, not sel- 

ANT. Infrequently, seldom, 

Old. Aged, ancient, primitive, 

pristine, antique, antiquated, 
old-fashioned, obsolete; senile; 
gray, hoary, olden, immemo- 
rial, time-honored, decrepit, el- 
derly, patriarchal, remote, ven- 
erable, time-worn. 

ANT. Youthful, childlike, 
young; recent, modern, fresh,, 
new-fashioned, current. 

Omen. Prognostic, augury, pres- 
age, sign, portent, foreboding. 

ANT. Fulfilment, event, oc- 
currence, realization. 

Ominous. Significant, porten- 
tous, unpropitious, threaten- 
ing, inauspicious, foreboding, 
premonitory, suggestive. 

ANT. Encouraging, auspi- 
cious, propitious. 

Omit, v. Leave out, neglect, for- 
bear, fail, miss, overlook. 

ANT. Consider, observe, no- 
tice, attend, regard. 

Omnipotent. All-powerful, ir- 
resistible, Almighty. 

ANT. Powerless, inefficient, 

Omniscient. All-knowing, infal- 
lible, all-wise. 

ANT. Short-sighted, fallible, 

One. Single, individual, soli- 
tary, certain, undivided, com- 
mon, united, unitary. 

ANT. Many, several; few. 

Onerous. Burdensome, oppres- 
sive, heavy, toilsome, difficult, 
laborious, responsible. 

ANT. Light, easy, trivial. 

Only, ad. Solely, singly, exclu- 
sively, merely, barely, wholly. 
ANT. Among, amongst, to- 
gether, collectively. 

Only, a. Single, sole, alone, pre- 
eminent, chief. 

ANT. Many, together, sev- 
eral, mixed. 

Onset, Onslaught. Assault, at- 
tack, storming, aggression, in- 

[ 217 ] 




ANT. Repulse, resistance, 
protection, shelter, support, de- 

Onward. Forward, in advance, 

ANT. Aback, astern, lack- 

Opaque. Impervious, not trans- 
parent, obscure, unintelligible. 

ANT. Pellucid, translucent, 
transparent, obvious, clear, in- 
telligible, perspicuous. 
*)pen, v. Unclose, disclose, ex- 
pose, explain, begin, commence, 

ANT. Close, shut, cover, con- 
ceal; conclude, terminate; mis- 
interpret, mystify. 
^>pen, a. Unclosed, uncovered, 
unprotected, exposed, plain, 
obvious, evident, public, art- 
less, candid, free, available, ac- 
cessible, undisguised, ingenu- 

ANT. Closed, barred, inac- 
cessible, unavailable, reserved, 
shut, secreted. 

Opening. Aperture, hole, space, 
breach, gap, fissure; start, in- 
auguration, commencement, ini- 
tiation, beginning ; opportunity. 

ANT. Obstruction, stop-gap, 
termination, enclosure, close, 
end, conclusion, inopportunity, 
Operation. Agency, action, ex- 
ercise, production, influence, 
force, performance, result, pro- 
cedure, effect, execution. 

ANT. Failure, uselessness, 
futility, ineffectiveness, ineffi- 
ciency, poioerlessness, inaction, 
cessation, rest. 

Opinion. Persuasion, idea, sen- 
timent, view, conviction, judg- 
ment, notion, impression, esti- 

ANT. Evidence, argument, 
inquiry, speculation, investiga- 
tion, pleading. 

Opponent. Antagonist, foe, ad- 
versary, enemy, rival. 

ANT. Helper, assistant, ac- 
complice, ally. 

Opportune. Timely, seasonable, 
convenient, ready, suitable, au- 
spicious, meet, appropriate. 

ANT. Untimely, unseason- 
able, inopportune, infelicitous. 

Opportunity. Occasion, conven- 
ience, occurrence, turn, open- 

ANT. Lapse, omission, inop- 
portuneness, contre-temps. 

Oppose. Combat, withstand, con- 
tradict, deny, gainsay, oppugn, 
contravene, check, obstruct. 

ANT. Aid, abet, support, ad- 
vance, expedite. 

Opposite. Facing, contrary, re- 
pugnant, antagonistic, adverse, 
counter, contradictory, op- 

ANT. Agreeing, coincident, 
harmonious, conformable, suit- 
ing, fitting, accordant. 

Opposition. Restraint, defeat, 
resistance, hostility, obstacle, 
obstruction, animosity. 

ANT. Sympathy, harmony, 
concord, alliance, congeniality. 

Oppress. Impose, weigh down, 
burden, grind, persecute, over- 
whelm, crush, overpower, sub- 

ANT. Encourage, assist, sup- 
port, befriend. 

Oppression. Cruelty, tyranny, 
hardship, injustice, severity. 

ANT. Kindness, mercy, jus- 
tice, clemency, leniency. 

Oppressive. Heavy, oppressing, 
rigorous, tyrannical, unjust, ex- 
tortionate, grinding. 

ANT. Light, easy, compas- 
sionate, just, humane, gener- 

Opprobrium. Disgrace, infamy, 
reproach, contempt, scandal, 
obloquy, odium. 

[ 218 ] 




ANT. Popularity, welcome, 

Option. Choice, preference, selec- 
tion, discretion, wish, election. 
ANT. Compulsion, necessity, 

Opulence. Wealth, riches, for- 
tune, affluence, independence. 

ANT. Poverty, impecunios- 
ity, indigence, want. 
Oracle. Revelation ; prophet, an- 

ANT. Empiricism, pragma- 

Oracular. Prophetic, ominous, 
portentous; authoritative, pos- 
itive, dogmatical ; wise, grave, 
sage ; obscure, equivocal, am- 

ANT. Cautious, modest, va- 
cillating, diffident. 
Oral. Verbal, unwritten, vocal, 
spoken, traditional. 

ANT. Documentary, icrit- 

Oration. Address, speech, dis- 
course, harangue, lecture, dis- 
putation, declamation, effusion. 
ANT. Reasoning, suggestion, 

Oratory. Eloquence, rhetoric, el- 
ocution, declamation. 

ANT. Hesitation, stammer- 
ing, dulness. 

Orb. Sphere, globe, ball; circle, 
orbit, circuit; disk; revolution. 
Orbit. Revolution, path, circuit, 

ANT. Deviation, eccentric- 
ity, perturbation. 
Ordain. Set, regulate, establish, 
appoint, decree, constitute, in- 
stitute, prescribe, dictate. 

ANT. Revoke, subvert, can- 
eel, countermand. 
Ordeal. Test, trial, experiment, 
probation, proof, scrutiny, as- 
say, investigation. 

ANT. Result, event; argu- 
ment, evidence, plea, discussion. 

Order. Arrangement, system, 
procedure, method, rule, regula- 
tion ; command, mandate, rank, 
direction, grade, class, clmrac- 
ter, kind, management, injunc- 
tion, prohibition, requirement,, 

ANT. Alloicance, consent, 
leave, permission, permit, lib- 
erty, license. 

Orderly. Regular, obedient, sys- 
tematic, quiet, peaceable, meth- 
odical, well-regulated. 

ANT. Disorderly, riotous, ir~ 

Ordinance. Statue, law, edict,, 
decree, rescript, regulation, in- 
stitute, rule. 

ANT. Custom, usage, tradi- 
tion, fashion. 

Ordinary. Normal, usual, com- 
mon, customary, settled, fre- 
quent, wonted, habitual, indif- 
ferent, mediocre, plain, com- 

ANT. Extraordinary, supe- 
rior, unusual, uncommon. 

Organic. Inherent, fundamen- 
tal, essential, constitutional, 
radical, vital; organized, syste- 

ANT. Non-essential, circum- 
stantial, provisional, contin- 
gent, inorganic, secondary. 

Organization. Structure, form, 
construction ; organism. 
ANT. Disorganization. 

Organize. Arrange, constitute, 
shape, adjust, frame, establish, 
construct, systematize. 

ANT. Disorganize, dismem- 
ber, disband, break up, annul. 

Origin. Source, rise, commence' 
ment, spring, fountain, deriva 
tion, cause, root, foundation. 

ANT. Termination, conclU' 
sion, extinction. 

Original. Primitive, new, pri 
mary, pristine, genuine, in 
ventive, peculiar, initiatory, 

[ 219 ] 




primordial, ancient, former, 

ANT. Subsequent, later, de- 
rivative, modern, terminal. 

Originate. Begin, cause, com- 
mence, start, invent, create, 
spring, rise. 

ANT. Prosecute, conduct; 
conclude, finish, end. 

Ornament. Decoration, embel- 
lishment, adornment. 

ANT. Disgrace, brand, dis- 
figurement, detraction. 

Ornate. Adorned, beautiful, em- 
bellished, decorated, elaborate, 
rich, ornamented. 

ANT. Bare, bald, nude, plain, 

Orthodox. Sound, conventional, 
approved, correct. 

ANT. Heretical, unorthodox, 
liberal, radical. 

Ostensible. Exhibited, avowed, 
professed, apparent, pretended, 
declared, manifest, specious, 
plausible, outward. 

ANT. Real, actual, genuine, 
veritable, concealed, hidden. 

Ostentation. Display, boasting, 
show, boast, vaunting, flourish, 
pageant, pomp, parade, page- 

ANT. Diffidence, modesty, 
reserve, timidity, shrinking, re- 
tirement, quietness, unobtru- 

Ostracism. Banishment, exclu- 
sion, expulsion, blackball, ex- 
communication, separation. 

ANT. Admittance, enlist- 
ment, enrolment; welcome, fel- 

Outbreak. Outburst, eruption, 
tumult, commotion, rebellion, 
insurrection, riot, conflict. 

ANT. Quiet, order, pacifica- 
tion, subsidence, quelling. 

Outcast. Exile, vagabond, rep- 
robate, castaway, pariah, va- 

Outcry. Clamor, tumult, vocif- 
eration, alarm, yell, scream, 

ANT. Quiet, silence; accla- 
mation, plaudit. 

Outer. Outside, outward, exter- 
nal, exterior. 

ANT. Inward, inside, inter- 
nal, interior. 

Outlaw. Brigand, bandit, rob- 
ber, highwayman, marauder, 

Outlet. Egress, exit, vent. 
ANT. Entrance, ingress. 

Outline. Contour, sketch, delin- 
eation, draft, plan. 

ANT. Form, substance, bulk, 
figure, field, ground, space; ob- 
ject, subject. 

Outrage. Outbreak, offense, vio- 
lence, mischief, abuse, affront, 
insult, indignity. 

ANT. Favor; self-restraint, 

Outrageous. Violent, furious, 
excessive, exorbitant, wanton, 
atrocious, monstrous, nefari- 
ous, heinous. 

ANT. Moderate, reasonable, 

Outskirts. Border, edge, out- 
post, precincts, environs, sub- 

ANT. Interior, center, bulk, 
mass, body, heart. 

Outstanding. Uncollected, un- 
discharged, unappropriated, un- 
paid ; projecting ; opposing. 

ANT. Collected, appropri- 
ated, gathered, paid; support- 
ing; reentrant. 

Outward. Out, outer, external, 
exterior, public, visible, sen- 
sible, extraneous, superficial, 
apparent, extrinsic, ostensible. 

ANT. Internal, intrinsic, in- 
ward, withdrawn. 

Overcast. Cloudy, lowering, ob- 
scured, murky, darkened, over- 
spread, eclipsed. 

[ 220 



ANT. Cloudless, clear, lumi- 

Overcome. Vanquish, conquer, 
surmount, excel, overthrow, 
subjugate, rule, domineer over. 

ANT. Lose, forfeit, surren- 
der, fail, submit, retreat, suc- 

Overflow, n. Redundancy, inun- 
dation, deluge, exuberance, su- 

ANT. Subsidence, deficiency, 

Overruling. Governing, control- 
ling, superior, predominant, di- 
recting, prevailing. 

ANT. Governed, controlled, 
inferior, subordinate. 
Oversight. Charge, superin- 
tendence, management, super- 
vision, command, care, watch- 
fulness, surveillance, control, 
inspection, direction, watch ; 
omission, error, inadvertence. 

ANT. Mismanagement, neg- 
ligence, disregard, slight ; par- 
ticularity, attention to mi- 

Overt. Public, manifest, appar- 
ent, deliberate, open, avowed. 

ANT. Covert, secret, furtive, 
clandestine, implied. 

Overthrow. Upset, ruin, de- 
molish, destroy, overcome, de- 

ANT. Restore, reinstate, re- 

Overture. Proposal, proposition,, 
offer, opening, prelude, invita- 
tion, advance, initiation. 
ANT. Inaction, quiescence. 

Overweening. Rash, arrogant, 
egoistic, vain, haughty, con- 

ANT. Affable, courteous, so- 
ciable, condescending, gracious, 
polite, approachable. 

Overwhelm. Submerge, en- 
gulf, immerse, overpower, ex- 
tinguish, bury, crush, sink, 
subdue, vanquish, conquer, de- 

ANT. Raise, reinstate, rees- 
tablish, rescue, extricate. 

Owe. Be indebted for, be obliged 
for, borrow, hypothecate, at- 

ANT. Repay, requite, defray, 

Own. Possess, grant, acknowl- 
edge, admit, confess, avow. 

ANT. Lose, disown, abandon, 
forfeit, alienate, disinherit, ab- 

Pacific. Appeasing, reconciling, 
tranquil, mild, calm, peaceful, 

ANT. Harsh, irritating, ex- 
asperating, quarrelsome, tur- 
bulent, tumultuous, war- 

Pacification. Conciliation, com- 
promise, reconcilement, adjust- 
ment, reconciliation. 

ANT. Warfare, fighting, hos- 
tilities, war. 

Pact. Agreement, league, com- 

pact, covenant, bargain, stipu- 
lation, alliance, bond. 

ANT. Understanding, prom- 
ise, parole, honor. 
Paean. Jubilation. 

ANT. Dirge. 

Pagan, a. Gentile, heathen, idol- 

ANT. Christian, believer. 
Paganism. Heathenism, poly- 
theism, pantheism. 

ANT. Christianity, Christen- 

[ 221 ] 




Pageant. Spectacle, exhibition, 
display, show, ceremony, proces- 
sion, parade. 

ANT. Illusion, mockery, fan- 
tasmagoria, dream. 

Pageantry. Pomp, parade, dis- 
play, show, spectacle, splendor, 

Pain, n. Agony, ache, distress, 
suffering, torture, anguish, tor- 
ment, pang, throe, paroxysm, 
twinge, woe, grief. 

ANT. Ease, peace, rapture, 
enjoyment, relief, solace, com- 
fort, delight. 

Pain, v. Hurt, grieve, afflict, dis- 
quiet, trouble, distress, agonize, 
torment, torture. 

ANT. Please, delight, rejoice, 
charm, refresh. 

Painful. Disquieting, trouble- 
some, afflictive, distressing, la- 
borious, grievous, toilsome, ar- 
duous, difficult. 

ANT. Pleasant, pleasurable, 
acceptable, agreeable, grateful, 
desirable, delectable, delicious. 

Painstaking. Careful, diligent, 
attentive, faithful, laborious. 

ANT. Neglectful, heedless, un- 
mindful, disregardful, improv- 
ident, thoughtless, careless. 

Paint. Color, picture, depict, 
delineate, sketch, draw, por- 

ANT. Misrepresent, carica- 
ture, daub. 

Pair. Two, couple, span, brace, 

ANT. One, several, many. 

Pale. Pallid, white, wan, color- 
less, dim, sallow. 

ANT. Ruddy, high-colored, 
conspicuous, brilliant. 

Palliate. Cover, conceal, exten- 
uate, hide, veil, screen, cloak, 
gloss over, apologize for, miti- 

ANT. Alleviate; aggravate, 
heighten, increase, intensify. 

Palm. Laurels, bays, prize, tro- 
phy, crown. 

ANT. Shame, blot, stigma, 

Palpable. Perceptible, obvious, 
plain, gross, material, corpo- 
real, manifest, evident, patent, 

ANT. Immaterial, intangible, 
ethereal, impalpable, indistinct, 
dubious, imperceptible. 

Paltry. Contemptible, worth- 
less, mean, vile, pitiful, trifling. 
ANT. Valuable, estimable, 
admirable, worthy, grand, ex- 
cellent, magnificent. 

Panegyric. Eulogy, encomium, 
praise, laudation, commenda- 

ANT. Satire, sarcasm, tirade, 
stricture, invective, philippic. 

Pang. Agony, anguish, distress, 
paroxysm, throe. 

ANT. Pleasure, delight, re- 
freshment, enjoyment, gratifi- 

Parable. Fable, allegory, apo- 
logue, similitude. 

ANT. History, fact, narra- 

Parade, n. Ostentation, display, 
show, pomp, pageant, spectacle, 

ANT. Modesty, humility, re- 
tirement, simplicity, plainness, 
seclusion, suppression. 

Paradise. Bliss, heaven, Eden, 
ecstasy, Elysium. 

ANT. Purgatory, hell, tor- 
ture, misery, torment. 

Paradox. Contradiction, ambi- 
guity, absurdity, enigma, mys- 

ANT. Axiom, postulate, pre- 
cept, truism, proposition. 

Parallel. Correspondent, correl- 
lative, analogous, concurrent, 

ANT. Different, opposed, di- 
vergent, irrelative, incongruous. 

F 222 ] 




Paralyze. Deaden, benumb, un- 
nerve, destroy, impair, enfeeble, 
prostrate, debilitate. 

ANT. Nerve, strengthen, re- 
store, invigorate. 

Paramount. Supreme, pree"mi- 
nent, chief, superior, principal. 
ANT. Minor, inferior, secon- 
dary, subordinate. 

Parasite. Flatterer, sycophant, 

ANT. Calumniator, traducer, 

Pardon, n. Absolution, mercy, 
forgiveness, forbearance, remis- 
sion, acquittal, indulgence. 

ANT. Penalty, punishment, 
vengeance, retribution, retalia- 

Pardon, v. Condone, forgive, ab- 
solve, excuse, overlook, remit, 
pass over or by, acquit. 

ANT. Convict, castigate, con- 
demn, chastise, correct, punish, 
doom, sentence, scourge, visit 
upon, recompense, chasten. 

Pardonable. Excusable, forgiv- 
able, venial. 

ANT. Inexcusable, unpar- 

Parentage. Descent, extraction, 
lineage, birth, stock, pedigree. 

Parsimonious. Avaricious, fru- 
gal, sparing, close, stingy, pe- 
nurious, niggardly, illiberal. 

ANT. Liberal, profuse, un- 
sparing, extravagant. 

Part, n. Fraction, fragment, sec- 
tion, atom, segment, element, 
piece, portion, instalment, con- 
stituent, component, ingredient, 
member, particle, share, subdi- 

ANT. Whole, mass, bulk, en- 
tirety, quantity, totality. 

Partake. Share, participate. 

ANT. Yield, forfeit, forego, 

Partial. Biased, restricted, spe- 
cific, limited, imperfect, incom- 

plete, unfair, unjust, warped, 
interested, inequitable. 

ANT. Unrestricted, univer- 
sal, general, equitable, just, un- 
biased, impartial. 

Particle. Atom, corpuscle, iota, 
grain, jot, mite, molecule, ele- 
ment, whit, tittle, scrap, shred* 

ANT. Mass, quantity, sum, 
entirety, sum total, whole, ag- 
gregate, total. 

Particular, n. Detail, point, fea- 

ANT. Whole, subject, case. 

Particular, a. Sole, single, indi- 
vidual, respective, appropriate, 
personal, singular, important, 
peculiar, especial, specific, pre- 
cise, critical, circumstantial. 

ANT. Universal, general, com- 
prehensive, indiscriminate, ab- 
stract, inaccurate, inexact, un- 
dis criminating. 

Parting. Separation, leave-tak- 
ing, farewell, dividing, division, 
disruption, detachment. 
ANT. Union, attachment. 

Partisan. Adherent, follower, 
supporter, disciple. 

ANT. Opponent, antagonist^ 

Partition. Division, distribu- 
tion, separation, allotment, ap- 
portionment; compartment, in- 
terspace, barrier. 

ANT. Combination, inclu- 
sion, comprehension, collection, 

Partly. In part, somewhat, par- 
tially, not wholly. 

ANT. Altogether, entirely, 
completely, to the full extent. 

Partner. Associate, colleague, 
coadjutor, confederate, partici- 
pator, partaker, comrade, mate, 

ANT. Rival, competitor, op~ 
ponent, adversary, alien. 

Partnership. Company, firm. 

[ 223 ] 




union, connection, society, in- 
terest, house, association, parti- 

ANT. Independence, discon- 
nection, disjunction, disunion, 

Pass. Go, move, proceed, disap- 
pear, vanish, depart, take place, 
occur, elapse, spend, live, ex- 
perience; transcend, exceed; 
send, transmit, deliver; utter, 
promise, pledge; finish. 

ANT. Hold up; abide, wait, 
halt, continue, endure. 

Passable. Navigable, current, 
acceptable, tolerable, admissi- 
ble, moderate, traversible, me- 

ANT. Impassable, impene- 
trable, inadmissible, impervi- 
ous; excellent. 

Passage. Transit, conveyance, 
journey, way, road, path, hall, 
course, progress, process, vesti- 
bule, corridor. 

Passible. Susceptible, sensitive, 
sensible, impressible. 

ANT. Impassible, insuscepti- 
ble, unsensitive. 

Passion. Feeling, emotion, sus- 
ceptibility, sentiment, ardor, ex- 
citement, desire, anger, warmth, 

ANT. Indifference, apathy, 
coldness, coolness, frigidity. 

Passive. Quiescent, unopposing, 
enduring, submissive, patient, 
unresisting, inert, inactive, re- 
laxed, negative. 

ANT. Resistant, positive, im- 
patient, vehement, active, alert. 

Past. Gone by, elapsed, ended, 
spent, departed, late, accom- 

ANT. Present; future. 

Pastime. Entertainment, recre- 
ation, sport, play, amusement, 

ANT. Business, work, task, 
labor, occupation, study. 

Patent. Open, expanded, evident, 
apparent, manifest, public. 

ANT. Ambiguous, question- 
able, dubious. 

Paternal. Fatherly, tender, care- 
ful, hereditary. 

ANT. Careless, rough, harsh; 
acquired, conferred, won. 

Path. Footway, track, pathway, 
route, course, road; method. 

Pathetic. Affecting, emotional, 
moving, pitiful, tender, touch- 
ing, melting, plaintive. 

ANT. Ludicrous, ridiculous, 
farcical, unaffecting. 

Pathless. Untrodden, impene- 
trable, trackless. 

ANT. Trodden, frequented. 

Patience. Composure, calmness, 
leniency, fortitude, sufferance, 
submission, endurance, forbear- 
ance, resignation, long-suffer- 

ANT. Anger, impatience, ire, 
passion, fury, frenzy, rage, tem- 
per, vexation, petulance, wrath, 
fretfulness, peevishness. 

Patient. Resigned, passive, en- 
during, unrepining, calm, for- 
bearing, long-suffering. 

ANT. Impatient, insubmis- 
sive, malcontent, vehement, re- 

Patrician. Noble, aristocratic, 
high-born, well-born. 

ANT. Plebeian, churlish, or- 
dinary, peasant. 

Patrimony. Heritage, inherit- 
ance, estate. 

Pattern. Archetype, exem- 
plar, specimen, sample, design, 

ANT. Caricature, misrepre- 
sentation, monstrosity, perver- 

Paucity. Scantiness, deficiency, 
fewness, lack, want, rarity. 

ANT. Fulness, number, fre- 
qitcnry. abundance, quantity. 

Pause, M. Stop, cessation, inter- 

[ 224 ] 




ruption, suspension, hesitation, 
suspense, doubt. 

ANT. Continuance, continu- 
ity, perseverance, progress, pro- 
gression, advancement. 

Pause, v. Stop, cease, intermit, 
wait, stay, tarry, demur, hesi- 

ANT. Continue, proceed, per- 
sist, persevere, advance. 

Pay, n. Earnings, stipend, sal- 
ary, wages, allowance, retainer, 
remuneration, payment, com- 
pensation, hire, fee, requital, 

Pay, v. Recompense, requite, sat- 
isfy, compensate, discharge, re- 
munerate, fulfil, expend, liqui- 
date, disburse. 

ANT. Deprive, defraud, re- 
tain, exact, hoard, invest. 

Payment. Pay, compensation, 
satisfaction, content, salary, re- 
ward, wages, recompense, re- 
quital, return. 

Peace. Quiet, calm, repose, tran- 
quillity, stillness, silence, har- 
mony, amity, concord, reconcil- 
iation, order, pacification. 

ANT. Noise, disturbance, dis- 
order, ivar, strife, discord, vari- 
ance, tumult, agitation, hostil- 

Peaceable. Peaceful, pacific, un- 
disturbed, tranquil, quiet, mild, 
serene, still. 

ANT. Warlike, quarrelsome, 
hostile, savage, fierce, violent, 

Peasant. Countryman, rustic, 
swain, laborer, villager. 
ANT. Citizen, townsman. 

Peculiar. Special, especial, in- 
dividual, particular, appropri- 
ate, unusual, singular, strange, 

ANT. General, universal, or- 
dinary, public, common. 

Peculiarity. Individuality, sin- 
gularity, idiosyncrasy, distinc- 

tiveness, specialty, characteris- 
tic, particularity. 

ANT. Universality, general- 
ity, uniformity, homogeneity, 

Pedigree. Lineage, descent, an- 
cestry, genealogy, birth, paren- 

ANT. Ancestor, founder, ori- 
gin; plebeianism; extinction. 
Peer. Equal, match, mate, com- 
rade, associate; nobleman. 

ANT. Superior; subordinate. 
Peerless. Unmatched, matchless, 
unequaled, unique, superlative, 

ANT. Ordinary, mediocre, 

Peevish. Querulous, cross, testy, 
ill-tempered, captious, discon- 
tented, petulant, irritable, ill- 
natured, irascible. 

ANT. Good-natured, easy, ge- 
nial, mild, complaisant, gentle. 
Penal. Punitive, retributive, cor- 

ANT. Preventive, reparatory; 
honorary, remunerary. 
Penalty. Retribution, forfeiture, 
fine, punishment, amercement, 

ANT. Reuxird, tcages, guer- 
don, prize, honorarium, remu- 
neration, compensation. 
Pendent. Pendulous, overhang- 
ing, hanging, suspended, de- 

ANT. Supported, sustaining, 

Penetrate. Enter, pierce, com- 
prehend, discern, understand, 
perforate, permeate, fathom. 

ANT. Glance off, be tangent 
to, find impermeable; misun- 
derstand, mistake; float. 
Penetration. Discernment, sa- 
gacity, acuteness, discrimina- 
tion, sharpness, observation, in- 

ANT. Obtuseness, shortsight* 

[ 225 ] 




ednets; stupidity, shallowness, 

Penitence. Repentance, contri 
tion, remorse, sorrow, regret, 

ANT. Self-approval, gratula- 
tion; obduracy, hardhearted- 

Penitent, Penitential. Repent- 
ant, contrite, doing penance. 

ANT. Impenitent, obdurate, 

Pensive. Thoughtful, sad, wist- 
ful, meditative, dreamy, sober; 
serious, mournful, melancholy, 
solemn, reflective. 

ANT. Joyous, glad, happy, 
gay, care-free, thoughtless, un- 

Penurious. Covetous, parsimo- 
nious, stingy, avaricious, nig- 
gardly, sordid. 

ANT. Liberal, bountiful, gen- 
erous, prodigal. 

Penury. Want, privation, indi- 
gence, poverty, destitution, beg- 
gary, need. 

ANT. Wealth, abundance, af- 
fluence, luxury, competence. 

People. Nation, race, popula- 
tion, state, tribe, community, 

Perceivable, Perceptible. Dis- 
cernible, distinguishable, cog- 
nizable, observable. 

ANT. Imperceptible, indis- 
tinguishable, insensible, inap- 

Perceive. Comprehend, appre- 
hend, conceive, understand. 

ANT. Ignore, lose, miss, fail 
of, overlook, misconceive, mis- 

Perception. Discernment, ap- 
prehension, recognition, under- 
standing, comprehension, feel- 
ing, sensation, sense. 

ANT. Conception, concept, 
imagination, idea, notion; mis- 

Percolate. Filter, strain, exude, 
drain, ooze. 

ANT. Flow, rush, stream, 
run, disgorge. 

Percussion. Shock, clash, col- 
lision, concussion, encounter. 

ANT. Recoil, rebound, rever- 

Perdition. Loss, ruin, destruc- 
tion, overthrow, wreck, demoli- 

ANT. Restoration, recovery, 
rescue, salvation. 

Peremptory. Decisive, positive, 
absolute, final, authoritative, 
arbitrary, express, dogmatical, 
determined, resolute. 

ANT. Hortatory, mild, en- 
treative, expostulatory, sugges- 

Perennial. Perpetual, unceas- 
ing, never failing, enduring, 
continual, constant, permanent, 

ANT. Occasional, intermit- 
tent, periodic, uncertain; per- 
ishing, ephemeral, transient, 

Perfect. Finished, complete, en- 
tire, faultless, consummate, ac- 
curate, ideal, finished, absolute, 
completed, correct, immaculate, 
sinless, blameless, holy, unde- 
filed, stainless, spotless, un- 

ANT. Imperfect, bad, defi- 
cient, blemished, faulty, cor- 
rupt, poor, inferior, incomplete, 
perverted, worthless, spoiled, 
insufficient, meager, defective, 
short, scant, marred, defaced, 
corrupted, deformed, fallible, 

Perfection. Excellence, complete- 
ness, faultlessness, maturity, 
wholeness, consummation, per- 

ANT. Defect, imperfection, 
incompleteness, blemish. 

Perfectly. Thoroughly, exqui- 

[ 226 ] 




sitely, completely, faultlessly, 
entirely, fully, wholly, exactly, 

ANT. Imperfectly, faultily, 
partially, inaccurately. 

Perfidious. False, treacherous, 
faithless, disloyal, dishonest, 

ANT. True, loyal, stanch, up- 
right, faithful, honest, trust- 

Perform. Complete, accomplish, 
execute, do, discharge, fulfil ; 
represent, act, play, enact, con- 
summate, achieve. 

ANT. Spoil, injure, harm, 
ruin, mar ; fail of, misconduct. 

Performance. Completion, con- 
summation, execution, accom- 
plishment, achievement, work, 
production, act, action, deed, 
exploit, feat. 

ANT. Failure, defeat, omis- 
sion, abortion, undoing, non- 

Perfume. Odor, redolence, balmi- 
ness, fragrance, smell, aroma, 

ANT. Stench, stink, fume. 

Perfunctory. Mechanical, care- 
less, listless, indifferent. 

ANT. Animated, spirited, as- 
siduous, careful, ardent, zeal- 
ous, interested. 

Perhaps. By chance, peradven- 
ture, perchance, maybe, haply, 

ANT. Certainly, inevitably. 

Peril. Hazard, risk, jeopardy, 
danger, venture, insecurity, li- 

ANT. Safety, assurance, cer- 
tainty, security. 

Period. Time, cycle, age, epoch, 
limit, end, conclusion ; era, du- 
ration, date, term, continuance, 
termination, conclusion, bound. 
ANT. Eternity, infinity, per- 
petuity, endlessness, everlast- 

Periodical. Recurring, regular, 
stated, recurrent, systematic, 
calculable, serial. 

ANT. Indeterminate, eccen- 
tric, fitful, spasmodic, irregu- 

Permanent. Enduring, abiding, 
changeless, constant, durable, 
steadfast, unchangeable, im- 
mutable, invariable, fixed, un- 
changing, stable, lasting, per- 
sistent, perpetual. 

ANT. Transient, brief, fleet- 
ing, evanescent, passing, tran- 
sitory, momentary, temporary, 

Permission. Authority, allow- 
ance, consent, liberty, leave, li- 
cense, permit, authorization. 

ANT. Hindrance, opposition, 
objection, denial, prevention, 
prohibition, refusal, resistance. 

Pernicious. Mischievous, bane- 
ful, destructive, noisome, dele- 
terious, harmful, hurtful, poi- 
sonous, noxious, pestilential, 
unhealthful, unwholesome, det- 
rimental, deadly, evil, foul, in- 
jurious, insalubrious, pestifer- 
ous, perverting, ruinous. 

ANT. Helpful, invigorating, 
salutary, advantageous, good, 
favorable, life-giving, rejuven- 
ating, useful, serviceable, be- 
neficent, wholesome, beneficial, 

Perpetual. Continual, endless, 
unceasing, unfailing, incessant, 
constant, eternal, everlasting, 
perennial, permanent, endur- 

ANT. Periodic, transient, re- 
current, temporary, occasional, 
casual, momentary. 

Perplex. Entangle, involve, com- 
plicate, embarrass, puzzle, be- 
wilder, confuse, distract, annoy, 
confound, trouble, worry, dis- 
turb, pester, bother, mystify. 
ANT. Enlighten, clear, e- 

[ 227 ] 




plicate, simplify, elucidate, il- 
lumine, unfold, explain, mani- 
fest, calm, quiet, control, please, 
instruct, solve, illustrate, make 
intelligible, account for. 

Perplexity. Confusion, bewil- 
derment, disturbance, distrac- 
tion, doubt, embarrassment, as- 
tonishment, amazement. 

ANT. Composure, calmness; 
discernment, insight. 

Perseverance. Persistency, te- 
nacity, steadfastness, steadi- 
ness, constancy, pertinacity, in- 
defatigableness, resolution. 

ANT. Fitfulness, caprice, in- 
stability, variableness, irregu- 
larity, indecision, vacillation, 
wavering, irresoluteness. 

Perspicacity. Acuteness, keen- 
ness, discernment, penetration, 
perspicaciousness, insight, sa- 
gacity, astuteness, distinctness, 

ANT. Dulness, stupefaction, 
obtuseness, hebetude, stolidity, 
inobservance, insensibility. 

Perspicuity. Plainess, lucidity, 
clearness, explicitness, intelli- 
gibility, transparency, perspic- 

ANT. Obscurity, turbidness, 
unintelligibility, incomprehen- 
sibility, indefiniteness, doubt- 
fulness, mysticism, confusion. 

Persuade. Dispose, allure, en- 
tice, urge, move, influence, pre- 
vail upon, coax, bring over, in- 
cline, convince, lead, induce, in- 
cite, win over, impel. 

ANT. Deter, discourage, re- 
strain, hinder, repel, dissuade, 
hold back. 

Pertinent. Apposite, relevant, 
suitable, appropriate, proper, 
fit, adapted. 

ANT. Unrelated, unsuitable, 
impertinent, incongruous, alien, 
unconnected, discordant, inhar- 

Pertness. Impertinence, bold- 
ness, forwardness, sauciness, 
flippancy, impudence, briskness, 
liveliness, smartness, sprightli- 

ANT. Diffidence, humility, 
modesty, shyness, bashfulness, 

Perverse. Obstinate, contrary, 
fractious, froward, intractable, 
petulant, wilful, wayward, un- 
governable, stubborn, factious, 

ANT. Compliant, genial, ac- 
commodating, governable, kind, 
obliging, complaisant, amen- 

Petition, n. Prayer, supplica- 
tion, entreaty; solicitation, ap- 
plication, suit, appeal, address. 

ANT. Protest, claim, expos- 
tulation, demand, injunction, 
dictation, exaction, dissension, 

Philanthropy. Love, good will, 
charity, benevolence, humanity, 

ANT. Misanthropy, ill will, 

Philosopher. Student, theorist, 
speculator, teacher, master, sa- 
vant, schoolman, doctor; adept. 

ANT. Learner, pupil, begin- 
ner; ignoramus, dunce. 
Philosophical. Rational, wise, 
temperate, calm, cool, reason- 
able, sound, collected, composed, 
sedate, tranquil, Platonic. 

ANT. Popular, crude, loose, 
inaccurate, illogical, irrational, 
unsound, unscientific, thought- 
less, hotheaded, impulsive. 
Physical. Material, natural, cor- 
poral, sensible, visible, tangible, 
bodily, corporeal. 

ANT. Mental, spiritual, im- 
material, unsubstantial, hyper- 
physical, intangible, moral, un- 
real, intellectual, invisible. 
Picturesque. Graphic, vivid, ar- 

[ 228 ] 



tistic, beautiful, scenic, picto- 
rial, graceful, comely, seemly. 

ANT. Unseemly, ugly, inar- 
tistic, ungraceful, tame, flat, in- 

Piety. Sanctity, godliness, holi- 
ness, religion, reverence, devo- 
tion, grace. 

ANT. Impiety, sacrilege, sin- 
fulness, ungodliness, hypocrisy, 
formalism, sanctimoniousness. 

Piquant. Tart, sharp, pungent, 
stimulating, biting, racy, sting- 
ing, cutting, severe. 

ANT. Flat, tame, dull, in- 

Pique. Resentment, umbrage, ir- 
ritation, displeasure, grudge, 

ANT. Delight, gratification, 
pleasure, satisfaction, content- 
ment, approval, complacency. 

Piteous. Sorrowful, mournful, 
affecting, doleful, lamentable, 
woful, rueful, sad, pitiable, piti- 

ANT. Joyous, glad, merry, 
happy, cheerful, comfortable, 
desirable, pleasant, agreeable, 

Pitiful. Lamentable, mournful, 
base, contemptible, piteous, pa- 
thetic, pitiable, touching, sor- 
rowful, woful, wretched, despic- 
able, moving, paltry. 

ANT. Exalted, glorious, help- 
ful, great, grand, sublime, supe- 
rior, beneficent, commanding, 
august, dignified, noble, lofty, 
mighty, superb. 

Pity. Sympathy, mercy, tender- 
ness, condolence, compassion, 

ANT. Cruelty, severity, mer- 
cilessness, sternness, hardness, 
rigor, inhumanity, brutality, 
barbarity, harshness, pitiless- 
ness, ruthlessness, hard-heart- 
edness, ferocity, truculence. 

Placid. Pleased, contented, un- 

ruffled, undisturbed, peaceful, 
serene, tranquil, quiet, gentle, 
collected, calm, composed, pas- 

ANT. Discontent, disturbed, 
distressed, anxious, distracted, 
perplexed, distrait; vehement, 
wild, passionate, impulsive, agi- 
tated, ruffled, excited, impas- 

Plain. Artless, undisguised, sin- 
cere, frank, honest, ingenuous, 
candid, unembellished, simple, 
downright, blunt, distinct, ap- 
parent, manifest, open, clear, 
evident, visible, obvious, unmis- 
takable, conspicuous, level, flat, 
smooth; easy, natural, homely, 
ugly; simple, frugal. 

ANT. Unnatural, pretended, 
affected, assumed, feigned, arti- 
ficial, insincere, vain, preten- 
tious, conceited; ornate, orna- 
mented, decorated, embellished; 
involved, obscure, hidden, invis- 
ible, inconspicuous, uneven, un- 
dulating, rugged, broken, am- 
biguous, abrupt, obstructed, un- 
certain, enigmatical, abstruse; 
beautiful, sophisticated, artful. 

Plant, v. Seed, set, sow, seed 
down, set out. 

ANT. Eradicate, uproot, ex- 
tirpate, weed out, root up. 

Plausible. Specious, seeming, 
pretending, fair-spoken, pass- 
able, pretentious, ostensible, ap- 
parent; colorable, feasible. 

ANT. Genuine, transparent, 
true, sterling, veritable, unmis- 
takable, authentic, sincere, un- 

Plead. Advocate, ask, beg, urge, 
argue, solicit, entreat, implore, 

ANT. Grant, bestow, an- 

Pleasant. Kindly, obliging, at- 
tractive, pleasing, pleasurable, 
agreeable, kind, good-natured. 

[ 229 1 




ANT. Disagreeable, gloomy, 
glum, harsh, hateful, repulsive, 
unpleasant, repellent, offensive, 
unkind, forbidding, dreary, ar- 
rogant, austere, grim, ill-na- 
tured, ill-humored, repelling. 
Pleasure. Satisfaction, comfort, 
solace, joy, gladness, delight, 
will, chdice, purpose, command, 
kindness, enjoyment, gratifica- 
tion, happiness, self-indulgence, 

ANT. Suffering, affliction, 
pain, sorrow, sadness, distress, 
misery, compulsion, force, coer- 
cion; mourning, depression, de- 
jection, melancholy, misfortune, 
poverty, want. 

Plenitude. Fulness, abundance, 
completeness, plenty, repletion, 
plethora; luxury, affluence, ex- 
uberance, wealth, richness, pro- 
fusion, amplitude, enough, sup- 
ply, sufficiency. 

ANT. Want, need, scarcity, 
scantiness, dearth, insufficiency, 
restriction, poverty, partiality, 
stint, reserve, narrowness, pen- 
ury, impecuniosity. 
Plentiful. Bountiful, generous, 
large, abundant, adequate, copi- 
ous, enough, full, profuse, rich, 
sufficient, complete, exuberant, 
plenteous, replete, teeming, af- 
fluent, ample, lavish, liberal, 
luxuriant, overflowing, abound- 

ANT. Deficient, drained, im- 
poverished, scanty, insufficient, 
small, sparing, stingy, strait- 
ened, poor, scant, exhausted, in- 
adequate, mean, miserly, nar- 
row, niggardly, scarce, short, 

Plot. Intrigue, conspiracy, cabal, 
contrivance, scheme, stratagem, 
project, combination, machina- 
tion; story. 

ANT. Blunder, botch; mis- 
arrangemeni, miscontrivance. 

Poet. Bard, author of poems, 
singer, rimster, rimer, versifier. 

Poetical. Metrical, rhythmical, 
lyric, rimed, versified; imag- 
inative, fictitious, creative. 

ANT. Prosaic, unpoetical, 
unrimed, unversified, unrhyth- 
mic; commonplace, matter-of- 
fact, unimaginative, realistic; 
mathematical, historical. 

Poetry. Meter, rime, numbers, 
poesy, song, verse, poem, met- 
rical composition. 

ANT. Prose, prosaic speech, 
prosaic writing. 

Poignant. Pricking, piercing, 
sharp, pungent; pointed, keen, 

ANT. Blunt, dull, obtuse, in- 
sipid, pointless, vapid, inexpres- 

Poisonous. Venomous, baneful, 
corrupting, noxious, pestilen- 
tial, malignant, virulent, pes- 
tiferous, deleterious, mephitic. 
ANT. Salubrious, loholesome, 
healthful, beneficial, sanative, 
genial, remedial, hygienic. 

Polite. Courteous, civil, courtly, 
obliging, gracious, polished, ac- 
complished, complaisant, culti- 
vated, cultured, elegant, gen- 
teel, urbane, well-behaved, well- 
mannered, well-bred. 

ANT. Awkward, clownish, 
unmannerly, uncouth, boorish, 
blunt, impertinent, bsusk, bluff, 
impolite, insolent, eoarse, ill- 
bred, ill-behaved, rude, rustic, 
impudent, ill-mannered, untu- 
tored, uncivil, untaught, dis- 
courteous, unpolished, insult- 

Politeness. Courtesy, civility, 
gentility, refinement, courtli- 
ness, elegance, urbanity, good 
breeding, decorum, complai- 
sance, affability. 

ANT. Rudeness, arrogance, 
incivility, churlishness, ungra- 

[ 230 ] 




ciousness, insolence, sauciness, 
impertinence, effrontery, pre- 

Poor. Needy, indigent, desti- 
tute; lean, emaciated; feeble, 
dejected; shabby, mean; unfa- 
vorable, uncomfortable ; bar- 
ren; sterile; inadequate, insig- 
nificant, insufficient; meek. 

ANT. Rich, wealthy, afflu- 
ent, opulent; splendid, costly, 
valuable, estimable; fruitful, 
abundant, luxuriant, produc- 
tive, prolific; copious, abound- 
ing, ample, well- supplied, com- 
fortable, favorable; adequate, 
sufficient; important, signifi- 
cant, arrogant, self-assertive. 

Popular. Cheap, common, ordi- 
nary, inferior; familiar, plain, 
easy, comprehensible; favorite, 
liked, approved, accepted, ac- 
credited ; current, prevalent, 
general, prevailing; pertaining 
to the people, vulgar, plebeian; 

ANT. Unpopular, exclusive, 
aristocratic, snobbish; special, 
excellent, unique, superior, emi- 
nent; selfish, narrow, illiberal, 
uncharitable; sole, only, scien- 

c tific, restricted, esoteric; odi- 
ous, detested. 

Position. Situation, station, as- 
sertion, place, posture, locality, 
site ; attitude ; state, condition, 
circumstances ; principle, doc- 
trine, proposition, dictum, affir- 
mation, thesis; rank. 

Positive. Real, actual, absolute, 
explicit, definite, confident, cer- 
tain, dogmatic; defined, precise, 
clear; veritable, substantial, 
true ; indisputable, incontro- 
vertible; indubitable; decisive, 
unconditional, imperative, un- 
equivocal, settled, assured, ex- 

ANT. Negative, denying, in- 
direct, disavowing, disclaiming, 

privative; relative; unreal, fic- 
titious, imaginative, contingent, 
dependent, implied, conditional, 
dubious, unsubstantial, indefi- 
nite, equivocal. 

Possession. Control, ownership, 
tenure, retention, management, 
occupation; (pi. ) property, es- 
tate, wealth, dominion. 

ANT. Dispossession, resigna- 
tion, surrender, abandoning, re- 

Potent. Powerful, mighty, puis- 
sant, strong, able, efficient, effi- 
cacious, forcible, cogent, influ- 
ential, effective, active, ener- 

ANT. Impotent, powerless, 
weak, feeble, infirm; inefficient, 
incapable, incompetent, inca- 

Potential. Possible, implicit, un- 
developed, virtual, immanent, 
inherent, intrinsic. 

ANT. Actual, explicit, real, 
objective, developed, express, 
determinate, positive, clear, 

Poverty. Distress, beggary, in- 
digence, destitution, pauperism, 
penury, privation, want, need, 

ANT. Wealth, riches, afflu- 
ence, luxury, comfort. 

Power. Ability, competency, ca- 
pacity, faculty, aptitude, dex- 
terity, efficiency, might, talent, 
energy, skill, strength, readi- 
ness, capability, cleverness, ex- 
pertness, efficacy, force, qualifi- 
cation, cogency, susceptibility. 

ANT. Feebleness, weakness, 
helplessness, impotence, incom- 
petence, inability, inaptitude, 
dulness, awkwardness, imbecil- 
ity, incapacity, inefficiency, un- 
skilfulness, maladroitness, stu- 

Practice, n. Usage, habit, cus- 
tom; performance, application, 

[ 231 ] 



system ; manner, method, mode, 

ANT. Theory, speculation, 
assumption, ideal, conjecture, 

Practice, v. Do, perform, exer- 
cise, carry out, execute; teach, 
train; habituate, try; apply, 
use; pursue. 

ANT. Abandon, misuse, dis- 
use, neglect, disregard, slight, 
omit, pass over. 

Praise, n. Applause, approval, 
cheering, compliment, acclaim, 
adulation, acclamation, appro- 
bation, cheers, plaudit, eulogy, 
encomium, flattery, laudation, 
panegyric, sycophancy. 

ANT. Abuse, blame, censure, 
contempt, reproach, ignominy, 
slander, scorn, obloquy, animad- 
version, condemnation, denun- 
ciation, disapprobation, dispar- 
agement, vituperation, reproof, 
disapproval, repudiation, hiss- 
ing, vilification. 

Praise, v. Laud, eulogize, cele- 
brate, magnify, glorify; honor, 
commend; applaud, extol, com- 

ANT. Decry, blame, censure, 
reprove, disparage, depreciate, 
discredit, traduce, condemn. 

Pray. Ask, beg, beseech, entreat, 
implore, invoke, petition, sup- 
plicate, request, importune, bid, 
plead, call upon, conjure. 

Precarious. Doubtful, dubious, 
hazardous, perilous, risky, in- 
secure, uncertain, unsettled, un- 
steady, unstable, unassured. 

ANT. Firm, settled, stable, 
sure, certain, real, undoubted, 
unquestionable, actual, assured, 
immutable, incontestable, unde- 
niable, infallible, strong, steady. 

Precaution. Foresight, prudence, 
forethought, providence, wari- 
ness, care. 
ANT. Thoughtlessness, im- 

providence, carelessness, impru- 

Precedent, n. Example, antece- 
dent, case, instance, pattern,, 
authority, warrant. 
Precept. Commandment, law, 
injunction, mandate, rule, di- 
rection, principle, maxim; doc- 
trine, dogma; order; instruc- 

ANT. Hint, suggestion, allu- 
sion, insinuation, prompting, 
impulse, instigation. 
Precise. Accurate, exact, correct, 
definite, scrupulous, punctili- 
ous, particular, nice, formal; 
explicit, terse. 

ANT. Inaccurate, inexact, in- 
correct, heedless, careless, in- 
cautious, implicit, ambiguous, 
circumlocutory, loose, vague, in- 
formal, unceremonious. 
Predatory. Plundering, pillaging, 
ravaging, rapacious, maraud- 

ANT. Protecting, guarding, 
watching, keeping, sheltering, 
shielding, saving. 
Predestination. Fate, neces- 
sity, foreknowledge, foreordina- 

ANT. Choice, freedom, free 
will, independence, uncertainty, 
accident, chance, free agency. 
Prediction. Prophecy, prognos- 
tication, foreboding, divination, 
augury, soothsaying, vaticina- 
tion, foretelling, presage. 

ANT. Reminiscence, recol- 
lection, report; history, nar- 
ration, account. 

Preface. Introduction, proem, 
preamble, prologue, exordium, 

ANT. Sequel, postscript, ap- 
pendix, peroration, epilogue, 

Prefer. Choose, elect, select, de- 
sire, pick out, fancy, single 
out, fix upon; elevate, advance, 

[ 232 1 



promote; offer, proffer, pre- 
sent, address. 

ANT. Reject, discard, decline, 
refuse, repudiate; degrade, de- 
press; postpone, defer, with- 

Prejudice. Bias, partiality, un- 
fairness, preconception, pre- 
possession, presumption. 

ANT. Certainty, evidence, 
proof, conviction, conclusion, 
demonstration, reason, reason- 

Preliminary. Prior, introduc- 
tory, preparatory, prefatory, 
proemial, previous, precedent, 

ANT. Subsequent, follow- 
ing, consequent, appended, suc- 

Premium. Reward, remunera- 
tion, recompense, prize, bonus, 
bounty, guerdon, meed, bribe, 
douceur, enhancement, gratuity. 
ANT. Penalty, fine, mulct, 
amercement, forfeiture, depre- 
ciation, decline, fall, loss. 

Preposterous. Irrational, fool- 
ish, monstrous, absurd, per- 
verted, extravagant, ridicu- 
lous, exorbitant. 

ANT. Reasonable, moderate, 
right, just, due, fair, judicious, 
mediocre, commonplace. 

Presence. Person, personality, 
individuality, port, mien, ap- 
pearance, nearness, immedi- 
acy; vicinity, neighborhood. 

ANT. Absence, distance, re- 
moteness, separation; society, 
world; temperament, charac- 

Preservation. Security, safety, 
maintenance, conservation, in- 
tegrity, protection, care, guar- 
dianship, watch and ward, 

ANT. Exposure, abandon- 
ment, impairment, peril, dam- 
age, injury. 

Presumption. Assumption, ar- 
rogance, effrontery, audacity, 
assurance; presupposition, hy- 
pothesis, guess, conjecture, be- 
lief, opinion, judgment, under- 
standing, concession, condi- 

ANT. Modesty, deference, 
diffidence, bashfulness, hesita- 
tion; proof, deduction, demon- 
stration, verification, certainty f 

Pretend. Claim, represent, al- 
lege, simulate, feign, profess; 

ANT. Verify, substantiate, 
refute, detect, expose, unmask, 

Pretense. Disguise, excuse, af- 
fectation, mask, show, preten- 
sion, semblance, wile, trick, 
subterfuge, simulation, ruse, 
assumption, pretext, seeming, 
dissimulation, air, cloak, color. 
ANT. Candor, sincerity, in- 
genuousness, frankness, hon- 
esty, truth, openness, reality, 
simplicity, guilelessness, fact, 

Prevalence. Success, superior- 
ity, predominance, preponder- 
ance; influence, force, power, 
strength, efficacy; universality, 
extension, acceptation, custom, 

ANT. Decay, desuetude, dis- 
appearance, evanescence, sub- 
ordination, collapse, destruc- 
tion, abolition, subsidence, sub- 
jection, diminution. 

Previous. Antecedent, before, 
earlier, precedent, preliminary, 
introductory, prior, preceding, 
front, forward, former, fore- 
going, anterior. 

ANT. After, concluding, fol- 
lowing, consequent, later, pos- 
terior, latter, succeeding, sub- 
sequent, hindmost, hinder, 

I 233 




Price. Expense, outlay, worth, 
expenditure, value, charge, 

Pride. Arrogance, insolence, re- 
serve, haughtiness, self-esteem, 
presumption, superciliousness, 
vanity, ostentation, conceit, 
self-respect, self-exaltation, dis- 
dain, vainglory, self-conceit, 

ANT. Humility, lowliness, 
modesty, self-distrust, meek- 
ness, self -abasement. 

Primary. First, fundamental, 
primitive, original, prepara- 
tory; chief, principal, pristine; 
elementary, leading. 

ANT. Secondary, posterior, 
subsequent, later, following; 
unimportant, subordinate, in- 
ferior; supplemental, auxiliary. 

Prime, n. Perfection, culmina- 
tion, apex, zenith; dawn, open- 
ing, youth, spring, beginning; 
cream, flower. 

ANT. Wane, winter, even- 
ing ; decadence, decay. 

Primeval. Immemorial, orig- 
inal, old, primal, patriarchal, 
native, primitive, pristine, un- 
created, ancient, aboriginal, au- 
tochthonic, indigenous, prime, 
primary, primordial. 

ANT. Foreign, fresh, late, 
modern, new, novel, recent, ex- 
otic, adventitious. 

Principal. Highest, most im- 
portant, chief, main; leading, 
foremost, preeminent, capital, 
essential; primary, first. 

ANT. Subordinate, inferior, 
secondary, auxiliary, supple- 
mental, minor, dependent, sub- 
servient, ancillary. 

Principle. Source, cause, ori- 
gin; faculty, endowment; pos- 
tulate, truth, maxim, axiom; 
rule, law; element; doctrine, 
dogma, opinion ; ground, mo- 
tive, reason; integrity, recti- 

tude, uprightness, probity, vir- 
tue, worth, honor. 

ANT. Result, sequence, devel- 
opment, issue; application, ac- 
tion, operation, exercise, mani- 
festation, exhibition; iniquity, 

Prize. Trophy, honor, reward, 
premium, guerdon, palm, laur- 
els; capture; gain, advantage; 
spoil, plunder, booty. 

ANT. Loss, failure, fine, for- 
feiture; brand, stigma, infamy. 
Probation. Examination, trial, 
ordeal, test, assay, proof, ex- 

ANT. License, irresponsi- 
bility, non-probation. 
Proclaim. Publish, announce, 
declare, promulgate, herald, ad- 
vertise, enunciate, utter, blaze 
abroad, report, make known. 

ANT. Silence, repress, sup- 
press, conceal, secrete; retract, 

Prodigal, a. Extravagant, pro- 
fuse, lavish, bountiful, waste- 
ful, squandering. 

ANT. Economical, thrifty, 
saving, frugal; close, miserly, 

Profession. Avowal, declara- 
tion, claim; occupation, voca- 
tion, employment; law, theol- 
ogy, or medicine; assertion, ac- 
knowledgment; representation, 
pretense, protestation. 

ANT. Denial, concealment, 
suppression; retraction, recan- 
tation, disavowal; leisure, fad, 
hobby, avocation; trade, busi- 

Proficient. Expert, adept, skil- 
ful, skilled, competent, conver- 
sant, qualified, practiced, ac- 
complished, finished, trained. 

ANT. Unskilled, inexpert, 
awkward, ignorant, backward, 
inconversant, incompetent, un- 
trained, unpracticed, inept. 

[ 234 ] 




Profit. Gain, advantage, bene- 
fit, emolument, improvement, 
proceeds, utility, usefulness, re- 
turns, value, receipts, avail, 
expediency, good, service. 

ANT. Damage, destruction, 
harm, hurt, loss, injury, waste, 
ruin, detriment, disadvantage. 

Profitable. Lucrative, beneficial, 
useful, advantageous, produc- 
tive, desirable, gainful, remun- 

ANT. Useless, vain, fruit- 
less, unproductive, unremuner- 
ative, unprofitable, undesirable, 
disadvantageous, detrimental, 

Profound. Deep, descending ; 
thorough ; fathomless, abys- 
mal ; mysterious, abstruse, oc- 
cult, obscure, recondite; com- 
plete ; penetrating, intimate, 
intense, philosophical. 

ANT. Superficial, shallow, 
commonplace, external, slight, 
apparent, obvious, incomplete; 

Progress. Advance, advance- 
ment, attainment, increase, im- 
provement, proficiency, progres- 
sion, growth, development. 

ANT. Delay, check, retro- 
gression, stay, stop, stoppage, 
falling off, relapse, decline, 
falling back. 

Prohibit. Forbid, hinder, in- 
hibit, interdict, preclude, pre- 
vent, debar, disallow. 

ANT. Allow, empower, let, 
license, order, require, sanction, 
authorize, command, direct, en- 
join, permit, warrant, suffer, 
tolerate, put up with, give per- 
mission, give consent, consent 

Prolific. Fertile, fruitful, pro- 
ductive, generating, teeming, 

ANT. Barren, sterile, unpro- 
ductive, unfruitful, effete. 

Prolix. Long, diffuse, tiresome, 
prolonged, protracted; wordy, 
verbose, prosaic, rambling, dis- 
cursive; tedious, wearisome. 

ANT. Condensed, terse, con- 
cise, brief, laconic, curt, epi- 

Prominent. Projecting, mani- 
fest, protuberant, conspicuous; 
eminent, distinguished, famous, 
celebrated, important, main, 
principal, leading, characteris- 

ANT. Receding, hollowed, 
concave, indented, engraved; 
insignificant, secondary, unim- 
portant, minor, indistinguish- 
able, indistinct, subordinate, in- 
conspicuous, trivial, immate- 
rial, unessential. 

Promote. Encourage, forward, 
foster, push, advance, aid, as- 
sist, foment, excite, furth'er, 
help, raise, urge forward, urge 
on, elevate, exalt. 

ANT. Abase, allay; hinder, 
prevent, foil, frustrate. 

Prompt. Ready, quick, agile, 
alert, brisk, nimble, expedi- 
tious; willing, hasty, inclined, 
disposed, responsive, unhesitat- 

ANT. Dilatory, slow, tardy, 
lingering, loitering, inactive, 
sluggish, unready, unrespon- 
sive, procrastinating, behind- 
hand, backward. 

Pronounce. Deliver, speak, ut- 
ter, articulate, enunciate; de- 
clare, affirm; propound, assert, 

ANT. Mispronounce, gab- 
ble, mumble; silence, suppress; 
deny, retract. 

Propagate. Increase, diffuse, 
disseminate, promote; spread, 
extend, generate, promulgate, 

ANT. Strangle, stifle, extin- 
guish, suppress, repress, check t 

[ 235 ] 




hush up; contract, diminish, 
reduce; contradict, deny. 

Proper. Own, individual, pecul- 
iar, particular; right, fit, de- 
cent; personal, constitutional, 
special, specific; suitable, ap- 
propriate, seemly, legitimate ; 
decent, respectable. 

ANT. Common, universal, 
general; unfitting, inappropri- 
ate, unsuitable, unseemly, inde- 
cent, wrong, improper, unbe- 
coming, unbefitting. 

Propitiation. Expiation, sat- 
isfaction, atonement, reconcili- 

ANT. Reprobation, retribu- 
tion, vengeance, wrath, aliena- 
tion, estrangement, curse, pen- 
alty, punishment, offense, con- 
demnation, chastisement. 

Propitious. Auspicious, kind, 
benign, gracious, friendly, be- 
nignant, clement, kindly, fa- 
vorable, merciful. 

ANT. Adverse, antagonistic, 
hostile, repellent, unfriendly, 
unpropitious, unfavorable, ill- 
disposed, forbidding, inauspi- 

Proportion. Ratio, symmetry, 
relation, harmony, share, lot; 
equality, similarity ; adjust- 
ment, distribution; arrange- 
ment, adaptation. 

ANT. Disproportion, dispar- 
ity, disorder, incongruity, dis- 
crepancy, absurdity, contrari- 

Proposal. Bid, offer, overture, 

ANT. Acceptance, denial, re- 
fusal, rejection, repulse, disap- 

Proposition. Proposal, state- 
ment, offer, declaration; over- 
ture, suggestion, proffer, ten- 
der; position, thesis, dictum, 
assertion, affirmation, doctrine. 
ANT. Withdrawal, recanta- 

tion, abjuration, disavowal, rev- 

Prosperity. Thrift, weal, wel- 
fare, happiness, well-being, suc- 
cess, good fortune. 

ANT. Woe, misfortune, ill 
luck, failure, adversity, calam- 
ity, reverses, affliction, distress, 
disaster, misery. 

Protest, v. Assert, aver, attest, 
testify; affirm, declare; assev- 
erate, avow, profess; expostu- 
late, remonstrate, repudiate, 
deprecate, denounce. 

ANT. Retract, utithdraic, ab- 
jure, revoke; coincide, sanction, 
agree, endorse, subscribe, ac- 

Protract. Defer, continue, delay, 
extend, elongate, lengthen, pro- 
crastinate, postpone, prolong, 
draw out. 

ANT. Abbreviate, contract, 
conclude, hasten, hurry, reduce, 
shorten, abridge, curtail, limit. 

Proud. Arrogant, haughty, pre- 
sumptuous, lordly; worthy, ad- 
mirable, grand, splendid, mag- 
nificent, ostentatious ; lofty, su- 
percilious, imperious, boast- 
ful, elated, imposing, vainglo- 

ANT. Humble, unassuming, 
unobtrusive, meek, lowly, mild, 
submissive, unpretending, def- 
erential, affable, unpresuming, 

Proverb. Axiom, byword, dic- 
tum, adage, aphorism, maxim, 
motto, precept, truism, saying, 
saw, apothegm. 

Provide. Prepare, supply, af- 
ford, contribute, furnish; en- 
gage, bargain, agree ; stipulate ; 

ANT. Neglect, withhold, re- 
fuse, mismanage, appropriate, 
overlook; divert, alienate, mis- 
use; fail, disappoint. 

Provocation. Vexation, incite- 

[ 2.18 1 



ment, stimulus, incentive; af- 
front, insult, offense, indig- 

ANT. Pacification, mitiga- 
tion, assuagement; deference, 
compliment, homage, honor, re- 

Prowess. Heroism, valor, gal- 
lantry, bravery, courage, in- 

ANT. Fear, effeminacy, ti- 
midity, cowardice, cowardli- 
ness, pusillanimity. 

Prudence. Discretion, frugal- 
ity, forethought, judgment, ju- 
diciousness, providence, care, 
caution, foresight, wisdom, con- 
sideration, carefulness, circum- 

ANT. Folly, heedlessness, 
prodigality, recklessness, indis- 
cretion, wastefulness, improvi- 
dence, imprudence, thoughtless- 
ness, rashness. 

Prudent. Cautious, considerate, 
judicious, provident; circum- 
spect, sagacious, wise, discreet; 
frugal, economical, thrifty. 

ANT. Reckless, inconsider- 
ate, improvident, wasteful, ex- 
travagant, lavish, prodigal; in- 
discreet, unwise; foolish, rash, 
imprudent, audacious. 

Public. Common, general, popu- 
lar, social, open; notorious. 

ANT. Private, individual, se- 
cret, domestic, secluded, close, 

Punctilious. Exact, particular, 
precise, careful, nice, scrupu- 
lous, conscientious ; punctual, 

ANT. Careless, slovenly, un- 
scrupulous; informal, uncere- 

Puny. Small, feeble, inferior, 
petty; weak, diminutive, unde- 
veloped, dwarfed, stunted, un- 
dersized, tiny. 

ANT. Large, great, rolu-st, 
developed, fine, vigorous; colos- 
sal, gigantic. 

Pupil. Learner, disciple, student, 
novice, ward, tyro. 

ANT. Teacher, master, profi- 
cient, scholar, adept; guardian. 

Purchase, v. Buy, obtain, pro- 
cure, secure, acquire, bargain 
for, barter for, get. 

ANT. Exchange, sell, barter, 
dispose of, put to sale. 

Pure. Innocent, unsullied, spot- 
less, unspotted, stainless, true, 
guiltless, incorrupt, clean, gen- 
uine, chaste, guileless, classic, 
classical, holy, immaculate, vir- 
tuous, real, sheer, mere, simple, 
unmixed, unpolluted, unadul- 
terated, unmingled, undefiled, 
unblemished, uncorrupted, un- 
stained, untainted, untarnished, 
upright, perfect. 

ANT. Impure, indecent, pol- 
luted, foul, tainted, unchaste, 
immodest, lewd, obscene, indeli- 
cate, defiled, dirty, filthy, gross, 
mixed, stained, sullied, unclean, 
tarnished, adulterated. 

Purpose, n. Design, end, inten- 
tion, aim, scope, meaning, ob- 
ject, plan, intention, purport, 
effect, project. 

ANT. Lot, chance, accident, 
haphazard, casualty, fate. 

Put. Deposit, place, set, lay; 
cause, produce, propose, state; 
attach, attribute, assign; as- 
sume, suppose; entice, con- 

ANT. Remove, raise, with- 
draw, displace, transpose, trans- 
fer, change. 

Putrid. Decayed, decomposed, 
rotten, stinking, putrefied, foul, 

ANT. Clean, sweet, whole- 
some, fragrant, pure, healthful, 

[ 237 ] 





Quaint. Odd, antique; curious, 
fanciful, affected, whimsical ; 
archaic, singular, unusual ; an- 
tiquated, extraordinary, droll. 

ANT. Commonplace, usual, 
ordinary, common; fashionable, 
modish, modern. 

'Quality. Property, peculiarity, 
sort, disposition, temper; char- 
acter, attribute, rank, part, po- 
sition; characteristic; acquisi- 
tion; nature, trait, mood, con- 
dition, station, capacity, ten- 

ANT. Negation, heterogene- 
ity, anomalousness, lack of dis- 
tinction, nondescript, weakness, 
ineffectiveness, incapacity, dis- 

Quantity. Greatness, measure, 
amount, bulk, extent, size, ag- 
gregate, length, duration, con- 
tent, comprehensiveness. 

ANT. Scantiness, want, de- 
ficiency, margin, deterioration, 
diminution, waste, wear, loss. 

Queer. Curious, bizarre, droll, 
comical, odd, peculiar, quaint, 
strange, uncommon, unusual, 
whimsical, singular, ridiculous, 
anomalous, fantastic, funny, er- 
ratic, extraordinary, ludicrous, 
grotesque, laughable, preposter- 
ous, unique, unmatched, eccen- 
tric, crotchety. 

ANT. Common, customary, 
normal, ordinary, usual, regu- 
lar, familiar, natural. 

Querimonious, Querulous. La- 
menting, complaining, whining, 
bewailing, mourning, murmur- 
ing, discontented, dissatisfied, 

ANT. Contented, easy, uncom- 
plaining, satisfied, complacent, 
cheerful, genial, good-tempered. 
Query, Question, n. Inquiry, 
doubt; point, topic, subject; 

dispute, discussion, debate; in- 
vestigation, examination ; ex- 
perimentation, scrutiny, inter- 

ANT. Solution, explanation, 
answer, reply, response; conces- 
sion, admission. 

Question, v. Ask, interrogate, 
catechize, doubt, controvert, dis- 
pute; examine, converse with; 
call in question ; inquire, inves- 
tigate, query, tlubitate. 

ANT. Answer, reply, satisfy, 

Quick. Speedy, expeditious, ac- 
tive, rapid, nimble, fleet, alert, 
lively, sprightly; alive, living, 
animate; agile, brisk, ready; 
hasty, swift; impatient, eager, 
passionate ; fresh, bracing, keen, 
sharp ; sensitive, perceptive, in- 

ANT. Slow, tardy, inactive, 
inert, sluggish, dull, insensitive, 
deliberate, gradual, moderate, 
late, unready, dilatory, slack, 
unresponsive, lingering, heavy, 
stupid, wearisome. 

Quicken. Hasten, hurry, accel- 
erate, despatch, drive, expedite, 
facilitate, further, speed, urge, 
promote, advance, make haste, 
press forward. 

ANT. Hinder, impede, check, 
obstruct, retard, clog, delay. 

Quiet, n. Rest, repose, tranquil- 
lity, silence, calm, peace, still- 

ANT. Tumult, noise, shout- 
ing, action, commotion, activ- 
ity, storm; unrest, excitement, 
agitation, disturbance, turmoil. 

Quiet, a. Tranquil, unruffled, 
smooth, unmolested, peaceful, 
undisturbed, peaceable, calm, 
patient, contented, hushed, 
still, placid; gentle, mild, un- 
demonstrative, meek. 

[ 238 ] 




ANT. Turbulent, tumultu- 
ous, uproarious, disturbed, agi- 
tated, wild, excited, violent, un- 
easy, boisterous, restless, con- 
futed, noisy. 

Quote. Cite, recite, plagiarize, 
repeat, excerpt, extract, para- 

ANT. Suppress, ignore, di*~ 
dain, omit. 


Babble. Mob, crowd, people, pop- 
ulace; herd, the masses, mul- 
titudes, commonalty ; scum, 

ANT. Aristocracy, nobility, 
elite, galaxy. 

Racy. Lively, piquant, pungent, 
spicy, spirited, forcible, flavor- 
ous, rich. 

ANT. Flat, cold, flavorless, 
insipid, stale, stupid, tasteless, 
dull, prosy, vapid. 

Radiant. Lustrous, brilliant, 
splendid, gorgeous, glittering, 
glaring, radiating, beaming, re- 
splendent, shining, sparkling, 
luminous, effulgent, glorious. 

ANT. Dull, dark, somber, 
murky, lusterless, non-lumi- 
nous, sunless, shadowy, lurid, 
cloudy, gloomy, obscure, over- 
cast, ebon, black. 

Radical. Fundamental, innate, 
essential, native, natural, orig- 
inal, organic, primitive ; entire, 
complete, extreme, thorough, 
positive, perfect, thorough-go- 
ing, total; ingrained, constitu- 

ANT. Superficial, tentative, 
trial; inadequate, incomplete, 
moderate, partial, palliative, 
slighl; conservative. 

liaise. Lift, elevate, heave; ex- 
alt, advance, enhance ; increase, 
excite, aggravate, intensify, 
heighten, set upright; awaken, 
arouse, originate, produce, ef- 
fect, cause; build, erect; levy, 
collect; propagate, breed, rear; 

bring up, incite, start; utter, 
summon; cultivate. 

ANT. Depress, lower, drop, 
sink, let doion; degrade, dis- 
grace; debase, humble, reduce} 
lessen, diminish, decrease. 
Ramble. Rove, roam, wander, 
range, stroll, saunter, straggle, 

ANT. Speed, hasten, drive, 
run, proceed, rush, hurry. 
Random, a. Chance, haphazard, 
fortuitous, casual, wandering, 
stray, wild, aimless, purpose- 
less, unpremeditated, acciden- 
tal, vague. 

ANT. Aimed, intended, con- 
trolled, purposed, deliberate, 
designed, intentional, regular, 
systematic, planned. 
Ransom, v. Redeem, liberate,, 
rescue, deliver, release, emanci- 
pate, indemnify. 

ANT. Hold for ransom, kid- 
nap, imprison, hold as hostage, 
indict, fine, mulct, prosecute. 
Rapid. Swift, quick, fast, fleet, 
hasty, brisk, expeditious, hur- 

ANT. Slow, deliberate, cum- 
brous, lazy, retarded, moder- 
ate, gradual, dilatory, linger- 
ing, tardy. 

Rapidity. Rapidness, haste, ce- 
lerity, speed, velocity, agility, 
swiftness, fleetness, quickness, 

ANT. Sloioness. dilatoriness, 
tardiness, delay, deliberateness^ 

[ 239 ] 




Hare. Curious, extraordinary, 
incomparable, odd, peculiar, re- 
markable, precious, scarce, sin- 
gular, strange, uncommon, un- 
usual, unprecedented, unique, 
unparalleled, infrequent. 

ANT. General, usual, nor- 

Hash. Precipitate, headlong, in- 
discreet, foolhardy, hasty, heed- 
less, thoughtless, incautious, 
careless, inconsiderate, unwary. 
ANT. Cautious, wary, dis- 
creet, thoughtful, prudent, cel- 
culating; timid, hesitating, re- 

Bational. Sane, sound, intelli- 
gent, reasonable, sensible, wise, 
discreet, judicious; reasoning, 
intellectual ; sagacious, equi- 
table, enlightened. 

ANT. Irrational, insane, un- 
sound, foolish, absurd, injudi- 
cious, unreasonable, preposter- 
ous, unintelligent, extravagant. 

Haw. Unprepared, uncooked, 
immature, unripe, unseasoned, 
inexperienced, unpracticed, un- 
tried, unwrought, unfinished ; 
bare, galled; chilly, bleak. 

ANT. Cooked, dressed, pre- 
pared, developed, mature, ripe, 
mellow, seasoned, practiced, ex- 
perienced, tried, tested, expert, 
habituated, familiar, trained; 
healed; genial, balmy. 

Heach. Attain, arrive, get to, 
enter, land, come to, gain. 

ANT. Depart, leave, set out, 
weigh anchor, embark, start, 
go, go away, set sail. 

Heady. Prompt, expeditious, 
speedy, unhesitating, dexter- 
ous, apt, skilled, handy, expert, 
facile, easy, opportune, fitted, 
prepared, disposed, free, will- 
ing, cheerful. 

ANT. Tardy, slow, inexpedi- 
tious, hesitating, clumsy, inept, 
unskilled, inexpert, hard, diffi- 

cult, inopportune, unfit, ill-pre- 
pared, unwilling, reluctant, un- 
responsive, unaccommodating. 

Heal. Actual, veritable, genu- 
ine, demonstrable, substantial, 
authentic, certain ; developed, 
essential, positive; true, un- 

ANT. Illusory, imaginary, 
unreal, untrue, supposititious, 
fictitious, hypothetical, fabu- 
lous, fanciful, conceived, sup- 
posed, feigned, reported, vision- 
ary, theoretical. 

Reality. Verity, actuality, sub- 
stance, truth, genuineness, au- 
thenticity, fact, substantiality, 

ANT. Fiction, falsehood, un- 
truth, myth, imagination, fab- 
rication, fancy, supposition, 
unreality, chimera, vision, hy- 
pothesis, hollowness. 

Realm. Domain, kingdom, re- 
gion, province, country, depart- 
ment, empire, state; jurisdic- 
tion, sovereignty, dominion. 

ANT. Anarchy, insurrection; 
independence; democracy. 

Rear. Lift, elevate, erect, raise, 
build, establish, exalt, foster, 
construct, breed, educate, in- 
struct, train, discipline, cher- 

ANT. Tear down, degrade, 
undermine, depress, overthrow; 
destroy, kill, demolish, subvert, 
stifle, extinguish. 

Reason, n. Cause, ground, aim, 
motive, account, argument, de- 
sign, consideration, end, object, 
purpose, principle. 

ANT. Pretext, pretense, fal- 
sification; unreason, unreason- 
ableness, irrationality, absurd- 
ity, fallacy. 

Reason, v. Debate, demonstrate, 
argue, contend, discuss, prove, 
establish, question, controvert, 
wrangle, dispute. 

[ 240 ] 




ANT. Quibble, pervert, equiv- 
ocate, evade, mystify ; cavil, re- 
fine; misrepresent; dictate, as- 

Reasoning. Argument, argu- 
mentation, debate, ratiocina- 

ANT. Sophistry, instinct, in- 
tuition, presentiment. 

Rebellious. Intractable, refrac- 
tory, seditious, unmanageable, 
contumacious, disobedient, in- 
subordinate, mutinous, ungov- 
ernable, uncontrollable. 

ANT. Deferential, compli- 
ant, docile, manageable, obedi- 
ent, submissive, subservient, 
yielding, tractable, gentle, con- 
trollable, dutiful. 

Recant. Retract, revoke, recall, 
abjure, disown, disavow, re- 

ANT. Profess, confess, as- 
sert, declare, enunciate, main- 
tain, hold; vindicate. 

Reception. Admission, receipt; 
entertainment ; acceptance, cre- 
dence; welcome. 

ANT. Rejection, dismissal, 
repudiation, denial, protest, re- 
nunciation, disavowal. 

Recite. Describe, recapitulate, 
detail, number; repeat, deliver, 
rehearse; relate, narrate, re- 
count; quote; count, enumer- 
ate, tell. 

ANT. Misquote, garble, fal- 
sify, misrepresent, pervert; for- 
get, fail. 

Reckless. Mindless, negligent, 
thoughtless, regardless, uncon- 
cerned, inattentive, remiss, im- 
provident, rash, inconsiderate. 
ANT. Circumspect, careful, 
wary, thoughtful, mindful, at- 
tentive, considerate, provident, 
prudent, calculating. 

Recognize. Acknowledge, con- 
fess, own, allow, concede, iden- 
tify, avow. 

ANT. Overlook, repudiate, 
disown, ignore, disavow, dis* 

Reconcile. Placate, propitiate, 
pacify, appease; conciliate, re- 
unite, content, harmonize; ad- 
just, settle, compose. 

ANT. Separate, sever, alien' 
ate, estrange, disaffect. 

Reconciliation. Reconcilement, 
reunion, pacification, appease- 
ment, propitiation, atonement, 
expiation; adjustment, restora- 
tion, harmony. 

ANT. Separation, estrange- 
ment, alienation, disaffection. 

Record. Account, entry, enrol- 
ment, catalogue, enumeration, 
inventory, register, roll; ar- 
chive, chronicle, document, his- 
tory, inscription, instrument, 
memorandum, memorial, muni- 
ment, schedule, scroll. 

Recover. Cure, heal, retrieve, 
restore; be cured or healed, re- 
cruit, recuperate, resume; re- 
animate, repossess. 

ANT. Relapse, sink, die, fail, 
grow worse. 

Recovery. Repossession, resump- 
tion ; recruiting, healing, resto- 
ration; regaining, recupera 
tion, convalescence, retrieval, 
redemption, resuscitation, re- 
vival ; vindication, reinstate- 
ment, reestablishment. 

ANT. Loss, forfeiture, pri- 
vation, damage, ruin, destruc- 
tion, waste : illness, relapse, de- 
clension, incurableness, hope- 

Recreation. Sport, amusement, 
diversion, refreshment, reani- 
mation; holiday, pastime, re- 

ANT. Toil, labor, work, in- 
dustry, employment, fatigue, 
weariness, lassitude, exhaus- 

Rectitude. Justice, honesty, up- 




Tightness, fairness, integrity, 
straightforwardness, conscien- 
tiousness, equity. 

ANT. Iniquity, wrong, injus- 
tice, immorality, corruption, 
dishonesty, duplicity, under- 

Redemption. Ransom, release, 
rescue, retrieval, recovery, de- 
liverance, liberation, salvation; 
discharge, fulfilment ; atone- 
ment, compensation. 

ANT. Abandonment, forfeit- 
ure, sacrifice, betrayal, depriva- 
tion, desertion. 

Reduce. Lessen, decrease, cur- 
tail, abate, shorten, impair, 
lower, subjugate, subject; di- 
minish, attenuate, abridge, con- 
tract; subdue. 

ANT. Magnify, augment, ex- 
pand, amplify, exalt, raise, in- 
vigorate, promote, restore, re- 
pair, renovate, transform. 

Redundant. Exuberant, super- 
abundant, overflowing, pleo- 
nastic ; superfluous, excessive, 
copious, plentiful; unneces- 

ANT. Requisite, necessary, 
sufficient, enough; scanty, de- 
ficient, scarce, wanting, lack- 
ing, incomplete, inadequate, in- 

Refinement. Culture, elegance, 
cultivation, civilization, po- 

ANT. Coarseness, grossness, 
rudeness, rusticity, barbarism, 
boorishness, brutality, clown- 
ishness, savagery, vulgarity. 

Reflect. Consider, think, cogi- 
tate, meditate, contemplate, ru- 
minate, ponder, muse; animad- 

ANT. Idle, dream, imagine, 
fancy, wander, rove; disregard, 

Reform, v. Amend, correct, rec- 
tify, emend, repair, better, im- 

prove, restore, reclaim, mend; 

ANT. Corrupt, impair, viti- 
ate, deteriorate, deform; spoil, 
deprave, pollute, defile, injure, 

Refuge. Shelter, asylum, re- 
treat, covert; protection, sanc- 
tuary, stronghold, defense; hid- 
ing-place, harbor. 

ANT. Exposure, peril, snare, 
menace, pitfall, danger, threat. 

Regard, v. Consider, observe, re- 
mark, heed, mind, respect* es- 
teem, estimate, value; attend, 
notice; contemplate; revere, 

ANT. Overlook, disregard, 
miss, neglect, omit; misprize; 
dislike, hate, loathe; contemn. 

Regret, n. Grief, concern, sor- 
row, lamentation, repentance, 
penitence, self-condemnation; 
compunction, remorse, contri- 

ANT. Joy, exultation, hap- 
piness, delight, self-gratula* 
tion, approbation; praise, com- 
mendation; felicitation. 

Regular. Orderly, methodical; 
conformable, agreeing; gov- 
erned, subject; normal; consti- 
tuted, selected; customary, sys- 
tematic, stated, established, pe- 
riodical, recognized, formal, re- 
current, certain. 

ANT. Unusual, exceptional, 
rare, irregular, abnormal, ec- 
centric, capricious, variable, 
uncertain, erratic. 

Regulation. Rule, method, prin- 
ciple, precept; adjustment, dis- 
posal ; arrangement, ordering, 
disposition, government, con- 

ANT. Disorder, anarchy, li- 
cense, misgovernment, misrule, 
non-regulation, cap-rice, malad- 
justment, derangement. 

Rehearse. Recapitulate, detail, 

[ 242 ] 




recount, describe, tell ; narrate, 
repeat, recite, relate; practice. 
ANT. Misrepresent; act, per- 
form, pla;/. 

Rejoice. Delight, joy, exult, tri- 
umph, please, cheer, exhilarate, 
gladden, transport, charm, en- 
liven, gratify, make happy. 

ANT. Mourn, grieve, weep, 
lament, pain, distress, defeat, 
sadden, deaden, vex, annoy, op- 
press, afflict, trouble, depress, 
burden, deject. 

Relation. Recital, rehearsal, ac- 
count, narration, tale, narra- 
tive, detail, description; kin- 
dred, affinity, consanguinity, 
kinsman, kinswoman; connec- 
tion, association, pertinency, 
relevancy, agreement. 

ANT. Action, happening, oc- 
currence; alien, stranger, for- 
eigner; absoluteness, disagree- 
ment, dissociation, disconnec- 
tion, irrelevancy. 

Belease, v. Discharge, extricate, 
disengage, quit, acquit; free, 
loose, liberate; exempt, indem- 
nify; deliver, remit. 

ANT. Hold, bind, constrain, 
confine, fetter, shackle, fine, 
imprison, sentence, condemn. 

Relief. Alleviation, mitigation, 
aid, help, succor, assistance, re- 
dress, remedy, indemnification; 
exemption, deliverance, refresh- 
ment, support, comfort. 

ANT. Oppression, persecu- 
tion, aggravation, severity, cru- 
elty; weariness, discomfort, ex- 

Religion. Devotion, faith, pi- 
ety, righteousness, holiness, mo- 
rality, godliness, pietism, wor- 
ship, theology. 

ANT. Irreligion, atheism, un- 
belief, blasphemy, impiety, god- 
lessness, profanity, sacrilege, 
ungodliness, wickedness. 

Relinquish. Resign, leave, quit, 

forsake, abandon, renounce, de- 
sert, forbear, forego; surrender, 

ANT. Retain, hold, Iceep, de- 
tain, preserve, support, cling to, 
sustain, maintain; continue, be 
constant to, persevere, persist. 

Reluctant. Loath, slow, disin 
clined, indisposed, averse, back- 
ward, opposed, unwilling. 

ANT. Eager, favorable, will- 
ing, inclined, desirous, disposed. 

Remain. Wait, tarry, rest, so- 
journ, last, dwell ; stay, abide, 
continue, endure; survive, out- 

ANT. Leave, abandon, depart, 
remove, go, disappear, flit; die, 

Remark. Comment, note, obser- 
vation, utterance, annotation. 

Remarkable. Observable, rare, 
noticeable, extraordinary, un- 
usual, strange, wonderful, not- 
able, eminent: distinguished, 
famous, prominent, conspicu- 
ous; singular, peculiar, individ- 

ANT. Ordinary, usual, com- 
monplace, mediocre, everyday, 
common, general. 

Remembrance. Memory, recol- 
lection, reminiscence; memento, 
souvenir, memorandum, memo- 
rial, token. 

ANT. Oblivion, forgetful- 

Reminiscence. Memory, recol- 
lection, remembrance; remnant, 
relic, trace. 

ANT. Oblivion, forgetful- 
ness; announcement, warning, 
suggestion, prognostic. 

Remote. Removed, far, distant; 
irrelevant, not related ; foreign, 
indirect, unconnected, alien, un- 
allied; separate, abstract. 

ANT. Near, close, direct, re- 
lated, connected, contiguous, 
immediate; present, pressing. 

I 243 ] 




urgent; proximate; essential, 

Rend. Burst, break, rip, sever, 
mangle, rupture, sunder, tear, 
lacerate, rive, slit. 

ANT. Mend, reunite, secure, 
unite, weld, heal, join, solder, 
sew, stitch. 

Render. Return, pay back, re- 
store; requite; give up, yield, 
surrender; furnish, contribute, 
deliver ; translate, interpret, 
set forth, exhibit, try out; ap- 
portion, give, present, assign. 

ANT. Keep, withhold, appro- 
priate, retain, refuse, use, ap- 
ply, employ; alienate, misap- 

Renounce. Abandon, abjure, de- 
ny, disavow, disown, forswear, 
disclaim, retract, repudiate, re- 
voke, recall, refuse, reject, dis- 
card, recant. 

ANT. Advocate, avow, claim, 
assert, defend, hold, proclaim, 
own, acknowledge, cherish, re- 
tain, uphold, vindicate, main- 

Renown. Fame, distinction, no- 
tice, repute, name, reputation, 
celebrity, honor, glory, emi- 

ANT. Disgrace, shame, dis- 
honor, disrepute, discredit, deg- 
radation, taint, stain, brand. 

Renunciation. Denial, disown- 
ment, renouncement, disclaim- 
er, rejection, abjuration, recan- 
tation, abandonment. 

ANT. Maintenance, support, 
vindication, assertion, defense, 
apology, justification. 

Repeat. Reiterate, renew, re- 
late, recapitulate, recite, repro- 
duce, rehearse, renovate. 

ANT. Discontinue, drop, end, 
finish, stop, cease, break off, in- 

Repentance. Penitence, regret, 
remorse, sorrow, compunction, 

contrition, self-condemnation, 

ANT. Impenitence, obsti- 
nacy, obduracy; comfort, com- 
placency, approval, hardness, 
content, self-approval, self- 
complacency, self-congratula- 
tion; stubbornness. 

Repletion. Fulness, superabun- 
dance, plethora, abundance, am- 
plitude, sufficiency, enough. 

ANT. Scarcity, want, lack, 
insufficiency, need. 

Reply. Answer, respond, rejoin, 

ANT. Question, query, ask, 
inquire; disregard, pass, drop, 

Report. Account, description, 
narration, narrative, recital, re- 
hearsal, relation, record, tale., 
rumor, statement, story. 

ANT. Allegory, fabrication, 

Repose, n. Rest, recumbency, 
reclination, ease, quiet, quiet- 
ness, tranquillity, peace; calm- 
ness, quiescence. 

ANT. Unrest, agitation, tu- 
mult, movement, restlessness, 
turmoil, commotion, distrac- 

Represent. Present anew, por- 
tray, typify, delineate; person- 
ate, act; perform; depict, de- 
scribe, show, exhibit. 

ANT. Misrepresent; falsify, 
caricature, distort. 

Reproach, n. Disrepute, oppro- 
brium, discredit, dishonor, in- 
vective, contumely, reviling, vil- 
ification, abuse, scurrility, inso- 
lence, insult, scorn, contempt, 
ignominy, shame, scandal, dis- 
grace, infamy. 

ANT. Approbation, satisfac- 
tion, praise, encouragement, ex- 
altation, commendation, honor, 
applause, eulogy, assent, accep- 
tance, approval. 

[ 244 ] 




Reproach, -w. Chide, rebuke, re- 
vile, condemn, vilify; blame, 
censure, taunt, upbraid, re- 

ANT. Praise, approve, com- 
mend, laud, applaud, eulogize. 

Reproof. Comment, criticism, 
disapproval, chiding, reproach, 
upbraiding, reproval, admoni- 
tion, animadversion; censure, 
blame, condemnation, denunci- 
ation, objurgation, reprehen- 
sion, rebuke, reprimand; re- 
flection, check. 

ANT. Commendation, pane- 
gyric, approbation, applause, 
approval, encomium, praise, eu- 

Reprove. Admonish, blame, re- 
proach, censure, condemn, rep- 
rimand, warn, upbraid, chide, 
check, chasten, find fault with, 
expostulate with, rebuke, repre- 
hend, remonstrate with, take to 

ANT. Abet, applaud, encour- 
age, cheer, countenance, incite, 
urge on, impel, instigate, ap- 

Repugnant. Opposite, opposed, 
adverse, contrary, inconsistent, 
irreconcilable, hostile, inimical; 
incompatible, loath ; heteroge- 

ANT. Harmonious, friendly, 
amicable, wining, consistent, 
compatible, congruous; homoge- 

Reputable. Honorable, respec- 
table, estimable, creditable. 

ANT. Disreputable, disgrace- 
ful, dishonorable, discreditable, 

Requite. Avenge, pay off, quit, 
punish, retaliate, revenge; sat- 
isfy, settle with, reward, re- 
turn, repay, remunerate, rec- 
ompense, compensate, recipro- 

ANT. Absolve, acquit, for- 

give, excuse, neglect, pardon, 
slight, forget, overlook, pass 

Research. Inquiry, scrutiny, ex- 
amination, experimentation, ex- 
ploration, discovery, investiga- 
tion, study, observation. 

ANT. Ignorance, oversight, 
inobservance ; shallowness, su- 
perficiality, sciolism. 

Reserve, n. Reservation, reten- 
tion, limitation, backwardness, 
coldness, shyness, coyness, mod- 
esty; taciturnity, restraint, re- 
pression, constraint. 

AXT. Profuseness, prodigal- 
ity, diffusion; affability, genial- 
ity, cordiality, abandonment, 
surrender, openness, frankness, 
transparency, indiscretion, vol- 

Resignation. Relinquishment, 
forsaking, abandonment, abdi- 
cation, renunciation, endur- 
ance; patience, long-suffering, 
forbearance; acquiescence, sub- 

ANT. Maintenance, grasp, 
resistance, retention, rebellion, 
remonstrance, contention, reser- 
vation, holding, keeping, retain- 
ing, detention; murmuring, dis- 
satisfaction, discontent, protes- 

Resolute. Determined, decided, 
fixed, steadfast, constant, per- 
severing, firm, bold, unshaken, 
steady ; undaunted, unflinch- 
ing, stout-hearted. 

ANT. Irresolute, timid, hesi- 
tating, doubtful, ivavering, vac- 
illating, capricious, variable, 
weak, undetermined, undecided. 

Resources. Expedient, means, 
resort, contrivance; supplies, 
devices, money, wealth, appli- 
ances, funds. 

ANT. Destitution, poverty, 
indigence, bareness, want, ex- 
haustion, inanition, lack, drain. 

[ 245 ] 




Respectable. Estimable, honor- 
able, worthy, considerable, rep- 
utable, honest; passable. 

ANT. Unworthy, bad, mean, 
dishonorable, dishonest, paltry, 

Resplendent. Brilliant, splen- 
did, glorious, luminous, efful- 
gent, gorgeous, shining, glitter- 
ing, burnished. 

ANT. Dull, tarnished, luster- 
less, somber, dimmed, sullied. 

Best. Pause, peace, quiet, still- 
ness, tranquillity, intermission, 
cessation, ease, calm, peaceful- 
ness, calmness, quiescence, stop, 
repose, quietude, quietness, rec- 
reation, sleep, slumber. 

ANT. Agitation, commotion, 
disturbance, excitement, rest- 
lessness, strain, stir, tumult, 
work, unrest, toil, disquiet, mo- 
tion, movement, rush. 

Restive. Restless, restiff, fidgety, 
fretful, fractious, refractory, 
intractable, impatient, rebel- 
lious, skittish; resentful, recal- 
citrant, balky, vicious, unruly, 
stubborn, mulish, mutinous, ob- 

ANT. Docile, gentle, submis- 
sive, passive, quiet, tractable, 
yielding, obedient, manageable, 

Restore. Return, replace, re- 
fund, repay, reinstate, rebuild, 
repair, revive, heal, cure, re- 

ANT. Remove, steal, appro- 
priate, abstract, destroy, shat- 
ter, injure, dilapidate, impair; 
deprive; wound, harm. 

Restrain. Constrain, hold in, 
check, repress, circumscribe, 
confine, curb, hinder, hold, hold 
back, restrict, suppress, with- 
hold, bridle, abridge, keep 
back, keep down, keep in, keep 

ANT. Let loose, set free, re- 

lease, arouse, aid, emancipate, 
animate, incite, excite, encour- 
age, free, impel. 

Result. Consequence, issue, con- 
clusion, effect; end, event, ter- 
mination, product, outcome ; in- 
ference, deduction ; resolution, 

ANT. Cause, beginning, com- 
mencement, rise, origin, ante- 
cedent, prognostic, initiation, 
premonition, indication. 

Retinue. Attendants, suite, fol- 
lowers, train, retainers, satel- 
lites, escort, cortege. 

ANT. Solitariness, non-atten- 

Retirement. Privacy, solitude, 
loneliness, seclusion. 

ANT. Company, converse, so~ 
ciety, fellowship, companion- 
ship, association. 

Retribution. Requital, retalia- 
tion, payment, recompense; re- 
payment, compensation, reward, 
return ; penalty, punishment, 

ANT. Remission, reprieve; 
pardon, condonation, sparing. 

Retrospect. Review, survey, re- 
consideration, reexamination; 
recollection, reminiscence, mem- 

ANT. Prospect, prophecy, an- 
ticipation, forecasting, prognos- 
tication, speculation. 

Return, v. Turn back, come 
back; reply, respond; answer; 
restore, recompense, remit, ren- 
der; reappear, recur; revert, 

ANT. Depart, vanish, disap- 
pear, remove; retain, misappro- 
priate; withhold. 

Revelation. Disclosure, mani- 
festation, apocalypse. 

ANT. Concealment, shroud- 
ing, veiling, mystery, obscura- 
tion, cloud, cloudiness, hiding. 

Revenge. Retaliation, retribu- 

[ 246 ] 




tion, vengeance, avenging, re- 

ANT. Mercy, pardon, recon- 
ciliation, pity, compassion, ex- 
cuse, grace, forgiveness. 

Bevenue. Income ; taxes, excise, 
customs, duties, rents, receipts ; 
produce, return, wealth, pro- 

ANT. Outgo, waste, expendi- 
ture, expense, deductions, im- 

Beverse, n. Contrary, opposite, 
counterpart ; change, vicissi- 
tude; inversion, counter-posi- 
tion; derangement, alteration; 
rear, back; misfortune, defeat. 
ANT. Obverse, front; order, 
arrangement, version, position, 
location; continuance, perpet- 
uation, identity, stability, reg- 
ularity, uniformity. 

Bevive. Reanimate, reinvigor- 
ate; restore, raise, recover, re- 
new, recall ; awake, revivify, re- 

ANT. Kill, destroy, extin- 
guish, discourage; decline, die, 

Revolution. Lawlessness, in- 
surrection, revolt, riot, sedi- 
tion, anarchy, insubordination, 
rebellion, mutiny, confusion, 
disorder, tumult, disintegra- 

ANT. Government, submis- 
sion, obedience, authority, con- 
trol, command, dominion, domi- 
nation, law, empire, rule, sov- 
ereignity, loyalty, supremacy, 

Bevolve. Roll, rotate, turn. 

ANT. Bind, grind, stand, 
slide, slip, stick, chafe. 

Steward, n. Recompense, com- 
pensation, remuneration, pay, 
requital, retribution, punish- 

Rich. Wealthy, opulent, afflu- 
ent, supplied, abounding; abun- 

dant, copious, bountiful ; fertile, 
productive; valued, sumptuous, 
precious, costly; high-seasoned; 
luscious; vivid. 

ANT. Poor, indigent, needy, 
impoverished, destitute, impe- 
cunious, penniless; lacking, 
scanty, scarce, meager; barren, 
sterile; trivial, worthless, un- 
productive, fruitless, paltry, 
valueless; dull, tame, dry. 

Riches. Opulence, wealth, af- 
fluence, richness, plenty, abun- 

ANT. Poverty, want, indi- 
gence, scarcity, need, lack, im- 

Biddle. Conundrum, paradox, 
problem, puzzle, enigma. 

ANT. Axiom, answer, expla- 
nation, solution, proposition. 

Ridicule. Derision, raillery, 
banter, burlesque, irony, satire, 
mocking, sarcasm, gibe, jeer, 

ANT. Respect, homage, ven- 
eration, deference, honor. 

Bight, n. Claim, liberty, pre- 
rogative, license, privilege, ex- 
emption, franchise, immunity, 
duty, justice, uprightness, in- 
tegrity; title, ownership; in- 
terest; rectitude, correctness, 
power; propriety, fitness, suit- 

ANT. Wrong, falsehood, incor- 
rectness, perverseness ; liability, 
illegitimacy, non-legality, usur- 
pation, injustice, impropriety, 
unfitness, encroachment, force, 

Righteous. Holy, uncorrupt, 
honest, equitable, rightful, up- 
right, virtuous, just, good, con- 

ANT. Unholy, corrupt, dis- 
honest, unjust, wicked, evil, un- 
scrupulous, vicious, false, un- 
principled, profligate. 

Ripe. Mature, complete, fin- 

[ 247 ] 




ished; perfect, developed, full- 
grown ; fit, consummate ; pre- 
pared; full, seasoned, mellow. 
ANT. Raw, unripe, crude, 
fresK, green, unseasoned, un- 

'Rise, v. Arise, issue, flow, pro- 
ceed, spring, ascend, emanate. 
ANT. Descend, drop, fall, go 
down, set, settle, sink, decline. 

Rival, v. Emulate, antagonize, 
compete with, contend, strive, 
oppose, equal. 

ANT. Surrender, yield, de- 
fer, retire. 

Bobber. Brigand, marauder, pi- 
rate, plunderer, thief, burglar, 
bandit, highwayman, footpad, 
despoiler, depredator, raider, 
buccaneer, forager, freebooter. 

Robust. Strong, lusty, sinewy, 
muscular, hale, hearty, vigor- 
ous, forceful; healthy, sturdy, 
sound; violent, rude, rough. 

ANT. Puny, weak, delicate, 
frail, sickly, emaciated, thin, 
slender, gentle, mild, consider- 
ate, tender. 

Romantic. Sentimental, fanci- 
ful, fantastic, fictitious, wild, 
extravagant, chimerical. 

ANT. Unromantic, truthful, 
unvarnished, unadorned, veri- 
fable, actual, real, realistic, 

Root. Radix, radicle, stock, ori- 
gin, foundation, base, source, 
stem, parent, commencement, 
beginning, radical, bottom. 

ANT. Branch, ramification, 
product, issue, progeny, super- 

Rough. Uneven, uncut, boister- 
ous, unpolished; coarse, disor- 
dered, shaggy, ragged; rude, 
uncivil, harsh; loud, offensive; 
tempestuous, stormy ; rugged, 
knotty, craggy, gruff; incom- 
plete ; uncourteous, churlish, 

ANT. Smooth, plain, level, 
polished, flat, glossy, sleek, 
soft, mild, quiet, refined, ten- 
der, gentle; balmy, zephyrlike. 

Routine. Practice, custom, pro- 
cedure, round, course, wont, 
order; gradation, rotation, se- 
quence, tenor, system, method; 

Royal. August, kinglike, ma- 
jestic, munificent, princely, re- 
gal, magnificent, kingly. 

ANT. Beggarly, contempt- 
ible, mean, poor, servile, slav- 
ish, vile. 

Rude. Rough, uneven, shapeless, 
unfashioned, rugged, uncouth, 
inelegant, rustic, vulgar, raw, 
clownish, unskilful, untaught, 
illiterate, ignorant, uncivil, 
impolite, saucy, impudent, in- 
solent, surly, uncivilized, bru- 
tal, barbarous, savage, violent, 
fierce, tumultuous, impetuous, 
boisterous, inclement, severe. 

ANT. Polite, urbane, accom- 
plished, cultivated, courteous, 
refined, civil, affable, courtly, 
gracious, elegant, polished, well- 
bred, obliging; modest, bash- 
ful; considerate, serene, placid, 
genial, calm; fashionable, mod- 
ern, civilized, modish. 

Rugged. Rough, uneven, rude, 
wrinkled, cragged, harsh, hard, 
crabbed; steep, precipitate; vio- 
lent, sour, surly, boisterous, tu- 
multuous, stormy, inclement, 
tempestuous ; austere, severe ; 
ruffled, blunt. 

ANT. Smooth, even, gentle, 
soft, low; pleasant, kindly; 
balmy, soothing; complaisant, 

Rule. Regulation, law, precept, 
maxim, canon, order, method, 
direction, control, sway, em- 
pire; principle, practice; domi- 
nation, mastery, government ; 
test, criterion, formula. 




ANT. Exception, deviation, 
eccentricity, irregularity. 

Bun. Race, hasten, speed, pro- 
ceed, hurry, scamper, post; go, 
flow, glide, move, roll on; melt, 
fuse; pass, advance; course, 
fly, rush; hustle; pursue; cast, 
shape, mold; drive, force; 
indicate, mark out; incur, 
encounter, venture, risk ; 
conduct, manage, carry on; 

ANT. Delay, walk, halt, stop, 
saunter, rest, linger, hesitate; 
harden; retrograde, slip. 

Hustle. Rural, sylvan, pastoral, 

country, countrified, bucolic, 
agricultural, verdant ; artless, 
inelegant, plain, rude, unpol- 
ished, untaught, unsophisti- 
cated; awkward, boorish, out- 
landish, clownish, coarse, hoy- 
denish, uncouth. 

ANT. City-like, urban; ao- 
complished, elegant, cultured, 
polite, urbane, polished, well- 
bred, refined. 

Ruthless. Cruel, pitiless, harsh, 
relentless, unsparing. 

ANT. Tender, gentle, pitiful, 
compassionate, lenient, regret* 
ful, long-suffering. 


Sable. Dark, black, ebon, somber. 
ANT. Light, white, cheerful, 
bright, ivory. 

Sacrament. Eucharist, Lord's 
Supper, communion; ceremony, 
rite, service, solemnity, ordi- 
nance, observance. 

Sacred. Holy, divine, hallowed, 
consecrated, dedicated, devoted, 
religious, venerable, reverend. 
ANT. Secular, profane, com- 
mon, unconsecrated, human. 

Sacrifice, n. Offering, propitia- 
tion, expiation, thanksgiving ; 
destruction, immolation, devo- 
tion, surrender; oblation, 

ANT. Offense, transgression; 
retention, reservation; accep- 

Sad. Sorrowml, mournful, de- 
jected, gloomy, depressed, se- 
date, cheerless, downcast, griev- 
ous; dull, grave, dark, somber; 
afflicted; calamitous; serious, 
staid; melancholy, Disconso- 
late, despondent, disastrous, de- 
ART. Cheerful, joyous, glad, 

mirthful, jubilant, jovial, light- 
hearted; exultant, gay, exhil- 
arated, happy, blithe. 

Sagacious. Sage, sensible, keen, 
discerning, clear-sighted, apt, 
acute, intelligent, sharp, wise, 
rational, shrewd, able, keen- 
sighted, keen-witted, judicious, 
perspicacious, quick-scented, 

ANT. Obtuse, senseless, irra- 
tional, silly, stupid, simple, un- 
intelligent, undiscerning, dull, 
absurd, foolish, futile, sottish, 

Sale. Bargain, barter, deal, ex- 
change, trade, change. 

Salient. Leaping, bounding, 
jumping; projecting; promi- 
nent, conspicuous, noticeable, 
significant; strategic. 

ANT. Retreating, retiring, 
low-lying; unimportant, incon- 
spicuous, unnoticeable, minor, 
inconsiderable, subordinate, in- 

Salvation. Saving, preserva- 
tion, deliverance; redemption; 

[ 249 ] 




ANT. Perdition, destruction, 
damnation, condemnation, loss. 
Sample. Specimen, example, il- 
lustration, case, instance, ex- 

ANT. Total, whole, excep- 
tion, aggregate; abnormality, 

Sanction. Authorization, au- 
thority, countenance ; ratifica- 
tion, confirmation, approba- 
tion; approval, support, seal, 

ANT. Discountenance, disal- 
lowance, unauthorization ; can- 
cellation, nullification; disap- 
proval, non-support. 
Sanguine. Blood-red, crimson; 
warm, ardent; hopeful, lively, 
animated, cheerful; confident, 
enthusiastic, buoyant; trustful. 

ANT. Pallid, cold, frigid; 
unresponsive, depressed, life- 
less, despondent, despairing, de- 
jected, anxious, suspicious, mis- 
giving, distrustful. 
Sanity. Saneness, soundness, ra- 
tionality; reasonableness, wis- 
dom; amenableness. 

ANT. Insanity, aberration, 
derangement, unsoundness, ir- 
rationality, madness, lunacy, 
alienation, dementia, folly. 
Sarcasm. Taunt, gibe; scorn, 
contempt, satire; irony, sneer, 

ANT. Compliment, eulogy, 
praise, approbation, apprecia- 
tion, panegyric. 

Satisfy. Satiate, sate, compen- 
sate; cloy, surfeit, suffice, con- 
tent, glut, fill, requite; relieve, 
reassure, convince; please, rec- 
ompense, gratify, fulfil. 

ANT. Deprive, deny, starve, 
stint, refuse; annoy, tantalize; 
aggravate, tease; displease. 
Savage. Wild, uncultivated, un- 
tamed, uncivilized, rude, brut- 
ish, brutal, barbarous, cruel, in- 

human, fierce, pitiless, merci- 
less, atrocious, ferocious; mur- 
derous, violent. 

ANT. Tame, civilized, culti- 
vated, domesticated, tender, re- 
fined, polished, gentle, humane, 
considerate, pitiful, merciful, 
protective, generous, subdued, 
chivalrous, clement, self-con- 

Save. Preserve, rescue, deliver; 
lay up, reserve, keep; spare, 
prevent; protect; be economi- 
cal, hoard, husband; obviate, 
snatch, catch. 

ANT. Lose, destroy, aban- 
don, imperil, expose, endanger, 
risk, hazard; waste, lavish, 
spend, fling away. 

Say. Utter, express, tell, speak, 
declare; repeat, rehearse, re- 
cite; assert; mention, suggest; 
suppose; answer; respond, re- 
ply; state, pronounce; affirm, 
deny; allege. 

ANT. Silence, hush, whis- 
per, mumble; be taciturn; sup~ 
press, repress; mispronounce. 

Scarce. Rare, infrequent, defi- 
cient; uncommon; scant, spar- 
ing, meager, insufficient; un- 
usual, unique, singular, want- 
ing, few, precious. 

ANT. Plenty, abundant, fre- 
quent, plentiful, common, thick. 

Scheme, n. Plan, project, con- 
trivance, design, purpose, plot, 
device; system, outline; machi- 
nation, intrigue, stratagem, ca- 
bal, conspiracy; theory. 

ANT. Blunder, derangement, 
Disarrangement, bungle, botch. 

Scholar. Learner, pupil, student, 
savant, disciple. 

ANT. Dunce, fool, ignora- 
mus, illiterate person, idiot, 

Science. Literature, art, knowl- 
edge; truth, facts; skill, ex- 
pertness ; comprehension ; in- 





formation, investigation, ex- 
perimentation, learning, expe- 

ANT. Ignorance, error, smat- 
tering, fallacy, sciolism; inex- 
perience, unfamiliarity, incom- 

Scorn, n. Disdain, derision, con- 
tumely, despite, slight, mock- 
ery, dishonor; contempt, disre- 
gard; sneer, opprobrium. 

ANT. Compliment, commen- 
dation, deference, approval, es- 
teem, respect, regard, approba- 

Scruple, n. Unwillingness, hesi- 
tation, doubt; particle; qualm, 
reluctance, misgiving. 

ANT. Confidence, assurance, 
recklessness, heedlessness ; dar- 
ing, self-complacency. 

Scrupulous. Cautious, careful, 
conscientious, hesitating; exact, 
nice; questioning, unwilling, 
punctilious, precise; diffident, 

ANT. Reckless, confident, 
careless, unconscientious, self- 
complacent, heedless, unwary, 
incautious, daring. 

Scrutiny. Examination, inspec- 
tion, observation, search, sift- 
ing, exploration, inquisition, in- 

ANT. Oversight, misobserv- 
ance, disregard, slight, inatten- 

Season. Time, period, term, in- 
terval, spell, while ; occasion, 
opportunity, timeliness, season- 

ANT. Contretemps, unsea- 
sonableness, untimeliness, un- 

Seasonable. Opportune, suit- 
able, timely, fit, convenient, ap- 
propriate, normal; periodical; 

ANT. Inopportune, unsuit- 
able, unfit, untimely, inconveni- 

ent, inappropriate, unwelcome, 
unexpected, abnormal. 

Secure, a. Undisturbed, assured, 
heedless, inattentive; easy, un- 
anxious, trustful, insured; ob- 
tained, acquired ; fast, firm ; de- 
fended, guarded, protected, cer- 
tain, sheltered, safe. 

ANT. Disturbed, endangered, 
imperiled, insecure, hazardous; 
anxious, distrustful, suspicious, 
careful, precarious; loose, drift- 
ing, doubtful, dubious. 

Sedate. Settled, composed, calm, 
quiet, tranquil, still, serene, un- 
ruffled, undisturbed, contempla- 
tive, sober, serious; passive. 

ANT. Flighty, disturbed, un- 
easy, restless, excited, discom- 
posed, agitated, indiscreet; ac- 
tive, moving; frivolous. 

Sedition. Riot, rebellion, revolt, 
insurrection, mutiny; outbreak, 
uprising, secession, treason ; in- 
subordination ; tumult, tur- 
moil, anarchy. 

ANT. Peace, pacification, or- 
der, quiet, orderliness, obedi- 
ence, allegiance, fealty, union, 
patriotism, fidelity. 

See. Perceive, behold, descry, 
view; observe, discern, under- 
stand, comprehend ; watch, look 
after; interview, visit; associ- 
ate, meet; accompany, escort; 
attend, heed, be attentive ; gaze, 
glance at. 

ANT. Be blind; overlook, 
mistake; misunderstand, mis- 
comprehend; pass, ignore, neg- 
lect; disregard, misconceive. 

Seek. Search, try for, solicit, in- 
quire for, strive after, hunt, fol- 
low, trace, prosecute, attempt, 
endeavor, investigate. 

ANT. Shun, elude, ignore, 
neglect, disregard, avoid, re- 
linquish, drop, abandon, dis- 

Seldom. Rarely, not often, infre- 

; 251 } 




quently; hardly ever, occasion- 

ANT. Often, frequently, gen- 
erally, commonly, regularly, ha- 
bitually, invariably, uniformly, 

Selection. Choice, pick, prefer- 
ence, election, option. 

ANT. Repudiation, rejection, 
discarding, refusal; exclusion. 

Self-abnegation. Self-renunci- 
ation, self-sacrifice, self-control, 
self-devotion, self-immolation, 

ANT. Self-indulgence, self- 
gratification, self-will, selfish- 
ness, self-seeking. 

Selfish.. Self-seeking, mean, un- 
generous, narrow, illiberal, mer- 
cenary, greedy, egoistical, self- 

ANT. Generous, liberal, al- 
truistic, philanthropic, benefi- 
cent, self-denying, public-spir- 
ited, magnanimous, unselfish, 

Send. Sling, throw, fling, hurl, 
lance, launch, propel, project, 
cast, dart, despatch, discharge, 
drive, emit; forward, trans- 
mit, impel, dismiss, delegate, 

ANT. Receive, keep, retain, 
hold; bring, carry, hand, get, 
give, convey. 

Sensation. Emotion, sense, feel- 
ing, perception. 

ANT. Apathy, non-sensibil- 
ity, non-perception, indiffer- 

Sense. Understanding, reason; 
cognition, apprehension; de- 
duction; perception, feeling; 
recognition, discernment ; rea- 
soning; opinion, judgment, no- 
tion, meaning, import, signifi- 

ANT. Nonsense, misunder- 
standing; stupidity, non-appre- 
hension; non-comprehension; 

stolidity, inertness, non-observ- 
ance; fancy, folly, unsoundness. 

Sensibility. Feeling, sensitive- 
ness, susceptibility, impressi- 

ANT. Coldness, deadness, un- 
consciousness, hardness, numb- 
ness, insensibility. 

Sentiment. Thought, opinion, 
notion, sensibility, feeling; sus- 
ceptibility, impressibility, im- 
pression, conviction; emotion; 
maxim, saying, toast. 

ANT. Nonsense, conjecture, 
vacuity; assumption, prejudice, 

Separate, v. Disunite, divide, 
sever; come between, part; dis- 
join, divorce; disengage, de- 
tach; sunder; withdraw, elim- 
inate, remove, segregate. 

ANT. Unite, consolidate, in- 
tegrate, connect, join, attach, 
link, weld, engage, wed; gather, 
convene, collect. 

Sequence. Succession, follow- 
ing, consequence, arrangement, 
order; series, progression, con- 

ANT. Precedence, introduc- 
tion, priority; disorder, diseon- 
nection; intermission, irregu- 

Serious. Sober, earnest, momen- 
tous, grave ; thoughtful, sedate, 
solemn ; important, weighty ; 

ANT. Gay, thoughtless, friv- 
olous, laughing, joking, jocose, 
careless, trifling, trivial, unim- 
portant, light, insignificant, 

Serve. Obey, minister to, sub- 
serve, promote, aid, help, abet, 
assist, benefit, succor. 

ANT. Command, order, man- 
age; obstruct, counteract, re- 
tard, defeat, injure, thwart, op- 

Set. Put, seat, place, fix; affix, 
attach ; fasten, make stable or 

[ 252 ] 




firm; obstruct, embarrass; de- 
termine upon, fix upon; plant; 
frame; stiffen, solidify; adjust, 
regulate, adapt; prepare; re- 
place; spread; stud, variegate; 
value at, rate at; establish, 
furnish, prescribe, strengthen, 
tabilitate, ground, confirm, de- 
termine, appoint, assign. 

ANT. Remove, uproot, trans- 
fer, eradicate, transplant, un- 
settle, weaken, soften, destroy, 

, demolish; disperse, discard; de- 
nude, disarrange, divest, strip; 
misvalue, under- or over-rate; 
abolish, frustrate. 

Settle. Regulate, arrange, com- 
pose, decide; establish; still, 
calm; clear; restore; depress, 
sink, lower, make compact, har- 
den; determine, adjust, make 
up, pacify; liquidate, balance; 
colonize, people. 

ANT. Disturb, confuse, de- 
range; agitate, unsettle, excite, 
uproot, overturn; obstruct; ele- 
vate, upheave, break up; dis- 
compose, disorder, rise, as- 
cend, move; misregulate, aggra- 

Severe. Stern, strict, austere, 
hard, relentless, rigorous, un- 
relenting, inexorable, harsh, 
inflexible, rigid, morose, stiff, 
uncompromising, unmitigated, 
unyielding; critical, grave, se- 

ANT. Lenient, clement, un- 
exacting, mild, easy, gay, cheer- 
ful, joyous; loose, slack, inex- 
act, indulgent, uncritical, mod- 
erate, kind, considerate. 

Shade. Shadow; darkness, ob- 
scurity; screen, shelter, protec- 
tion; body, spirit, ghost; um- 
brage, adumbration ; degree, 
minuteness; seclusion. 

ANT. Light, illumination, 
sunshine, brightness, daylight; 
glare, radiance, exposure; pub- 

licity; quantity, amount; do- 

Shake. Agitate, fluctuate, flut- 
ter, oscillate, quake, quiver, 
quaver, rock, shiver, shudder, 
totter, tremble, waver, wave, 
sway, swing, vibrate, thrill, jar. 
ANT. Fasten, fix, set, secure, 
settle, confirm. 

Shame. Disgrace, reproach, dis- 
honor, ignominy; degradation, 
contempt, infamy; diffidence, 
modesty, discredit; humilia- 
tion, abashment; decency, de- 

ANT. Fame, honor, glory t 
approval, renown, credit; im 
pudence, shamelessness, inde- 
cency, immodesty, indecorum, 

Shape. Appearance, figure, as- 
pect, form, guise; outline; em- 
bodiment ; character, fashion, 
mold, pattern, cast, model. 

ANT. Imitation, reproduc- 
tion, copy; deformity, disfig- 

Sharp. Quick, sagacious, witty, 
discerning, shrewd, ingenious, 
sour, acid, tart, acrid, biting, 
poignant, acrimonious, sarcas- 
tic, bitter, painful, afflictive, 
violent, fierce, ardent, fiery; 
acute, keen, trenchant, astute, 
subtle, penetrating, discrimi- 
nating, inventive, piquant; se- 
vere, vigilant, attentive; caus- 
tic, cutting; eager, hungry; 
thin, emaciated; shrill, high; 
exacting, close. 

ANT. Dull, blunt, slow, ob- 
tuse, undiscerning, unresource- 
ful, sweet, honeyed, cloying, 
saccharine, mellow; soft, gen- 
tle, mild, tender, considerate, 
kindly, lenient, clement; unin- 
ventive, indifferent, sluggish, 
inactive, tame, characterless, 
spiritless, careless, inattentive; 
thick; generous, unexacting. 




Shelter. Defend, guard, harbor, 
protect, shield, screen, ward, 
cover, conceal. 

ANT. Expose, betray, im- 
peril, endanger, exhibit, lay 
bare, discover, attack. 

Short. Brief, contracted, inade- 
quate, limited, scanty; insuffi- 
cient, incomplete, imperfect ; 
abrupt, petulant, quick; near, 
direct, straight; succinct, con- 
cise, condensed, compendious ; 
terse, pithy, laconic, curt, sen- 
tentious; severe, uncivil; nar- 
row; destitute. 

ANT. Long, protracted, ex- 
tended, adequate, ample, suffi- 
cient, plentiful, abundant, copi- 
ous; perfect, complete; civil, 
suave, complaisant; circuitous, 
indirect; tedious, prolix, ver- 
bose, extended, wordy; broad; 
provided for. 

Show, v. Exhibit, present, dis- 
play; tell, reveal; direct, con- 
duct; clear, .prove, manifest, 
explain, evince; bestow, con- 
fer; appear, look, seem; dem- 
onstrate, unfold, inform, teach ; 

ANT. Conceal, hide, with- 
hold, suppress, obscure, mys- 

~.tify, cloak, wrap; contradict, 
deny, refute, disprove, falsify; 

Shrewd. Keen, critical, subtle, 
arch, astute, sagacious, acute, 
discerning, penetrating; mali- 
cious, evil, vicious ; wily, artful, 
cunning; clever, sharp, able; 
discriminating, intelligent. 

ANT. Stolid, stupid, unin- 
telligent, dull, thick, unsaga- 
dous, undiscerning, undiscrim- 
inating ; plain, blank, blunt, 
frank; kindly, sincere, benevo- 
lent; fair, open. 

Sick. Diseased, ill, disordered, 
distempered, indisposed, weak, 
ailing, feeble, morbid; imper- 

fect, impaired, weakened, cor- 
rupted; disgusted, surfeited. 

ANT. Healthy, whole, well, 
sound, strong, robust, salubri- 
ous, vigorous, hale, wholesome, 

Side. Margin, edge, verge, bor- 
der, boundary; party, sect, fac- 
tion, interest, cause, policy, be- 
half; face, aspect, plane; slope, 
declivity; half. 

ANT. Center, interior, body, 
heart, core; opposition, seces- 
sion, neutrality. 

Sight. Vision, show, represen- 
tation, exhibition; faculty of 
seeing, view; visibility, spec- 
tacle; inspection, examination; 
opinion, judgment; perception, 
ken, cognizance; contemplation, 
survey; insight; appearance. 

ANT. Blindness, non-visibil- 
ity, obscuration; non-appear- 
ance; oversight, neglect; disap- 
pearance; vanishing; impres- 
sion, prejudice. 

Sign. Mark, manifestation, in- 
dication, presage, symbol, type, 
token, emblem, note, omen, sig- 
nal, prognostic, symptom. 

Significant. Expressive, sugges- 
tive, important; weighty, mo- 
mentous; manifest, intimating, 
declarative, betokening, imply- 
ing, meaning, denoting; tell- 
ing, speaking; forcible; con- 

ANT. Insignificant, mean- 
ingless, inconspicuous, mute, 
inexpressive, expressionless, un- 

Silence. Stillness, hush, restful- 
ness, quiet, muteness, noiseless- 
ness, calm, peace, tranquillity; 
dumbness, taciturnity; obscur- 
ity, secrecy, oblivion. 

ANT. Noise, sound, tumult* 
clamor, roar, storm, din, un~ 
rest, babel, commotion, rever- 
beration, resonance, agitation, 

[ 254 ] 




clatter; talkativeness, loquac- 
ity, garrulity; publicity, fame, 
rumor, repute, celebrity. 

Similar. Corresponding, like, 
resembling, uniform, homoge- 
neous; congruous, harmonious. 
ANT. Dissimilar, unlike, dif- 
ferent, alien, discordant, heter- 
ogeneous, incongruous. 

Simple. Silly; single, uncom- 
bined; plain, unadorned; mere; 
sincere, artless, unaffected, nat- 
ural ; direct, clear, perspicuous ; 
credulous, foolish; humble, un- 
distinguished, lowly; innocent; 

ANT. Complex, double, com- 
pound, combined, mixed; or- 
nate, adorned; blended, fused, 
multiform; artful, affected, ar- 
tificial; indirect, complicated, 
circuitous, skeptic, pragmatic; 
proud, haughty, distinguished, 
celebrated; various, organized, 
elaborate; designing, insincere, 
double-minded; developed, per- 

Sin. Evil, crime, guilt, offense, 
wickedness, fault, vice, crimi- 
nality, misdeed; viciousness, 
ungodliness, wrong, wrong-do- 
ing, unrighteousness, iniquity, 
transgression, immorality, de- 
pravity, delinquency. 

ANT. Virtue, godliness, rec- 
titude, uprightness, sinlessness, 
excellence, blamelessness, good- 
ness, holiness, innocence, moral- 
ity, integrity, purity, righteous- 
ness, right. 

Sing. Chant, carol, chirp, hum, 
warble, chirrup. 

Singular. Unexampled, eminent, 
unprecedented, extraordinary, 
remarkable, uncommon, rare, 
unusual, peculiar, strange, odd, 
eccentric, fantastic; individual, 
unique; conspicuous, consum- 
mate, exceptional, particular; 
curious, queer. 

ANT. Common, everyday, or- 
dinary, commonplace, general, 
universal, usual, regular, cus- 
tomary, frequent, numerous; 
unnoticeable, normal, typical, 
inconspicuous, humdrum. 

Sink. Subside, drop, droop, de- 
cay, lower, lessen; submerge, 
immerse, engulf; depress, de- 
grade, debase, diminish; fall, 
descend; decline, dwindle, de- 
crease; weary, flag, abate; re- 
duce; drown; attenuate. 

ANT. Rise, ascend, mount, 
increase, augment, aggrandize, 
swell; flourish, exalt, heighten, 
promote, enhance; encourage, 

Situation. Site, station, post, 
case, plight, state ; location, po- 
sition; place, office; condition; 
locality, seat, ground, spot ; cir- 
cumstance, predicament; cate- 
gory; employment; footing, as- 
pect; birth, standing. 

ANT. Absence, dislodgment, 
displacement, non-assignment. 

Skeptic. Agnostic, doubter, free- 
thinker, infidel, unbeliever, de- 
ist, atheist, disbeliever. 
ANT. Christian, believer. 

Sketch, n. Outline, picture, de- 
sign, drawing, draft; skeleton, 
plan, brief. 

Skilful. Expert, dexterous, apt, 
handy, adroit, clever, deft, pro- 
ficient, skilled, trained, accom- 
plished, happy, ingenious, prac- 
ticed; adept, masterly, cun- 

ANT. Unskilled, clumsy, in~ 
expert, unskilful, unintelligent, 
awkward, incompetent, unpre- 
pared, untrained, unable, un- 
taught, bungling, helpless, mal- 
adroit, shiftless. 

Slander, v. Defame, disparage, 
depreciate, malign, asperse, ca- 
lumniate, libel, vilify, revile, 
traduce, decry, backbite. 

[ 255 ] 




ANT. Extol, eulogize, laud, 
praise, vindicate, defend. 
Slang. Vulgarity, cant, collo- 
quialism, vulgarism. 

ANT. Diction, language. 
Slender. Small, narrow, slim; 
weak, feeble, slight; moderate, 
trivial, inconsiderable, meager; 
spare, abstemious, frugal. 

ANT. Thick, stout, robust, 
broad, ample, deep, bulky, con- 
siderable, massive, weighty; gi- 
ant, colossal. 

Slippery. Smooth, glib; mu- 
table, uncertain, fickle, incon- 
stant; unstable, changeable; 
wanton, loose, unchaste; icy, 
glassy, insecure, perilous, un- 
safe; shifty, elusive; deceptive, 
evasive; unprincipled. 

ANT. Rough, firm, safe, se- 
cure, stable; constant, certain, 
dependable, upright, sincere, 
outright, trustworthy, sound. 
Slow. Deliberate, dilatory, lin- 
gering, gradual, moderate, pro- 
crastinating, tardy; inert, inac- 
tive, sluggish, drowsy, dull, de- 
laying, dawdling. 

ANT. Nimble, active, brisk, 
alert, lively, prompt, speedy, 
quick, spry, swift, agile. 
Small. Little, diminutive, in- 
considerable; inconsequential, 
uninfluential, trivial, insignifi- 
cant; paltry, mean, incapable, 
unable; short; weak, slender, 
gentle, low; tiny, puny; unim- 
portant ; scanty, moderate ; sor- 
did, selfish ; inferior, unintellec- 
tual, ungifted, unintelligent. 

ANT. Large, great, big, ex- 
tensive, enormous, bulky, mas- 
sive, weighty, ample, spacious, 
broad, strong, stout, generous, 
liberal, munificent; important, 
significant, notable, influential, 
distinguished, gifted, magnani- 
mous, intelligent, intellectual, 
superior, competent. 

Smart. Acute, quick, lively, 
brisk, clever, dashy, showy; 
pungent, pricking ; keen, severe, 
poignant; vigorous, sharp; ac- 
tive, shrewd; efficient, witty; 
pretentious, spruce; fresh. 

ANT. Dull, heavy, blunt, ob- 
tuse, dense, stupid; aching; 
slow, inactive, sluggish, ineffi- 
cient, shabby, dowdy, boorish, 

Sneer. Jeer, mock, gibe, taunt, 
fling, scoff. 

ANT. Smile, laugh; flatter, 
compliment; cheer. 

Sober. Abstinent, abstemious, 
moderate, regular; steady, col- 
lected, quiet, cool, staid, som- 
ber; temperate; dispassionate, 
self-controlled, calm, self-pos- 
sessed, solemn, sedate. 

ANT. Intemperate, intoxi- 
cated, drunk, impassioned, ex- 
cited, heated, furious, passion- 
ate; unreasonable, immoderate, 
uncontrolled, agitated, extrava- 
gant; erratic, eccentric. 

Socialism. Communism, collec- 
tivism, fabianism. 

Society. Companionship, fellow- 
ship, company ; participation, 
connection ; association, part- 
nership ; community, sodality, 
communion, intercourse. 

ANT. Solitude, solitariness, 
privacy, separation, segrega- 
tion; individuality, personal- 
ity; disconnection, dissociation, 

Soft. Yielding, impressible, mal- 
leable; smooth, delicate; agree- 
able, gentle, flowing; flexible; 
mild, tender, conciliatory, kind; 
effeminate, weak; easy; quiet, 
peaceful, tranquil. 

ANT. Hard, unyielding, im- 
pervious, tough, stubborn, im- 
permeable; non-resilient; dis- 
agreeable, harsh, brush, gruff, 
unkind; strong, manly ; virile; 

[ 256 ] 




rough, coarse, rigid, rigorous, 
abrupt ; resolute, determined. 

Solemnity. Gravity, formality, 
ritual, ceremonial, sobriety, se- 
riousness, reverence, devotion; 
celebration, observance ; sanc- 
tity, awfulness, sacredness; im- 

ANT. Levity, triviality, gai- 
ety, vulgarity ; secularity, dese- 
cration, profanity; meaning, 
unimpressiveness, unimposing- 
ness; simplicity. 

Solid. Hard, sound, real, valid, 
weighty, profound ; compact, 
resistant, dense ; heavy ; strong, 
firm, stable; substantial; im- 
penetrable; cubic. 

ANT. Hollow, yielding, soft, 
resilient, malleable, fluid, flex- 
ible, impressible, liquid; brittle, 
frail; light, trifling, frivolous; 
invalid, weak, fallacious, un- 

Solitude. Loneliness, solitariness, 
loneness, recluseness, retired- 
ness ; withdrawal, remoteness, 
destitution, absence; seclusion, 
retirement; desertion, retreat, 
wilderness, desert, privacy, iso- 

ANT. Populousness, society, 
popularity, throng, crowd, in- 
tercourse, meeting, convening, 
populace, multitude. 

Solution. Disruption, separa- 
tion, breach ; disentanglement, 
explanation, clearing up; reso- 
lution, disintegration; release, 
discharge; solvency; disconnec- 
tion, discontinuance; key, an- 
swer, elucidation. 

ANT. Union, amalgamation, 
conjunction, connection, combi- 
nation, entanglement, complica- 
tion ; continuity; integration; 
obscurity, confusion, perplexity, 

Soothe. Soften, allay, compose, 
tranquilize, pacify; humor, flat- 

ter, please; assuage, calm, mol- 
lify, comfort; lull; mitigate, re- 

ANT. Rouse, excite, disturb, 
disquiet; aggravate, displease, 
scold, irritate, exasperate, an- 
noy, infuriate; dissatisfy. 

Sordid. Vile, base, gross; mean, 
avaricious, covetous, niggardly; 
greedy; low, degraded; stingy, 
close, ungenerous, penurious ; 

ANT. Pure, noble, honorable, 
refined; generous, unselfish, lib- 
eral, broad, munificent, u-ncov- 
etous; prodigal, profuse, lav- 
ish; high-minded. 

Soul. Spirit, life, courage, fire, 
ardor ; vitality, animus ; leader, 
inspirer; passion, fervor, affec- 
tion; person; reason, intellect, 
emotions; ghost, specter. 

ANT. Lifelessness, soulless- 
ness; body; coldness, spiritless- 
ness; irrationality, unintelleo- 

Sound, n. Noise, note, tone, re- 
port; impulse, vibration. 

ANT. Silence; taciturnity; 
stillness, hush, lull, muteness. 

Sound, a. Whole, unbroken, un- 
harmed, free, perfect, healthy; 
firm, strong, solid, safe; cor- 
rect, true, orthodox; deep, pro- 
found, undisturbed; right; le- 
gal, valid, undefective; entire, 
thorough, substantial, irrefu- 

ANT. Unsound, broken, par- 
tial, harmed; imperfect, soft, 
diseased; weak, mellow, unsafe; 
incorrect, untrue, heterodox; 
light, trivial, fragile; illegal, 
illegitimate, invalid, defective; 
insubstantial, fallacious, hol- 
loio, unfounded. 

Sovereign, n. King, prince, po- 
tentate, monarch, emperor ; 
ANT. Subject, peasant, serf. 

[ 257 ] 




Sovereign, a. Supreme, para- 
mount, superior, chief; indepen- 
dent, unlimited, absolute; con- 
trolling, efficacious ; princely, 
royal; primary, principal, re- 
gal, imperial; predominant. 

ANT. Inferior, subordinate, 
subservient, ministerial, secon- 
dary, subject; popular, menial; 
inefficient, une/ficacious, uncer- 
tain, weak. 

Space. Extension, room; inter- 
val, duration, time; capacity, 
distance, measure, quantity ; 
boundlessness, illimitableness ; 
immeasurableness, immensity. 

ANT. Confinement, proxim- 
ity, limitation, restriction, con- 
tiguity, continuity. 

Spare, a. Scanty, sparing, fru- 
gal, wanting, lacking, parsi- 
monious, needed, chary; su- 
perfluous; lean, meager, thin, 

ANT. Ample, abundant, pro- 
fuse, plentiful, liberal, bounti- 
ful, unsparing, unstinted, unre- 
stricted, generous; plump, fat, 
corpulent, portly. 

Sparse. Scattered, sprinkled, in- 
frequent, thin, scanty, meager, 

ANT. Dense, thick, plentiful, 
many, populous, crowded, nu- 
merous, frequent, multitudi- 

Speak. Say, talk, tell, utter, dis- 
course, articulate, converse, ex- 
press, chat, chatter, enunciate, 
pronounce; announce, declaim, 
declare, deliver. 

ANT. Be mute or dumb; 
keep silence, be taciturn; sup- 
press; recall. 

Speculation. Venture ; theory, 
view, notion, conjecture; con- 
sideration, meditation, contem- 
plation, thought, weighing; hy- 
pothesis, scheme. 

ANT. Certainty, fact, ver- 

ity, proof, realization, verifica- 

Speech. Address, discourse, lan- 
guage, speaking, talk, oration, 
utterance, sermon, harangue, 
dissertation, oratory, disquisi- 

ANT. Hush, silence, stillness, 
taciturnity, speechlessness. 

Spirit. Life, soul; ghost, spec- 
ter; fairy, sprite; energy, vi- 
vacity, ardor, courage, enthusi- 
asm; intellectuality; meaning, 
intent; vapor; distilled liquid; 
air, breath ; intelligence, imma- 
teriality, essence, disembodi- 
ment, apparition ; activity, ear- 
nestness, zeal; temper, disposi- 
tion; principle, motive. 

ANT. Substance, body, cor~ 
poreity, flesh, frame, material- 
ity, embodiment, organization; 
spiritlessness, timidity, lifeless- 
ness, soullessness, deadness, tor- 
por, dejection, slowness. 

Spiritual. Immaterial, incorpo- 
real, mental, intellectual; holy, 
divine, heavenly-minded; eccle- 
siastical, sacred; moral; reli- 
gious, ethical. 

ANT. Carnal, fleshly, mate- 
rial, sensuous; gross; unspirit- 

Splendid. Shining, showy, mag- 
nificent, sumptuous, pompous; 
illustrious, brilliant, famous; 
gorgeous, grand, glorious; im- 
posing; superb, heroic, noble. 

ANT. Dull, tame, obscure, 
tarnished, tawdry, somber, beg- 
garly, gloomy, poor, ordinary, 
ineffective, inglorious, insignifi- 
cant, mean, low. 

Spontaneous. Free, intentional, 
voluntary, willing, unbidden, 
impulsive, automatic, instinc- 
tive, deliberate. 

ANT. Forced, compelled, co- 
erced, unwilling, reluctant. 

Spread, v. Open, unfurl, dis- 

[ 258 




perse, distribute, scatter, circu- 
late, disseminate, dispense; ex- 
tend, stretch, expand, amplify; 
divulge, propagate, publish, dif- 

ANT. Collect, condense, con- 
tract, furl, gather, close, shut; 
confine, suppress, restrict, re- 
call, conceal, hush, localize. 

Spring, v. Leap, bound, jump; 
shoot, fly, dart, start; emerge; 
bend, warp ; proceed, issue, re- 
sult; burst, emanate, flow; rise, 
originate, germinate. 

ANT. Settle, alight, arrive, 
land, drop; end, terminate, de- 
bouch, finish, eventuate. 

Spy. Scout, emissary, detective. 

Stable, a. Steady, abiding, firm, 
strong, durable; fixed, estab- 
lished; constant, resolute, un- 
wavering; secure, stanch, per- 
manent; solid, lasting, perpet- 
ual; immobile, rigid, unmov- 

ANT. Vacillating, wavering, 
unsteady, toppling, weak, tot- 
tering, infirm, insecure, precari- 
ous, frail, unstable; transient, 
ephemeral, evanescent, vanish- 
ing, non-durable. 

Stain, v. Blot, spot, sully, tar- 
nish, tinge, tint, color, discolor, 
disgrace, dishonor, dye, soil. 

ANT. Preserve inviolate or 

Stand, v. Rest, continue upright 
or erect, be situated or located ; 
cease, stop, pause, halt; en- 
dure, last; maintain, be fixed 
or steady; be, consist; agree, 
accord; endure, sustain, bear; 
withstand; submit to. 

ANT. Advance, move, pro- 
ceed, progress; fail, fall, die, 
depart, run, yield, succumb, 
drop; give up, surrender; re- 
taliate, avenge, resent. 

Standard, n. Flag, colors, ban- 
ner, ensign; criterion, test; 

support, frame; model, type, 
norm; gage, measure, scale; 
upright; exemplar. 

ANT. Misrule, mismeasure- 
ment, misadjustment, misfit, 

State, v. Declare, tell, assert, 
affirm, asseverate, allege, tes- 
tify, assure, swear, set forth, 
protest, predicate, pronounce, 
specify, propound, maintain, 
inform, express, depose, claim, 
avow, avouch, aver, certify. 

ANT. Deny, contradict, con- 
trovert, disprove, refute, re- 
pudiate, waive, contravene, 
dispute, gainsay, oppose, re- 

Station. Depot; place, spot, po- 
sition, stand; office, sphere; 
state, rank, condition, occupa- 
tion, business. 

ANT. Removal, departure; 
dislodgment, ejection, displace- 
ment; locomotion. 
Stay, v. Stop; prop, hold up, 
support, sustain; hold, re- 
strain; hold back, hinder, de- 
lay ; check ; fasten, secure ; con- 
tinue, abide, remain; dwell, 
tarry, linger, wait; forbear; 
rest, depend, rely. 

ANT. Loose, liberate, free; 
fail, let fall; expedite, speed, 
accelerate; proceed, advance, 
progress, go on; move, depart; 
oppress, burden ; overthrow. 
Steadfast. Established, firm ; 
constant, resolute ; grounded, 
rooted, placed; resolved, un- 
wavering, stanch. 

ANT. Unsteady, unattached; 
vacillating, icavering, weak, in- 
secure, irresolute, inconstant, 

Steep. Sharp, sheer, high, pre- 
cipitous, abrupt. 

ANT. Gradual, level, slight, 
fiat, easy, gentle, horizontal, 

[ 259 ] 




Stiff. Rigid, inflexible, strong, 
obstinate, pertinacious, rigor- 
ous, constrained, affected; un- 
bending, unpliant; starched; 
formal, ceremonious, difficult, 
punctilious, stately; austere, 
peremptory, inexorable, un- 

ANT. Flexible, pliant, un- 
affected, amenable, easy, yield- 
ing, affable, genial, unceremoni- 
ous, informal; pliable, malle- 
able; considerate, compromis- 

Still. Noiseless; inert, stag- 
nant, serene; motionless, rest- 
ful, quiet; silent, calm, sound- 
less, low; hushed, mute, placid, 
quiescent ; stationary ; gentle, 
soft, mild, pacific, peaceful. 

ANT. Disturbed, agitated, 
moved, restless; noisy, moving, 
loud, resonant, turbulent; un- 
quiet, rough, harsh. 

Stop. Suppress, discontinue, de- 
lay, interrupt; close, obstruct; 
arrest, impede; restrain, hin- 
der, repress; cease, halt, stay, 
tarry; bar, seal; suspend, end, 

ANT. Assist, advance, con- 
tinue, expedite, speed, hasten, 
promote; clear, open; improve, 
push, benefit; progress; facili- 
tate; initiate, commence, be- 

Storm. Agitation, disturbance, 

ANT. Calm, hush, peace, se- 
renity, stillness, tranquillity, 
fair weather. 

Story. Narrative, legend, anec- 
dote, account, tale, record, re- 
cital, incident, myth, narration, 
novel, relation. 

ANT. Annals, chronicle, bi- 
ography, history, memoir. 

Stout. Corpulent; portly; vig- 
orous, strong, lusty, robust; 
firm, resolute, bold; tough; 

large, bulky; brawny; valiant^ 
courageous, redoubtable. 

ANT. Thin, slender, weak 9 
lean, frail, feeble, attenuate^ 
emaciated; timid, irresolute, 

Strange. Outlandish, wonder- 
ful, astonishing, marvelous, un- 
common, irregular, queer, odd, 
eccentric; foreign, new, novel, 
unusual; reserved, distant; un- 
familiar, unaccustomed, inex- 

ANT. Familiar, usual, com- 
mon, general, universal, accus- 
tomed, ordinary, home, domes- 
tic, regular, customary, habit- 
ual, commonplace. 
Strength. Robustness, tough- 
ness, hardness, stoutness, spirit, 
lustiness, puissance, authority; 
force, vigor, power; endurance, 
resistance; security, validity; 
firmness; intensity; virtue; en- 
ergy, nerve, sinew, fiber; 

ANT. Weakness, thinness, 
frailty, softness, delicacy; im- 
becility, feebleness; spiritless- 
ness, impotence, inability; in- 
security, invalidity; waver- 

Strenuous. Eager, pressing, ur- 
gent; zealous, ardent, earnest; 
bold, intrepid ; strong, deter- 
mined, resolute; vigorous, en- 
ergetic, vehement, forceful. 

ANT. Weak, irresolute, vac- 
illating, wavering, enervated, 

Strong-. Powerful, cogent, mus- 
cular; robust, lusty, sinewy, 
hale, hearty, vigorous, force- 
ful: enduring, resistant; vio- 
lent, forcible; ardent, zealous, 
vehement, earnest, solid, nour- 
ishing; firm; capable, potent, 
effective, influential, sound ; 
pungent; hardy, tenacious. 

ANT. Weak, feeble, infirm, 

[ 260 




sickly, exhausted, debilitated, 
wanting, pliant, frail, soft; 
low, faint; spiritless, foolish; 
wavering, impotent, powerless, 
defenseless, insecure, delicate; 
^inefficacious, unconvincing, un- 
satisfactory, unavailing, flac- 
cid, nerveless. 

Stubborn. Obstinate, inflexible, 
obdurate, headstrong, harsh, in- 
tractable, firm, contumacious, 
heady; unbending, unyielding, 
persistent, refractory. 

ANT. Yielding, pliant, mild, 
gentle, docile, tractable, man- 
ageable, flexible, pliable; vacil- 
lating, wavering, irresolute, 

Studious. Contemplative, ob- 
servant ; sedulous, earnest, dili- 
gent; studied; absorbed, medi- 
tative, thoughtful, attentive, 
pondering, devoted, musing, 
cogitative; careful, literary, re- 
flective, assiduous. 

ANT. Illiterate, unliterary, 
idle, indulgent, careless, inat- 
tentive, thoughtless, negligent, 
regardless, indifferent. 

Study, n. Application, learning, 
acquisition, meditation, con- 
templation ; diligence, consid- 
eration, thought, research, en- 
deavor, knowledge, purpose, in- 
tention, attention, concentra- 

ANT. Idleness, dawdling, il- 
literacy, ease, indifference, in- 
diligence, negligence, careless- 
ness, unstudiousness, thought- 

Stupid. Simple, insensible, sot- 
tish, sluggish, senseless, dolt- 
ish, heavy, dull ; stolid, insen- 
sate, obtuse, prosy. 

ANT. Quick, bright, sharp, 
intelligent, responsive, clever, 

. sensible, eager, animated, pen- 

Stupidity. Slowness, dulness, 

obtusenesa, insensibility, slug- 
gishness, stupor, apathy. 

ANT. Intelligence, anima- 
tion, brilliancy, acuteness, sen- 
sibility, cleverness, sense, sa- 
gacity, quickness, readiness, 
alertness, keenness. 

Stupor. Apathy, awoon, torpor, 
lethargy, coma, fainting, un- 
consciousness, stupefaction, as- 
phyxia, swooning, insensibility, 

Sublime. Exalted, lofty, noble, 
majestic, grand, stately, mag- 
nificent, dignified, elevated, au- 
gust, pompous, high, eminent, 

ANT. Low, ignoble, debased, 
degraded, inglorious, ordinary, 
mean, undignified, inconspicu- 
ous, unimposing, ridiculous. 

Submissive. Obedient, compli- 
ant, yielding, obsequious, sub- 
servient, humble, modest, pas- 
sive, docile, acquiescent. 

ANT. Disobedient, haughty, 
proud, arrogant, unyielding, 
conceited, active, rebellious, re- 
luctant, defiant, refractory, re- 

Subsidy. Aid, allowance, gift, 
bounty, reward, tribute, sup- 
port, subvention, pension, bo- 
nus, premium, grant, indem- 

Substantial. Real, solid, true, 
existing, essential ; corporeal, 
material; strong, stout, re- 
sourceful, massive, tangible, 
bulky; sensuous. 

ANT. Imaginary, unreal, in- 
substantial, fictitious, supposi- 
titious, immaterial, weak, chi- 
merical, visionary, spiritual, 
disembodied, ghostly. 

Subtle. Artful, crafty, cunning, 
shrewd, sly, wily ; astute, guile- 
ful, discriminating, insinuat- 
ing, sophistical. 
ANT. Frank, honest, open, 

[ 261 ] 




sincere, artless, undiscriminat- 
ing, undiscerning, simple, di- 
rect, blunt, unsophisticated. 

Subvert. Destroy, ruin, sup- 
plant, suppress, supersede, ex- 
tinguish, overthrow, overturn. 
ANT. Conserve, preserve, up- 
hold, sustain, keep, perpetuate. 

Succeed. Follow, pursue; en- 
sue, result, be subsequent; 
descend, devolve; gain, acquire, 
attain, obtain, achieve, accom- 
plish ; supervene ; nourish, pros- 
per, thrive. 

ANT. Precede, anticipate, an- 
tecede; fail, deteriorate, be 
lacking, lose, miss, disappoint, 
be deficient in; decline, wane, 

Succession. Succeeding, series, 
sequence, order; lineage, de- 
scent ; following, continuity, 
consecution, rotation, regular- 

ANT. Antecedence, prece- 
dence, anticipation, forerun- 
ning, prevention; disorder, ir- 
regularity, non-sequence, inter- 
mission, gap, failure, inconsec- 

Sudden. Unexpected, unusual, 
abrupt, unlocked for, hasty, 
unanticipated, unforeseen, un- 
provided for ; rash, quick, heed- 
less, reckless. 

ANT. Anticipated, foreseen, 
expected; slow, gradual, tran- 
sitional, moderate; wary, cau- 
tious, careful, provident. 

Suffer. Support, sustain, toler- 
ate, permit; allow, let, grant, 
consent to; endure, bear, sub- 
mit to, undergo, be affected by, 

ANT. Resist, rebel, repel, 
withstand; forbid, disallow, re- 
fuse, reject, expel, repudiate; 
fight, antagonize, challenge. 

Sufficient. Competent, satis- 
factory, full, ample; equal, ad- 

equate, enough; qualified, ca- 
pable, responsible; efficient; 
adapted, fitted. 

ANT. Inadequte, incompe- 
tent, unsatisfactory, lacking, 
wanting, unequal, unfit, inca- 
pable, unqualified, insufficient, 
unsuited, meager, short, defi- 
cient, scanty. 

Suggestion. Hint, innuendo, 
intimation, insinuation, impli- 

Suitable. Proper, competent, 
correspondent, consonant, com- 
patible, congruous, consistent; 
fitting, accordant, becoming, 
adapted; seemly, appropriate, 
agreeable, convenient; harmo- 
nious, uniform; homogeneous. 
ANT. Improper, divergent, 
incompetent, incompatible, dis- 
sonant, incongruous, inconsis- 
tent, unfit, discordant, unbe- 
coming; unseemly, inappropri- 
ate, inconvenient; unharmoni- 
ous, different, heterogeneous. 

Sum. Aggregate, quantity, mag- 
nitude, amount ; compendium, 
substance, gist; height, com- 
pletion; total, whole, compu- 
tation; example, problem; col- 
lection; drift, bearing. 

ANT. Part, portion, half, 
fraction, item, particular; in- 
completeness, imperfection, dis- 
crepancy; article, detail, frag- 
ment, component, constituent, 

Superb. Grand, magnificent, au- 
gust, stately; rich, elegant; 
showy, excellent; princely, gor- 
geous, splendid; proud. 

ANT. Mean, shabby, poor, 
undignified, dingy; meager; 
tawdry, impoverished; ordi- 
nary, common; humble, plain, 

Superior. Elevated, higher, up- 
per; surpassing, greater; pre- 
eminent, excellent, ascendent, 

[ 262 




predominant, prevalent, advan- 
tageous, beneficial. 

ANT. Inferior, lower, worse, 
deeper, meaner, subordinate, 
lesser, mediocre, ordinary, av- 
erage, common, unremarkable, 
inconspicuous, detrimental, dis- 
advantageous; declining, dete- 

Supernatural. Miraculous, pre- 
ternatural, superhuman. 

ANT. Common, natural, or- 
dinary, commonplace, every- 
day, usual. 

Supple. Pliant, flexible, bend- 
ing; fawning, soft; yielding, 
compliant, submissive; flatter- 
ing, obsequious, subservient, 
servile, cringing, adulatory; 
lithe, limber, elastic. 

ANT. Firm, stiff, unyield- 
ing, obstinate, infleorible, hard, 
dominant, domineering; abu- 
sive, scolding, tyrannous; un- 
bending, stubborn, independent, 
self-assertive, supercilious, ar- 
rogant, haughty. 

Support. Maintain, sustain, up- 
hold, cherish, keep, bear, prop, 
carry, tolerate, hold up, keep 

ANT. Demolish, abandon, 
betray, destroy, drop, desert, 
wreck, break down, cast down, 
overthrow, let go, throw down. 

Suppose. Deem, guess, imag- 
ine, think, conjecture, surmise. 
ANT. Conclude, ascertain, 
discover, prove, know, be sure. 

Suppress. Repress, subdue, re- 
strain, overthrow, quell, over- 
whelm, conceal, stifle, smother, 
stop ; overpower, extinguish, 

ANT. Excite, fan, increase, 
augment, strengthen, raise, ag- 
gravate; pubJish, promulgate, 
advertise, spread, disseminate; 

Sure. Unfailing, infallible, per- 

manent, steady, stable, strong, 
indisputable, confident, posi- 
tive, firm; certain, safe, secure, 
assured, believing, trusting, un- 
questioning; abiding, fast. 

ANT. Insecure, fallible, un- 
steady, inconstant, wavering, 
indeterminate, dubitable, un- 
certain, questionable, imperma- 
nent, doubtful, hesitating, dis~ 
trustful, precarious, disputable, 

Surrender. Abandon, give over, 
relinquish, resign, waive, yield, 
alienate, capitulate, cede, let 
go, sacrifice, give one's self up. 
ANT. Resist, withstand, op- 
pose, thwart, baffle; die. 

Suspense. Uncertainty, expecta- 
tion, apprehension, anxiety, in- 
determination, indecision ; so- 
licitude, intermission, protrac- 
tion, abeyance, doubt; pause, 

ANT. Decision, settlement, 
determination, finality, execu- 
tion; achievement, termination, 
accomplishment, end; unin- 
terruption, continuance, con- 
tinuity, regularity, sequence. 

Sustenance. Subsistence, food, 
provision, maintenance, sup- 
port; supplies, aliment, nutri- 
ment, nourishment; livelihood, 
living, nutrition, sustenta- 

ANT. Starvation, loant, in- 
digence, poverty, hunger, lack, 
thirst, inanition, exhaustion; 
non-subsistence, non-support. 

Sweet. Sugary, saccharine, dul- 
cet, luscious; agreeable, pleas- 
ing, fragrant, soft, melodious ; 
beautiful, mild, fair; fresh; 
amiable, winning: wholesome. 
ANT. Sour, bitter, sharp, 
add; discordant, inharmoni- 
ous, dissonant: disagreeable, 
displeasing; fetid, malodorous; 
plain, homely; stale, unwhole- 




some, spoiled; offensive, repul- 
sive, unlovely. 

Swift. Quick, fleet, speedy, ex- 
peditious, rapid, prompt; ac- 
celerated, nimble, alert, ready, 
headlong, eager, fast. 

ANT. Slow, tardy, delaying, 
late, unready, laggard, delib- 
erate, sedate, reluctant, linger- 
ing, lazy, loitering, inactive, 
sluggish, inexpeditious. 

Symmetry. Proportion, grace, 
conformity, uniformity, simi- 
larity, regularity, shapeliness, 
harmony, agreement; comeli- 

ANT. Disproportion, dishar- 
mony, incongruity, irregular- 
ity, disagreement, disparity, 
shapelessness; interdisparity. 

Sympathy. Pity, compassion, 
commiseration, tenderness, con- 
dolence; fellow-feeling; agree- 
ment, conformity, reciprocity; 

ANT. Antipathy, harshness, 
antagonism, unkindness, cold' 
ness, mercilessness, pitiless- 

Synonymous. Similar, corre- 
spondent, like, identical, inter- 
changeable, alike, same, corre- 
sponding, synonymic, equiva- 

ANT. Antonymic. 

System. Order, mode, method, 
regularity, rule, manner. 

ANT. Confusion, chaos, dis- 
order, derangement, irregular- 
ity, disarrangement. 

Tacit. Silent, implied, granted, 
unexpressed, understood, im- 

ANT. Mentioned, expressed, 
explicit, declared. 

Taciturn. Mute, silent, speech- 
less, reserved, close, dumb, un- 
communicntive, reticent. 

ANT. Communicative, free, 
garrulous, loquacious, talka- 
tive, unreserved. 

Take. Lay hold, seize, grasp, 
obtain ; capture, fasten on ; at- 
tack ; gain, captivate, charm ; 
choose, turn to; employ, use, 
demand, require; copy, deline- 
ate; assume, adopt; acquire; 
engage in, indulge in; carry, 
convey, conduct; remove, with- 
draw, deduct; acknowledge, ac- 
cept; receive, admit; partake 
of, swallow; undertake, clear; 
tolerate, endure; consider, in- 
terpret, suppose; receive, sub- 
mit to, bear. 

ANT. Drop, reject, abandon, 
surrender, miss, lose, repel, re- 
fuse, decline, repulse, spurn. 

Talent. Ability, gift, endow- 
ment, genius, faculty; capac- 
ity, cleverness, aptitude, forte. 

ANT. Inability, ineptitude, 
incompetence, imbecility, stu- 

Tangible. Perceptible, tactile, 
palpable; apprehensible, evi- 
dent, manifest, clear; material, 
substantial, sensible, obvious. 
ANT. Impalpable, spiritual, 
intangible, incorporeal, imma- 
terial, incomprehensible. 

Tart. Sharp, acid, sour; keen, 
severe; harsh, caustic, petu- 
lant, acrimonious. 

ANT. Gentle, mild, genial, 
kindly, poUte; mellow, sweet. 

Taste, n. Savor, relish, flavor, 
sensibility, judgment; discern- 
ment, nicety, perception, zest^ 
choice, elegancy, refinement. 

264 ] 




ANT. Disrelish, insipidity, 
ill-savor, coarseness, indelicacy, 
non-perception, indiscrimina- 

Tasteful. Delicate, artistic, el- 
egant, dainty, esthetic, exqui- 
site, fastidious, fine, chaste, 
nice, tasty, delicious, esthetical. 
ANT. Coarse, rough, rude, 
harsh, hideous, clumsy, dis- 
ffusting, deformed, displeasing, 
fulsome, gaudy, grotesque, dis- 
tasteful, horrid, inartistic, in- 
harmonious, meretricious, of- 
fensive, ragged, tawdry. 

Taunt, v. Ridicule, mock, jeer, 
deride, revile, flout, scoff, scorn, 
insult; reproach, rebuke, cen- 

ANT. Compliment, flatter, 
approve of, congratulate. 

Teach. Discipline, instruct, tu- 
tor, school, train, educate, en- 
lighten, drill, inculcate, give 
lessons, give instructions, in- 
doctrinate, inform, initiate, in- 
still, nurture. 

ANT. Learn, study, prac- 
tice, investigate, experiment, 
try, develop, receive, drink in, 
acquire, attain, imbibe, under- 
stand, glean, gather, collect. 

Tedious. Wearisome, fatiguing, 
irksome, tiresome; prolix, dull, 
slow, monotonous, tiring, try- 

ANT. Interesting, exciting, 
amusing, charming, delightful, 
stirring, bright, entertaining. 

Tell. Enumerate, communicate, 
impart, reveal, disclose, report, 
acquaint, repeat, rehearse, dis- 
cover; count, number, reckon, 
recount; narrate, divulge; in- 
form, teach; order, command, 

Temerity. Audacity, foolhar- 
diness, rashness, presumption, 
recklessness, hardihood, hasti- 
ness, heedlessness, precipita- 

tion, overconfidence, precipi- 
tancy, venturesomeness. 

ANT. Care, caution, hesita- 
tion, cowardice, timidity, wari- 
ness, circum-spection. 

Temporal. Transient, fleeting, 
transitory, temporary; terres- 
trial, worldly, secular, mun- 

ANT. Eternal, permanent, 
everlasting; religious, spirit- 

Tendency. Proneness, drift, aim, 
disposition; direction, course; 
influence; inclination, leaning, 
bent, bias; proclivity, aptitude, 
propensity, liability. 

ANT. Aversion, repulsion, 
repugnance; opposition, reluc- 
tance, divergence, tangency, de- 

Tender. Effeminate, soft, sen- 
sitive, compassionate, humane, 
kind, merciful, pitiful, dear, 
delicate; gentle, mild, suscep- 

ANT. Hard, pitiless, callous, 
careless, heedless, rough, coarse, 
unkind, inhuman, unmerciful, 
unfeeling ; hardy, strong, stur- 

Tension. Strain, stretch, effort, 
stretching, tensity, tenseness, 
rigor, severity, harshness, stiff- 
ness, tightness. 

ANT. Relaxation, release, re- 
lief, laxity, slackness, looseness. 

Term. Boundary, limit; expres- 
sion, phrase, word, name ; mem- 
ber, condition, denomination. 

Termination. Limit, end, con- 
clusion, bound, result; com- 
pletion, consequence, effect; ful- 
filment, consummation, accom- 
plishment, achievement, finis, 
finality, exit, issue. 

ANT. Beginning, initiation, 
inception, commencement, rise f 
start, origin, source, cause, pro- 
cess, course. 

[ 265 ] 



Terrible. Terrific, fearful, hor- 
rible, shocking, awful; dread- 
ful, formidable, frightful; tre- 
mendous ; astounding, startling. 

ANT. Insignificant, amusing, 
pleasing; unastonishing. 
Terse. Concise, pithy, succinct, 
short, brief, laconic, compact, 
sententious, condensed, com- 
pendious, neat. 

ANT. Long, lengthy, tedious, 
wordy, diffuse, prolix, verbose. 
Testimony. Affirmation, certi- 
fication, deposition, proof, evi- 
dence, witness, affidavit, attes- 
tation, oath. 

ANT. Demonstration. 
Theory. Hypothesis, specula- 
tion; doctrine, conjecture, ex- 
planation; assumption, scheme, 
postulate, plan; science, phil- 
osophy ; exposition, rationale ; 

ANT. Fact, truth, verity, ac- 

Therefore. Consequently, then, 
hence, thence, whence, where- 
fore, accordingly. 

ANT. Because, as for, inas- 
much as, since. 

Thick. Dense, close, compact, 
solid, coarse, gross; muddy, 
turbid, misty; crowded, abun- 
dant; indistinct; dull; numer- 
ous; inarticulate. 

ANT. Thin, rare, sparse, in- 
frequent; pure, limpid, crystal- 
line, clear, distinct, incompact, 
shallow, articulate. 
Think. Cogitate, contemplate ; 
remember, reflect, muse, medi- 
tate, ponder, consider, deliber- 
ate, judge, conclude, believe; 
purpose, intend, design, mean; 
presume, venture; imagine, ap- 

ANT. Guess, hazard; dream, 
idle, stargaze, wander, rove. 
Thought. Imagination, fancy, 
conceit, notion, consideration, 

supposition, contemplation, de- 
liberation ; reflection, cogita- 
tion, meditation, conception, 
solicitude, care, concern; rea- 
soning; idea, opinion, concept, 
judgment, purpose, intention, 

ANT. Thoughtlessness, gid- 
diness, carelessness, inconsider- 
ation, dreaminess, dulness, stu- 
pidity, rashness, impulsiveness ; 
vacuity, dream, hallucination, 

Threat. Menace, denunciation, 
threatening, intimidation. 

ANT. Promise, encourage- 
ment, allurement, enticement; 

Thrifty. Economical, saving, 
careful; sparing, frugal, indus- 
trious, prosperous, thriving; 
provident, foresighted. 

ANT. Wasteful, prodigal, un- 
economical, lavish, spendthrift, 
extravagant; slack, laay; im- 
provident, unprepared. 

Throng. Concourse, crowd, host, 
jam, mass, multitude, press. 

ANT. Solitude; unlderness, 
desert, waste. 

Tidings. Message, information, 
intelligence, news, rumor, re- 
port, advices, announcement. 

ANT. Suppression, censor- 
ship, misinformation, canard. 

Time. Epoch, era, period, date, 
age, eon, season, term, while, 
succession, sequence, duration. 

Timid. Fearful, timorous, cow- 
ardly, afraid, pusillanimous, 
faint-hearted, shrinking, retir- 
ing, shy; diffident, bashful. 

ANT. Bold, confident, ven- 
turesome, courageous, adven- 
turous, heedless. 

Tip. Incline, lean, list, slant, 
slope, tilt, cant, careen, dip, 
heel over. 

Tire. Exhaust, fag, weary, fa- 
tigue, jade, harass, wear out. 

[ 260 ] 




ANT. Refresh, recreate, rest, 
relax, relieve, repose, restore, 

Title. Epithet, name, appella- 
tion, designation, cognomen, de- 
nomination ; address, inscrip- 
tion, heading, style. 

ANT. Nondescript, nameless- 

Together. With, in company, as- 
sociated, conjoined, unitedly, si- 
multaneously, contemporane- 
ously, coincidently. 

ANT. Separately, variously, 

Toil. Labor, drudgery, work, ex- 
ertion, employment, occupation, 
task, travail. 

ANT. Rest, relaxation, recre- 
ation, ease,' amusement, plea-s- 
ure, enjoyment, fun. 

Tolerable. Endurable, bearable, 
supportable ; passable, medium, 
ordinary, mediocre, indiffer- 

ANT. Intolerable, unendur- 
able, insufferable, unbearable, 

Tool. Appliance, implement, ap- 
paratus, mechanism, utensil, 
machine, weapon. 

Topic. Head, division, motion, 
point, proposition, question, is- 
sue, subject, theme, matter. 

Torment. Pain, misery, agony, 
anguish, torture, distress. 

ANT. Enjoyment, pleasure, 
comfort, ease, gratification, de- 

Total, a. Whole, entire, full, ab- 
solute, complete, undivided. 

ANT. Partial, imperfect, in- 
complete, divided, fractional, 

Trace. Mark, remains, sign, ves- 
tige, track, token, trail, foot- 
mark, footprint, footstep, im- 
pression, memorial, remnant. 

Trade. Profession, occupation, 
office, calling, avocation, em- 

ployment, commerce, dealing, 

ANT. Stagnation, inactivity, 
dulness, embargo; leisure, va- 
cation, idleness, vacancy. 
Tragedy. Mournful drama; ca- 
tastrophe, calamity, adversity, 
disaster, affliction. 

ANT. Comedy, happinest, 
mirthful drama, prosperity, 
luck, good fortune. 
Traitor. Betrayer, turncoat, 
renegade, rebel, deceiver, apos- 
tate; insurgent, deserter, mu- 

ANT. Patriot, adherent, de- 
fender, supporter. 
Tranquil. Quiet, calm, undis- 
turbed, peaceful, unagitated; 
unruffled, composed, poised, col- 
lected, cool. 

ANT. Agitated, excited, un- 
easy, anxious, troubled, rest- 

Transact. Conduct, carry on, 
perform, act, accomplish, da, 
negotiate, treat. 

ANT. Leave alone, rest, stop, 
refrain, desist, cease. 
Transaction. Business, action, 
deed, proceeding, doing, affair, 
act, negotiation, performance. 

ANT. Inactivity, quiescence, 
rest, neglect, inaction, passivity. 
Transgression. Infringement, 
misdemeanor, misdeed, affront; 
violation, breach, fault, crime, 
offense, sin. 

ANT. Innocence, guiltless- 
ness; purity, righteousness; 
observance, obedience, fulfil- 

Transient. Fleeting, tempo- 
rary, transitory, ephemeral, 
evanescent, brief, flitting, fly- 
ing, momentary, passing, fugi- 
tive, short. 

ANT. Permanent, perpetual, 
lasting, enduring, abiding, im- 
mortal, everlasting, unfading, 

( 267 ] 




undying, persistent, eternal, im- 

Transparent. Translucent, pel- 
lucid, clear, lucid; diaphanous; 
open, porous; crystalline, lim- 
pid, bright; perspicuous. 

ANT. Opaque, thick, turbid; 
mysterious, questionable, du- 

Travel. Go, pass, journey, mi- 
grate, move, traverse, wander, 

ANT. Dwell, reside, stay, re- 
main, settle. 

Treasure. Wealth, abundance, 
plenty; money, jewels, cash, 
valuables, hoard, riches, bul- 
lion; reserve. 

ANT. Refuse, trash, offal; 
dregs, trifles. 

Treaty. Negotiation, compact, 
agreement, covenant, alliance, 
convention, contract. 

ANT. Neutrality, non-in- 
terference, non-intervention. 

Tremendous. Frightful, terri- 
fic, horrible, awful; fearful, 
appalling, alarming, horrify- 
ing, dreadful. 

ANT. Unappalling, incon- 
siderable, unimposing. 

Trial. Attempt, endeavor, es- 
say; effort, exertion; experi- 
ence, proof, test; examination, 
experiment ; criterion, ordeal, 
assay ; temptation, trouble, 
affliction, distress, grief, suf- 
fering, tribulation. 

ANT. Non-attempt; ease, fa- 
tility; acceptance; oversight, 
disregard; trifle, triviality. 

Trick. Stratagem, wile, fraud, 
cheat, juggle, finesse, sleight; 
deception, imposture, delusion, 
imposition; artifice, machina- 
tion, contrivance, legerde- 

ANT. Exposure, revelation, 
examination; blunder, botch, 
bungling, fumbling, maladroit- 

ness, mishap; genuineness, art- 
lessness, openhandedness. 

Triumph. Success, conquest, 
victory; ovation, celebration, 
jubilee, jubilation, exultation; 
achievement, attainment. 

ANT. Defeat, failure, disap- 
pointment, discomfiture, abor- 
tion, baffling. 

Trouble. Affliction, sorrow, dis- 
turbance, perplexity, vexation, 
molestation, annoyance, incon- 
venience, calamity, misfortune, 
adversity, misery; tribulation, 
distress, disaster, torment, diffi- 
culty, anxiety. 

ANT. Blessing, peace, com- 
posure, alleviation, appease- 
ment, pleasure, fortune, boon, 
affluence, happiness, joy, suc- 
cess, gladness, ease, facility, 
amusement, recreation. 

True. Correct, accurate, pre- 
cise, exact; unwavering, faith- 
ful, loyal; actual, pure, real, 
genuine; veritable. 

ANT. Untrue, false, ficti- 
tious, unreliable, incorrect, in- 
accurate, inexact; vacillating, 
disloyal, faithless; counterfeit, 
impure, unreal, factitious, un- 
trustworthy, adulterated, spu- 
rious, fickle, treacherous. 

Trust, n. Confidence, belief, ex- 
pectation, faith, hope; reliance. 
ANT. Doubt, misgiving, dis- 
trust, skepticism, suspense; de- 

Truth. Fact, reality, fidelity, 
conformity, exactness ; stead- 
fastness; veracity, verity; ac- 
curacy, precision, faithfulness. 
ANT. Falsehood, falsity, lie, 
untruth, fabrication, fiction; 
fallacy, mistake, sophism. 

Tumult. Ferment, disturbance, 
turbulence, disorder, bluster, 
hubbub, bustle, brawl, riot; ex. 
citement, distraction, confusion, 
turmoil, noise. 

[ 268 ] 




ANT. Peace, order, orderli- 
ness, pacification, quiet, sub- 

Turn, n. Revolution; alteration, 
vicissitude ; winding, bending, 
meandering; stroll; succession, 
alternation ; chance, occasion ; 
convenience, purpose, exigence; 
form, cast, shape, manner, fash- 
ion; rotation, recurrence; op- 
portunity; deed, office, treat- 
ment, act; tendency, talent, 
gift; crisis. 

ANT. Fixity, unchangeable- 
ness, immobility, uniformity, 
stability, continuity; indepen- 
dence; malformation, shape- 

Turn, v. Revolve, reverse, de- 
flect, change; divert, transfer, 
use, employ, apply, devote; al- 
ter, metamorphose, transform, 
convert; shape, mold, adapt; 
whirl; hinge, depend; eventu- 
ate, issue, terminate. 

ANT. Stick, stop, remain; 
adhere, hold to; persist, con- 
tinue; stabilitate, perpetuate, 
arrest, stereotype. 
Tutor. Teacher, instructor, pro- 
fessor, preceptor, master, sa- 
vant, guardian, governor. 

ANT. Pupil, student, nov- 
ice, disciple, scholar, ward, 

Twist, v. Contort, writhe, con- 
volve; pervert, distort; wind, 
wreathe ; insinuate ; encircle. 

ANT. Straighten, untwist, 
rectify, unwind, disentangle, 
unravel; verify, substantiate. 
Type. Mark, stamp, sign, em- 
blem; style, semblance; repre- 
sentation, similitude, figure, 
symbol, token; character, pat- 
tern, archetype, model, norm; 
cast, mold, fashion. 

ANT. Caricature, monstros- 
ity, abnormity; falsification, 
deviation; misrepresentation. 


Ubiquity. Omnipresence; uni- 
versal presence, all-pervasive- 

ANT. Localization, limita- 

Ugly. Loathsome, unsightly, re- 
pulsive ; ill-natured, quarrel- 
some; unpleasant; plain, ordi- 
nary, homely, hideous, fright- 
ful; cross, vicious. 

ANT. Attractive, handsome, 
fair, pleasant, agreeable, beau- 
tiful, shapely, comely; lovely, 
kindly, good-natured, gentle. 

Ultimate. Final, last, conclu- 
sive, farthest, extreme, most 
remote; elemental. 

ANT. Initial, nearest, be- 
ginning, primary. 

UXL-. A prefix meaning not or 

icithout, or simply intensive, 
which ia prefixed to nouns, ad- 
jectives, adverbs, and the par- 
ticiples of verbs. Words whose 
meaning is simply that of the 
root word with negative or in- 
tensive emphasis are omitted 
here, and their synonyms and 
antonyms may be formed from 
those of the root word. 

Unction. Anointing, ointment; 
power, fervor, animation, fer- 
vency, ardor, enthusiasm, en- 
ergy, spirit, emotion. 

ANT. Tameness, perfunctori- 
ness, coldness, lifelessness. 

Unctuous. Fatty, oily, greasy; 
bland, suave, tender, fervid ; ob- 
sequious, fawning, servile, sye~ 

[ 269 ] 




ANT. Blunt, brusk, abrupt; 
cynical, sarcastic; harsh, un- 
mannerly, uncomplimentary. 

Under-. A prefix meaning be- 
neath or below. Words whose 
meaning is simply that of the 
root word with the meaning of 
the prefix added are omitted 
in this place, and their syno- 
nyms and antonyms may be 
formed in many cases from 
those of the root word. 

Under, prep. Below, beneath, 

ANT. Above, upon, over. 

Understand. Know, compre- 
hend ; learn, be informed, hear ; 
recognize, interpret; imply, 
assume ; apprehend, discern, 
see, perceive, conceive, pene- 

ANT. Misunderstand, mis- 
comprehend, misinterpret; de- 
clare, state; express, inform. 

Understanding. Sense, intelli- 
gence, conception, perception, 
discernment, knowledge, intu- 
ition, cognition, reason; inter- 
pretation; mind, brains. 

ANT. Insensibility, stupid- 
ity, dulness, obtuseness, sense- 
lessness, slowness, irrational- 
: ity, sluggishness, ignorance, un- 

Undertake. Engage, enter, set 
about, attempt; covenant, con- 
tract; guarantee, promise, af- 
firm; project, commence; stip- 

ANT. Abandon, drop, desist, 
discontinue, decline; complete, 
finish, end, terminate. 

Undertaking. Enterprise, en- 
gagement, attempt, adventure, 
business, effort, endeavor; ex- 
periment, venture, interest, af- 
fair, matter, concern. 

ANT. Leisure, inactivity; 

Undulation. Waving motion ; 

vibration; wavy outline; pul- 
sation; oscillation, swelling; 
wave, ripple. 

ANT. Equilibrium; arresta- 
tion, standing; plain, table- 

Uniform. Unchanging, equable, 
consistent, homogeneous ; con- 
sonant; regular, constant, in- 
variable, steady; similar, un- 
varied, alike. 

ANT. Heterogeneous, vari- 
able, varying, diverse; irregu- 
lar, inconsistent, erratic, eccen- 
tric, unsymmetrical. 

Union. Unity, connection, con- 
cord, combination, confederacy, 
alliance ; coalition, conjunc- 
tion; harmony, concert, agree- 
ment ; league, confederation, 
consolidation; oneness, junc- 
ture, unification. 

ANT. Disconnection, separa- 
tion, disjunction, disunion, di- 
vorce, severance, analysis, dis- 
sociation, contrariety, decompo- 
sition, division, schism, parti- 
tion, discord, disagreement, se- 
cession, disruption; multiplica- 
tion, diversification. 

Unique. Sole, only, unmatched, 
unequalled, unparalleled, sin- 
gular, peculiar, exceptional, 

ANT. Common, universal, 
everyday, commonplace, ordi- 
nary, familiar, vulgar, mean. 

Unison. Harmony, agreement, 
concord, union, accordance. 

ANT. Discord, variance, dis' 
agreement, divergence. 

Unit. Oneness, unity; one; in- 
tegral; item, individual. 

ANT. Sum, mass, total, ag- 
gregate, whole, collection. 

Unite. Add, join, attach, an ( 
nex; combine, connect; agree 
harmonize, associate, coalesce; 
incorporate, consolidate, amal 
gamate, blend, embody, merge > 

[ 270 ] 




concur, coSperate, league, con- 

ANT. Disjoin, sever, sepa- 
rate, divide, resolve, discon- 
nect; disintegrate, dissociate, 
sunder, diverge; multiply, split, 

Unity. Oneness, concord, con- 
junction, agreement, junction, 
uniformity, harmony, union ; 
singleness, unanimity. 

ANT. Separation, disunion, 
disconnection, division, disa- 
greement, divorce. 

"Universal. General, unlimited, 
all-reaching; total, whole, en- 
tire; catholic, common; com- 
prehensive, exhaustive, com- 

ANT. Specific, special, indi- 
vidual, particular, limited, lo- 
cal, partial, exclusive, excep- 

"Up-. A prefix giving the idea 
of elevation or an intensive 
value. Words whose meaning 
is derived quite simply from 
that of the root plus that of 
the prefix are omitted here. 
Their synonyms and antonyms 
may be readily formed from 
those of the root word. 

Upbraid. Reproach, censure, 
blame, condemn; taunt, chide, 

ANT. Approve, commend, 
praise, eulogize, compliment, 

Upon. On; about, concerning; 
with, immediately after, forth- 

ANT. Under, beneath, "be- 
low; before, after, without. 

Upper. Higher, superior, on 

ANT. Lower, inferior, below, 

Upright. Erect, perpendicular, 
vertical; honest, just, honor- 
able, conscientious, virtuous, 

good, faithful, true, trust- 

ANT. Inclined, slanted; in- 
verted; unprincipled, dishon- 
est, unscrupulous, corrupt, un- 

Uproar. Tumult, disturbance, 
confusion, bustle, clamor, com- 
motion, turmoil, racket, noise, 

ANT. Peace, calm, quiet, si- 
lence, order, tranquillity. 

Urbane. Courteous, polite, re- 
fined, suave, elegant; civil, pol- 

ANT. Discourteous, uncivil t 
unrefined, impolite, rude, boor- 

Urge. Animate, instigate, stimu- 
late, encourage, arouse; impel, 
press, drive; beseech, entreat, 
importune; goad, spur, incite; 
hasten, accelerate, expedite. 

ANT. Hold back, hinder, ob- 
struct, prevent, retard, inhibit, 
restrain; defy, challenge, dare; 
oppose, object. 

Urgent. Urging, pressing, im- 
portunate, immediate, impor- 
tant, imperative, grave, momen- 
tous, serious, cogent, solicitous, 
critical, emergency, necessi- 

ANT. Trivial, insignificant, 
unimportant, immaterial, in- 

Usage. Custom, wont, habit, 
use; mode, method, manners, 
behavior; practice, procedure; 

Use. Employment, application, 
occasion, necessity, usefulness, 
utility; practice, usage, cus- 
tom, manner, habit; service^ 
advantage; profit, avail, need; 

ANT. Uselessness, misappli- 
cation, super -fluousness, worth- 
lessness, disuse, non-observ- 
ance, desuetude. 

[ 271 ] 




Useful. Advantageous, profit- 
able, serviceable, beneficial ; 
fruitful, effectual, suitable, ef- 
fective, adapted, helpful, good, 
convenient, valuable, available. 
ANT. Useless, profitless, un- 
profitable, valueless, unservice- 
able, fruitless, inconducive, in- 
effectual, unavailing, retarding, 
hindering, preventive, obstruc- 
tive, cumbersome, burdensome, 

Usual. Familiar, frequent, ordi- 
nary, regular, wonted, preva- 
lent, accustomed, common, cus- 
tomary, everyday, general, nor- 
mal, habitual, prevailing, pub- 

ANT. Exceptional, infre- 
quent, extraordinary, strange, 
uncommon, unparalleled, un- 
usual, out-of-the-way, singular, 

Usurp. Arrogate, assume, ap- 
propriate, seize. 

ANT. Inherit, accept, re- 

Utility. Profit, expediency, use, 

usefulness, avail, benefit, ad- 
vantage, service, usableness. 

ANT. Futility, inutility, in- 
adequacy, inexpediency, use- 
lessness, folly, impolicy, disad- 
vantage, worthlessness, un- 

Utmost. Farthest, extreme, re- 
motest, last, most distant; ut- 
termost; greatest. 

ANT. Nearest, next; least. 
Utter, v. Issue, deliver, liberate, 
discharge; circulate, pass; ex- 
press, publish, disclose, speak, 
pronounce; promulgate. 

ANT. Suppress, recall, check, 
stifle, hush, repress; retract, 

Utter, a. Complete, perfect, to- 
tal, entire, absolute; peremp- 
tory, unconditional, unquali- 
fied; thorough. 

ANT. Imperfect, incomplete; 
conditioned, qualified; partial. 
Utterly. Fully, totally, thor- 

ANT. Partially, imperfectly, 

Vacancy. Emptiness; leisure, 
intermission, idleness ; vacu- 
um; chasm, gap; interval; va- 
cuity, space, void. 

ANT. Fulness, plethora, re- 
pletion; business, occupation, 

Vacant. Blank, empty, void, un- 
occupied, waste, unemployed, 
untenanted, vacuous, unfilled, 
devoid, unencumbered, disen- 
gaged, idle, uncrowded; inane, 
silly; free; thoughtless, uare- 
flective; abandoned; inane; 
leisure; unmeaning. 

ANT. Full, filled, occupied, 
replenished, diligent, buaj/, en- 

gaged, employed; reflective, 
thoughtful, meaningful; brim- 
ful, busy, crammed, inhabited, 
packed, replete, brimmed, over- 
flowing, brimming, jammed, 
gorged, crowded. 

Vacate. Empty, make vacant, 
quit, resign, surrender; annul, 
abrogate, cancel, invalidate, ab- 
scind, abolish, overrule, neu- 

ANT. Fill, occupy, employ, 
hold, retain, substantiate. 

Vacation. Interval, intermis- 
sion, holidays, rest, leisure. 

ANT. Worktime, term, busi- 

I 272 ] 




Vacillate. Fluctuate, waver, be 
unsteady, stagger, reel, sway, 
rock, hesitate, be inconstant, 

ANT. Adhere, abide, deter- 
mine, be steadfast, stay. 

Vacillation. Wavering, fluctu- 
ating, swaying, reeling, rock- 
ing, fluctuation, hesitation, in- 
constancy, unsteadiness. 

ANT. Steadiness, firmness, 
inflexibility, determination. 

Vacuity. Emptiness, vacancy, 
void, vacuum; inanity, nihil- 
ity, inanition, unreality; space. 
ANT. Fulness, bulk, mat- 
ter, substance; occupation, ac- 
tuality, reality; contents. 

Vagabond. Wanderer, vagrant, 
tramp, rascal; outcast, loafer, 
nomad, idler, beggar, rogue. 
ANT. Worker, laborer. 

Vagary. Whim, freak, crotchet, 
whimsicality, caprice, fancy. 

ANT. Purpose, idea, deter- 
mination, judgment, serious- 
ness, conviction. 

Vagrant, a. Wandering, erratic, 
unsettled, strolling, itinerant, 
roving, sauntering, nomadic. 

ANT. Domestic, local, estab- 
lished, resident, abiding, dwell- 

Vague. Unsettled, undetermined, 
indefinite, ambiguous, lax, un- 
certain, dim, doubtful, obscure, 
indistinct, unfixed, general, in- 
tangible, equivocal, pointless ; 
unwarranted, unauthorized. 

ANT. Determined, limited, 
strict, specific, pointed, definite, 
distinct, scientific, settled, clear, 
fixed, manifest, perspicuous. 

Vain. Futile, trivial, vapid, vis- 
ionary, worthless, abortive, un- 
satisfying, fruitless, empty, de- 
ceitful, baseless, delusive, boot- 
less, idle, ineffectual, shadowy, 
trifling, unserviceable, unsub- 
stantial, profitless, inconstant, 

unprofitable, null, nugatory, un- 
availing, unimportant, unreal; 
showy, useless ; conceited, arro- 
gant, ostentatious. 

ANT. Adequate, solid, use- 
ful, effective, powerful, worthy, 
important, sufficient, service- 
able, potent, competent, advan- 
tageous, beneficial, efficient, ear- 
pedient, profitable, real, sound, 
substantial, valid, valuable, es- 
sential, cogent, availing, satis- 
factory, modest. 

Valediction. Farewell, valedic- 
tory, leave-taking, adieu. 

ANT. Salutation, welcome, 
hail, reception, recognition. 

Valiant. Strong, powerful, in- 
trepid, courageous, brave, val- 
orous, heroic, gallant, chival- 
rous, daring, dauntless, bold, 
fearless, redoubtable, undaunt- 
ed, stout-hearted. 

ANT. Timid, cowardly, fear- 
ful, timorous, recreant, craven. 

Valid. Sound, good, justified, 
trustworthy, well-grounded, effi- 
cacious, weighty, powerful, effi- 
cient, conclusive, logical, solid, 
cogent, important, grave, sub- 
stantial, sufficient. 

ANT. Weak, invalid, null, 
void, unsound, baseless, falla- 
cious, unfounded, untrue; un- 
available, inoperative, super- 

Validity. Soundness, justness, 
efficacy, force, weight, cogency, 

ANT. Weakness, impotency, 
ineffectiveness, lightness, futil- 

Valor. Bravery, courage, prow- 
ess, intrepidity, heroism, bold- 
ness, daring. 

ANT. Timidity, fearfulness, 
cowardice, pusillanimity. 

Valuable. Worthy, estimable, 
costly, precious, expensive, use- 
ful, dear, serviceable. 

[ 273 ] 




ANT. Worthless, valueless, 
cheap, inexpensive, silly, use- 
less, trifling, trivial. 
Value, n. Worth, utility, desir- 
ability, importance, power; im- 
port, signification; esteem, re- 
gard, excellence; price, cost, 

ANT. Cheapness, reduction, 

Value, v. Compute, esteem, re- 
spect, regard; be worth, rate, 
appraise, estimate; appreciate, 
prize, treasure, account. 

ANT. Cheapen, reduce, con- 
temn, despise, undervalue, un- 
derestimate; disregard, dises- 
teem, misprize. 

Vanish. Disappear, fade, pass 
away, dissolve, melt away, be 

ANT. Appear, approach, 'be 
manifest, loom up, arrive. 
Vanity. Pride, conceit; unreal- 
ity, worthiessness, emptiness ; 
hollo wness, triviality, futility, 
unsubstantiality, falsity; ego- 
ism, self-sufficiency; show, os- 

ANT. Reality, truth, worth; 
simplicity; modesty, humility, 
self -distrust ; substance, solid- 

Vanquish. Conquer, overcome, 
subdue, defeat, surmount, con- 
fute, silence; subjugate, over- 
throw, master, foil, discomfit, 
quell; disprove, confound. 

ANT. Succumb, yield, fail. 
Vapid. Dead, spiritless, flat, in- 
sipid, dull, unanimated; taste- 
less, stale, tame; languid, pro- 
saic, feeble, prosy. 

ANT. Pungent, spirited, ani- 
mated, pithy, trenchant. 
Vapor, n. Fume, steam, reek, ex- 
halation, smoke, fog, mist; va- 
gary, phantom, whim, dream, 
vision ; flatulence ; fantasy. 

ANT. Inhalation, absorption. 

Variable. Changeable, fickle, in- 
constant, mutable, shifting, un- 
steady, vacillating, wavering, 
fluctuating, versatile, capri- 

ANT. Unchanging, immu- 
table, constant, firm, unwaver- 
ing, steady, invariable, unalter- 

Variance. Variation, dissension, 
disagreement, discord, differ- 
ence, alteration, strife; hostil- 
ity, antagonism, discrepancy, 

ANT. Harmony, agreement, 
assimilation, reconciliation, ac- 
commodation, peace. 
Variation. Modification, alter- 
ation, mutation, change, diver- 
sity, vicissitude, variety, devia- 
tion; departure, difference, dis- 

ANT. Fixity, harmony, con- 
tinuance, uniformity, rule, law, 

Variegated. Streaked, dappled, 
particolored, diversified, varied, 
checkered, figured, mottled. 

ANT. Unspotted, spotless, 

Variety. Diversity, difference, as- 
sortment, species, class, multi- 
far iousness, medley, miscellany, 
multiplicity, kind. 

ANT. Type, species, speci- 
men, uniformity. 

Various. Different, diverse, sev- 
eral, manifold, changeable, un- 
certain, inconstant, variable, 
variegated, sundry, diversified. 

ANT. Identical, few, same, 
uniform, similar, single. 
Varnish, v. Gloss, palliate, con- 
ceal, cover, embellish, disguise, 
lacquer, extenuate, excuse, mit- 
igate, glaze over. 

ANT. Simplify, divest; re- 
veal, bare, manifest. 
Vary. Alter, change, modify, al- 
ternate, diversify, variegate, 

[ 274 ] 




differ, deviate, depart, be di- 
verse, swerve, disagree, trans- 
form, metamorphose. 

ANT. Stereotype, perpetu- 
ate: conform, assimilate, har- 

Vast. Spacious, huge, immense, 
great, mighty, transcendent, 
measureless, boundless, colos- 
sal, enormous, stupendous, pro- 
digious, gigantic, monstrous, re- 
markable, extraordinary. 

ANT. Moderate, limited, con- 
fined, circumscribed, narrow, 
close, small. 

Vaticination. Prediction, div- 
ination, prophecy, prognostica- 
tion, augury. 

ANT. Fulfilment, ratifica- 
tion, realization, verification, 
accomplish m en t . 

Vault. Jump, spring, bound, 
leap; tumble, turn. 

ANT. Crawl, creep, grovel. 

Vaunt. Boast, brag, display, 
show off; advertise, flourish, 

ANT. Conceal, disparage, de- 
cry, detract, repress, suppress. 

Veer. Shift, turn, change, trim, 

ANT. Stand, stick, adhere, 
persist, remain. 

Vegetate. Sprout, grow, germi- 
nate; bask, idle, hibernate. 

ANT. Decay, fade, wither, 
pine; bustle, energize, work, 

Vehemence. Impetuosity, vio- 
lence, fury, frenzy, ardor, fer- 
vor, fervency, warmth, zeal, en- 
thusiasm, passion, force, inten- 

ANT. Passivity, inertia, qui- 
escence, coldness, stoicism, in- 
difference, unconcern, apathy, 

Vehement. Raging, hot, ar- 
dent, fervid, burning, passion- 
ate, eager, violent, impetuous, 

furious, urgent, mighty, for- 
cible, powerful, sanguine, en- 

ANT. Cool, impassive, indif- 
ferent, feeble, mild, controlled, 
subdued, cold, stoical, passion- 
less, weak, inanimate. 

Veil, v. Cover, invest, hide, con- 
ceal, screen, mask, shroud, en- 

ANT. Expose, disclose, strip, 
denude, unveil, make manifest. 

Velocity. Celerity, fleetness, ra- 
pidity, speed, swiftness; impe- 
tus, momentum. 

ANT. Inertia, sluggishness, 
inertness; resistance; passiv- 
ity, languor, inactivity. 

Venal. Mercenary, hireling, sor- 
did, purchasable, salable, pros- 

ANT. Honest, honorable, in- 
corruptible, public-spirited, pa- 
triotic, unpurchasable, gener- 
ous, disinterested. 

Vend. Barter, trade, sell, hawk, 

ANT. Buy, purchase, bribe, 

Venerable. Worthy, honorable, 
estimable; dread, awful; sage, 
wise, grave. 

ANT. Despicable, dishon- 
ored; informal, free, intimate, 
easy; foolish, silly. 

Venerate. Honor, respect, re- 
vere, reverence, adore, admire, 

ANT. Dishonor, disregard, 
scorn, scoff at, slight, spurn, de- 
test, disdain, despise, contemn, 
abhor, execrate. 

Veneration. Reverence, adora- 
tion, respect, awe, worship, es- 
teem, dread. 

ANT. Irreverence, loathing, 
disrespect, contempt, disdain, 
dishonor, scorn. 

Vengeance. Punishment, retri- 
bution, revenge, retaliation. 

[ 275 ] 




ANT. Forgiveness, pardon, 
reprieve, indulgence, amnesty, 
remission, absolution. 
Venial. Excusable, justifiable, 
pardonable, slight, trivial. 

ANT. Inexcusable, heinous, 
unpardonable, flagrant, mortal, 
infamous, unjustifiable, inex- 

Venom. Virus, bane, poison; 
Bpite, malice, malignity, hate, 
ill will, maliciousness, rancor, 
grudge, bitterness, acrimony. 

ANT. Medicine, remedy; be- 
nevolence, kindness, good will. 
Venomous. Poisonous, malig- 
nant, noxious, mischievous, vir- 
ulent, spiteful. 

ANT. Wholesome, remedial, 
salubrious ; kindly, compas- 
sionate, genial. 

Vent. Outlet, escape, emission, 
utterance, discharge, opening, 
hole, passage; market, sale. 

ANT. Close, stop-gap, end, 
termination, obstruction, stop- 

Venture, n. Chance, risk, haz- 
ard, speculation; accident, con- 
tingency; stake, adventure, ex- 
periment; luck, hap; danger, 

ANT. Certainty, surety, se- 
curity, inevitableness, assur- 
ance; safety, protection; law, 
method; caution, calculation. 
Venture, v. Dare, hazard, ad- 
venture, risk, jeopardize, im- 
peril, chance. 

ANT. Calculate, warrant, se- 
cure, guarantee, protect. 
Venturesome. Bold, daring, ad- 
venturous, hardy, courageous, 
intrepid, enterprising, doughty, 

ANT. Fearsome, timid, re- 
luctant, averse, loath, unwill- 

Venturous. Bold, daring, fear- 
less, venturesome. 

ANT. Timid, fearful, diffi- 
dent, shy. 

Veracious. True, truthful, re- 
liable, trustworthy, straight- 
forward, honest, credible. 

ANT. False, deceitful, men- 
dacious, lying, dishonest, per- 

Veracity. Honesty, truthful- 
ness, reality, candor, truth, in- 
genuousness, frankness, verity, 
exactness, correctness, accuracy. 

ANT. Deception, duplicity, 
falsehood, fiction, guile, men- 
dacity, untruth, lie, delusion, 
fabrication, deceit, error, false- 
ness, falsity, imposture. 
Verbal. Spoken, oral, literal, 
parole, vocal, unwritten, unre- 

ANT. Written, recorded, epis- 
tolary, documentary. 
Verbose. Wordy, prolix, diffuse, 
prosy, tedious. 

ANT. Laconic, terse, concise, 
succinct, curt. 

Verdict. Decision, judgment, 
opinion, pronouncement, find- 
ing, sentence. 

ANT. Indecision, indetermi- 

Verge, n. Border, limit, bound- 
ary, edge, margin, brink; cir- 
cumference, circle, ring; rim, 
brim, confine, skirt. 

ANT. Center, midst, heart, 

Verge, v. Tend, incline, slope, 
lean, trend, bear, border, ap- 
proach, approximate. 

ANT. Deviate, recede, revert, 
return, depart, retrocede. 
Verify. Prove, correct, estab- 
lish, confirm, authenticate, af- 
firm ; corroborate, attest, sub- 
stantiate; fulfil, demonstrate, 

ANT. Falsify, misrepresent, 
subvert, misstate, fail, dises- 
tablish, mistake. 

[ 276 ] 




Verisimilitude. Likelihood, 
probability, consistency. 

ANT. Improbability, incon- 
sistency, unlikelihood. 

Veritable. Actual, real, genuine, 
true; positive, absolute; orig- 
inal, authentic. 

ANT. False, fictitious, sham, 
spurious, untrue, feigned, sup- 

Verity. Fact, truth, reality, ac- 
tuality, existence, truthfulness. 
ANT. Falsity, unreality, de- 
lusion, fancy, dream, conjec- 
ture, hypothesis. 

Vernal. Spring, balmy, genial, 

ANT. Wintry, aged, autum- 
nal, decadent, brumal, harsh, 

Versatile. Changeable, incon- 
sistent, variable, many-sided, 
capricious, erratic, fickle, un- 
stable; mobile, plastic, ready. 
ANT. Fixed, uniform, one- 
sided, immobile, immutable, un- 

Versed. Experienced, studied, 
practiced, skilled, acquainted, 
conversant, proficient, familiar, 
clever, indoctrinated. 

ANT. Unskilled, ignorant, 
unpracticed, untaught, uniniti- 

Version. Account, description, 
translation, rendering, inter- 
pretation, reading; statement. 
ANT. Text, problem, diffi- 
culty; misinterpretation. 

Vertical. Perpendicular, plumb, 

ANT. Inclined, slanting, slop- 

Vestige. Trace, mark, footstep, 
track, sign, remains, trail, to- 
ken, remnant, record. 

ANT. Misindieation; oblit- 
eration, effacement. 

Veteran. Old soldier; expert, 
adept, proficient; habituS. 

ANT. Novice, recruit, tyro. 
Veto. Prohibit, forbid, negative, 
withhold assent to. 

ANT. Pass, approve, assent 
to, promulgate, endorse. 
Vex. Agitate, disquiet, harass, 
afflict, tease, weary, jade; tor- 
ment, worry, hector, distress, 
annoy, trouble, perplex, bother, 
persecute, fret, irritate, offend, 
provoke, affront, disturb, tan- 

ANT. Please, soothe, quiet, 
allay, appease. 

Vexation. Chagrin, agitation, 
mortification, uneasiness, grief, 
trouble, sorrow, distress, irri- 
tation, displeasure, affliction, 
plague, torment. 

ANT. Pleasure, enjoyment, 
gratification, satisfaction. 
Vibrate. Swing, oscillate, fluc- 
tuate, quiver, waver, undulate, 

ANT. Rest, be still. 
Vice. Crime, sin, fault, iniquity; 
defect, error, blemish, imper- 
fection, immorality, depravity, 
wickedness ; evil, corruption. 

ANT. Virtue, goodness, per- 
fection, righteousness, nobility, 

Vicinity. Neighborhood, vici- 
nage, nearness, proximity, pro- 

ANT. Distance, remoteness, 
separation, removal. 
Vicious. Faulty, wicked, cor- 
rupt, depraved ; foul, noxious, 
defective, unruly, refractory, 
spiteful, malignant, mischiev- 
ous, immoral. 

ANT. Virtuous, pure, good, 
upright, noble, moral, perfect. 
Vicissitude. Change, alterna- 
tion, mutation, interchange, va- 
riation, revolution. 

ANT. Fixity, changeless ness, 
stability, perpetuity, immut<t- 

[ 277 




Victorious. Conquering, trium- 
phant, winning, successful, ex- 
ultant, elated, boastful, van- 
quishing, subduing, prevailing, 
overcoming, mastering, subju- 

ANT. Defeated, worsted, hu- 
miliated, beaten, baffled, dis- 
comfited, conquered, overcome, 
vanquished, routed, repulsed, 
foiled, disconcerted. 

Victory. Success, supremacy, 
triumph, achievement, advan- 
tage, conquest, mastery. 

ANT. Defeat, disaster, de- 
struction, overthrow, miscar- 
riage, retreat, rout, failure, 
disappointment, frustration. 

Victuals. Food, provisions, vi- 
ands, sustenance, meat. 

View, n. Sight, look, survey, 
inspection; perception, exami- 
nation; reach, range; scene, 
prospect ; sketch ; conception, 
judgment, opinion; object, aim, 
purpose, design; vista, perspec- 
tive; picture, intention, scope, 
drift; estimate; apprehension. 
ANT. Blindness, darkness, 
obscuration, mistiness; preju- 
dice, misconception, misrepre- 
sentation, deception, error, de- 
lusion, aimlessness, non-inten- 
tion, occultation. 

View, v. See, behold, look at, 
survey, examine, inspect, ex- 
plore, consider, contemplate, re- 
gard, scan, witness, study, re- 
flect upon, reconnoiter. 

ANT. Overlook, neglect, pass 
by, miss, slight, ignore; mises- 
timate, misjudge. 

Vigilance. Sleeplessness, wake- 
fulness, watchfulness, circum- 
spection, attentiveness, wari- 
ness, cautiousness, caution, ac- 
tivity, lookout, alertness, ob- 

A:XT. Torpor, dulness, inat- 
tention, somnolence, careless- 

ness, drowsiness, indifference, 

Vigilant. Alert, awake, careful, 
on the alert, on the lookout, 
wary, watchful, wakeful, wide- 
awake, sleepless, cautious, cir- 

ANT. Negligent, thoughtless, 
unwary, oblivious, drowsy, in- 
attentive, careless, dull, heed- 
less, inconsiderate, neglectful, 

Vigorous. Full of vigor, strong, 
lusty, robust; forcible, ener- 
getic, powerful, sturdy, hearty, 
thrifty, flourishing, spirited, 

ANT. Weak, impotent, inca- 
pacitated, feeble, inactive, debil- 
itated, powerless, effete, ener- 
vated, indolent. 

Vile. Low, base, worthless, des- 
picable, mean, depraved, im- 
pure, sinful, wicked, bad, dis- 
honorable, ignoble, degraded, 
sordid, infamous, low-minded. 

ANT. Noble, exalted, honor- 
able, upright, estimable, great, 
worthy, eminent, liberal, free, 
generous, superior, dignified, 
sublime, stately. 

Villain. Scoundrel, knave, ras- 
cal, scamp, ruffian, rogu; 

ANT. Oentleman, man of re- 
finement, polish, delicacy, and 

Villainous. Base, vile, mean, de- 
praved; sorry, mischievous, in- 
famous, knavish ; heinous, sin- 
ful, outrageous, atrocious. 

ANT. Gentlemanly, noble, 
refined, honorable, worthy, up- 

Vindicate. Maintain, defend, 
justify; assert, protest, pro- 
nounce, declare, asseverate ; up- 
hold, claim, substantiate, sup- 
port, advocate. 

AXT. Surrender, yield, givt 

[ 278 ] 




up, resign; abandon, forego, 
waive; destroy, annul, vitiate; 
accuse, charge, impute, tax, 

Vindictive. Revengeful, unfor- 
giving, implacable, spiteful, un- 
relenting, malicious. 

ANT. Forgiving, generous, 
merciful, long-suffering, mag- 

Violate. Injure, disturb, inter- 
rupt, transgress, desecrate, de- 
bauch, dishonor, outrage, pro- 
fane, abuse, infringe, ravish. 

ANT. Respect, protect, rev- 
erence, honor, value, prize, fos- 
ter, shelter. 

Violence. Vehemence, impetu- 
osity, fierceness, force, viola- 
tion, infraction, infringement, 
transgression, profanation, as- 
sault, outrage. 

ANT. Preservation, defense, 
protection; mildness, self-con- 
trol, gentleness, respect, obedi- 
ence, conservation. 

Violent. Fierce, vehement, out- 
rageous, boisterous, turbulent, 
impetuous, passionate, severe, 

ANT. Sane, sober, calm, col- 
lected, unruffled, composed, 

Virgin, n. Maid, maiden, girl, 

ANT. Wife, mother, married 
woman; prostitute, whore. 

Virgin, a. Chaste, maidenly, 
modest; pure, undefiled, fresh, 

ANT. Married, matronly, 
motherly; defiled, polluted. 

Virile. Mature, masculine ; mas- 
terful, forceful; robust, vigor- 

ANT. Feminine; feeble, ef- 
feminate, puerile, emasculate. 

Virtual. Potential, efficacious, 
energizing, implicit, indirect, 
practical, essential, equivalent. 

ANT. Stated, direct, definite, 
expressed, explicit, emphatic, 

Virtue. Energy, strength, po- 
tency, efficacy; value, merit, 
excellence ; worth, meritori- 
ousnesa; integrity, purity, vir- 
ginity, chastity; goodness, mo- 
rality, uprightness, rectitude, 
probity, righteousness ; force, 
power, capacity ; honor, worthi- 
ness, honesty, truth, duty, vir- 
tuousness, faithfulness, justice. 
ANT. Inability, weakness, 
impotency, inefficacy ; badness, 
corruption, impurity, unchas- 
tity, depravity, wickedness, laa- 
ity, dishonesty. 

Virtuous. Excellent, upright, 
righteous, pure, chaste; good, 
honest, exemplary, blameless, 
worthy, modest. 

ANT. Wicked, bad, wrong, 
unrighteous, impure, dishonest, 
worthless, immodest, blame- 

Virulence. Malignancy, virus, 
contagion, poison, venom; bit- 
terness, malevolence, acrimony. 
ANT. Mildness, blandness, 
salubriousness, abatement, as- 
suagement; potency; benevo~ 
lence, virtue. 

Visible. Perceptible, noticeable, 
apparent, open, conspicuous, ob- 
vious, manifest, evident, clear, 
plain, observable, palpable, dis- 

ANT. Invisible, unseen, itn~ 
perceptible, concealed, eclipsed, 
indistinguishable, impalpable, 
microscopic, indiscernible. 

Vision. Sight; apparition, crea- 
tion, phantom, fancy, specter, 
appearance, chimera, illusion, 

ANT. Material, substance; 
reality, fact, actuality. 

Visionary. Fanciful, fantastic, 
unreal, imaginary, ideal, chi- 

[ 279 ] 




merical, fantastical, wild, 
whimsical, capricious, illusory, 
romantic, shadowy, dreamy, un- 
substantial, fabulous. 

ANT. Actual, real, true, sub- 
stantial, genuine, palpable, au- 
thentic, veritable. 

Vital. Living; mortal; impor- 
tant, necessary, essential ; ani- 
mate ; indispensable, material, 

ANT. Mortal, lifeless, inani- 
mate, secondary, separable, un- 
essential, unimportant, immate- 

Vitiate. Impair, contaminate, 
annul, spoil, void, destroy, in- 
jure; cause to deteriorate, 
taint; invalidate. 

ANT. Adhere to, corroborate, 
support, confirm, substantiate, 
justify, sanction, vindicate; re- 
fresh, improve, remedy. 

Vivacious. Animated, sportive, 
gay, jocund, light-hearted; 
merry, sprightly; brisk, frolic- 
some, spirited, cheerful, mirth- 

ANT. Inanimate, dead, life- 
less, spiritless, heavy, somber, 
melancholy, mournful, sad, in- 
ert, dull, stolid. 

Vivid. Clear, lucid, striking, ac- 
tive, lively, quick; fresh, in- 
tense, animated, bright, strong, 
spirited, sprightly ; brilliant, 
lustrous, radiant, glowing, scin- 
tillant, sunny. 

ANT. Dull, opaque, lurid, ob- 
scure, rayless, somber, cloudy, 
dark, colorless, dim, pale, wan, 
dusky, non-luminous. 

Vocation. Call, summons, cita- 
tion; business, profession, em- 
ployment, calling, occupation, 
trade; function, mission, office. 
ANT. Leisure, non-employ- 
ment; avocation, hobby. 

Vogue. Mode, custom, way, use, 
fashion, practice, usage. 

ANT. Disfavor, desuetude, 
disuse, unfashionableness, abo- 

Voice, n. Sound, utterance, tone; 
language, words, speech, judg- 
ment, expression, vote; com- 
mand, precept; opinion. 

ANT. Dumbness, silence, in- 
expression, muteness, inarticu- 
lation, obtumescence. 

Void, a. Empty, vacant, devoid, 
wanting, ineffectual, destitute, 
lacking; unoccupied, unused, 
unfilled; null, invalid, nuga- 
tory; vain, unreal, imaginary, 

ANT. Occupied, solid, sub- 
stantial, possessed, endued; ef- 
fectual, valid, operative, good, 
efficacious, furnished. 

Volatile. Light-hearted, airy; 
changeable, fickle; lively, evap- 
orating, vaporable, vivacious, 
buoyant, jocund ; inconstant, 
flighty, whimsical, capricious, 
unsteady, reckless. 

ANT. Fixed, steady, estab- 
lished, determined, solid, set- 
tled; persistent, resolute; in- 
volatile; somber, demure. i 

Volition. Will, choice, prefer- 
ence, determination, purpose; 
discretion, free will, election, 

ANT. Necessity, force, pre- 
destination, fate, coercion, fore- 

Voluble. Rotating; nimble, glib; 
active; fluent, loquacious, talk- 
ative, rapid, running, coursing. 
ANT. Direct; slow, deliber- 
ate, hesitating, stuttering, tor- 
pid, stammering, creeping, lazy. 

Volume. Book, tome; convolu- 
tion, coil; dimension, mass, ca- 
pacity, bulk, size. 

ANT. Minuteness, smallness. 

Voluntary. Spontaneous, will- 
ing, un compel led ; free, impul- 
sive; unconstrained, deliberate, 

[ 280 ] 




intentional, optional, gratui- 
tous, by choice; discretional. 

ANT. Coerced, forced, invol- 
untary, compulsory, necessi- 
tated, constrained. 
Volunteer, v. Offer, bestow, or 
act freely, proffer, tender, pre- 

ANT. Levy, draft, requisi- 
tion, request, demand, suborn, 

Voluptuous. Sensual, sensuous, 
epicurean 5 luxurious, pleasur- 
able, licentious, self-indul- 

ANT. Self-sacrificing, absti- 
nent, ascetic, self-denying, aus- 
tere, puritanical, renuncia- 

Voracious. Hungry, greedy, ra- 
pacious, eager, ravenous, glut- 
tonous, insatiate, omnivorous. 

ANT. Fastidious, dainty, re- 
fined, delicate, nice. 
Vouch.. Declare, affirm, attest, 
support, asseverate, aver, pro- 
test, assure, promise, warrant, 

ANT. Repudiate, abjure, re- 

nounce, protest against, demur, 
decline, abnegate. 

Vouchsafe. Grant, concede, be- 
stow; condescend, deign, stoop, 
descend, yield. 

ANT. Deny, refuse, toithhold. 

Vow, n. Promise, pledge; oath, 

Vow, v. Devote, promise, conse- 
crate, dedicate; assert, assever- 
ate, swear. 

ANT. Release, absolve, free; 
pollute, defile, profane. 

Vulgar. Common, general, ordi- 
nary, public; vernacular; ple- 
beian ; popular ; rustic, boorish, 
low, coarse, base, underbred. 

ANT. Noble, aristocratic, pa- 
trician, high-born, refined, po- 
lite, high-bred, stylish, select, 
choice, cultivated; strict, scien- 
tific, philosophical, technical, 

Vulnerable. Susceptible, liable, 
subject, assailable, weak, ten- 
der, exposed. 

ANT. Impregnable, unassail- 
able, unexposed, concealed, for- 
tified, defended. 


Waft. Bear, convey, transmit, 
carry, transport, make to float 
on waves ( of air or icater). 

ANT. Sink, weigh down, de- 

Wages. Salary, stipend, allow- 
ance, remuneration, fruit, hire, 
pay, compensation ; earnings ; 
reward, emolument. 

ANT. Gratuity, bonus, pre- 
mium, grace, douceur, gift, 

Wait. Stay, tarry, delay, stop, 
abide, remain, linger; rest; ex- 
pect, watch, await, look for. 

ANT. Hasten, hurry, speed, 
press on; go, depart. 
Waive. Relinquish, forbear, re- 
fuse, forego; throw away, cast 
off, reject, desert; abandon, re- 
mit, quit claim, cancel, drop, 
renounce, surrender. 

ANT. Urge, assert, press, 
enforce, claim, defend, vindi- 

Wake. Be awake, watch; ex- 
cite, arouse, stir; reanimate, 
revive; call, evoke, summon, 

ANT. Soothe, hush, tranquil* 

[ 281 ] 




ise, quiet; mesmerize; allay, 
appease, calm. 

WakefuL Vigilant, awake, sleep- 
less ; watchful, observant, wary. 
ANT. Drowsy, sleepy; heed- 
less, careless, incautious, un- 

Walk. Move on foot, proceed; 
be stirring, be abroad; behave, 
pursue, conduct one's self; per- 
ambulate, pass, traverse; step, 
stride, march, stalk, tramp, 
plod, trudge, tread. 

ANT. Halt, stop, stand still; 
ride, drive. 

Wan. Pale, sickly, languid, pal- 
lid; ashen, colorless, haggard, 
cadaverous; livid, bloodless. 

ANT. Fresh-colored, bright, 
rosy, lively, sanguine, incarna- 

Wander. Straggle, stroll, range ; 
turn aside; be delirious, rave; 
be crazed; expatiate; depart, 
saunter ; navigate, travel ; devi- 
ate, diverge, err, ramble, go 
astray, rove, stray, veer, roam, 
ewerve, digress. 

ANT. Remain, stay, settle, 
rest, stop, pause, moor, anchor, 
perch, bivouac, halt, alight, 

Wane. Be diminished, decrease ; 
decline, fail, sink; fade, pale; 
ebb; pine, droop, deteriorate, 
attenuate, contract, recede. 

ANT. Wax, increase, rally, 
improve, brighten, expand, de- 
velop, advance. 

Want, n. Defect, failure, dearth, 
indigence, absence, scarcity, de- 
ficiency, lack; destitution, pov- 
erty, need, shortness, insuffi- 
ciency, scantiness. 

ANT. Supply, sufficiency, al- 
lowance, provision, abundance, 
production, adequacy, supple- 

Ward, n. Watch, guardianship, 
guard; garrison, defender, pro- 

tector; defense, protection; cus- 
tody; keeper, guardian, war- 
den; pupil, minor; division! 

Ward, v. Watch, guard; defend, 
protect; repel, turn aside; be 
vigilant; keep guard, avert, re- 
pel, parry, fend. 

ANT. Betray, surrender, ad- 

Warfare. Hostilities, war; con- 
test, struggle; strife, discord; 
belligerence, antagonism; cam- 
paign, battle, skirmish, engage- 

ANT. Peace, truce, armis- 
tice; amity, pacification; neu- 
trality ; reconciliation; tran- 
quillity, friendliness, harmony, 
order, quiet, concord. 

Warlike. Military, martial, hos- 
tile, soldierly, inimical, belli- 
cose, unfriendly, belligerent. 

ANT. Peaceful, civil, unmili- 
tary, friendly, pacific, amicable. 

Warm. Ardent, zealous, fervent, 
cordial, hot, glowing; violent, 
vehement, furious, excited, pas- 
sionate; warm-blooded, warm- 
hearted; sunny, mild, genial, 
pleasant ; close, oppressive ; fer- 
vid, earnest, eager, enthusias- 
tic, hearty; lively, interested; 

ANT. Cool, cold; dispassion- 
ate, collected, composed, calm, 
unruffled, placid, sedate, quiet, 
staid; unconcerned, frigid, apa- 
thetic, chilling; repellent. 

Warmth. Fervency, glow, ear- 
nestness, cordiality, animation, 
eagerness, excitement, vehe- 
mence ; interest, zeal, ardor, en- 
thusiasm, passion, fervor, heat, 
intensity, spirit; emotion, life. 
ANT. Coolness, calmness, in- 
difference, frigidity, torpidity, 
apathy, impassiveness ; calm, 
chill, obtuseness, frost, iciness. 

Warn. Make ware, notify, ad- 

[ 282 ] 




monish, caution; advise, men- 
tion to, inform, apprise; dis- 
suade, deter, alarm, premonish. 
ANT. Encourage, embolden, 
inspirit, hearten, induce, insti- 
gate, prompt, impel. 

"Warrant, n. Guaranty, secur- 
ity, voucher; commission, cre- 

Warrant, v. Secure, guarantee, 
support, justify, sanction, as- 
sure; empower, engage, under- 
take, authorize. 

ANT. Invalidate, nullify, re- 
pudiate, cancel, make void; en- 
danger, imperil. 

Wary. Circumspect, watchful, 
cautious, vigilant, prudent, dis- 
creet, heedful, thoughtful, care- 
ful, guarded, scrupulous, chary. 
ANT. Unsuspecting, unwary, 
incautious, negligent, heedless, 
inattentive, indifferent, remiss. 

Wash, v. Cleanse, wet, scrub, 
moisten, bathe, lave; overflow, 
fall on; waste, abrade; stain, 
tint, color; overlay, cover; 
cleanse, rinse. 

ANT. Soil, stain, pollute, de- 
file, contaminate, bemire. 

Waste, n. Squandering, devasta- 
tion, loss, decrease; void, des- 
ert, wilderness; refuse; prodi- 
gality, diminution, dissipation, 
destruction, havoc, desolation, 
ravage; solitude, expanse; con- 
sumption, expenditure, extrava- 

ANT. Restoration, renova- 
tion, reimbursement, renewal, 
recovery, restitution, repara- 
tion; accumulation, frugality, 
economy, thrift, hoard, store, 

Waste, v. Squander, dissipate, 
lavish, desolate ; ruin, devas- 
tate, destroy; wear away, im- 
pair, use up, consume, spend; 
damage, injure. 

ANT. Restore, renovate, re- 

pair, renew; develop, multiply, 
augment; economize, hoard, ac- 
cumulate, treasure, husband, 

Waste, a. Desolate, devastated, 
stripped, bare, dreary, dismal, 
gloomy, cheerless ; worthless, 
valueless, refuse, rejected, un 
used, superfluous. 

ANT. Populated, occupied, 
cheerful, lively; valuable, use- 
ful, essential, necessary. 

Wasteful. Destructive, ruinous; 
lavish, prodigal, profuse, ex- 

ANT. Careful, economical, 
frugal, protective. 

Watch, v. Be awake, keep vigil, 
be on guard, tend; heed, ob- 
serve, expect. 

ANT. Sleep, drowse, slum- 
ber; be careless, neglect, over- 

Watchful. Circumspect, wake- 
ful, heedful; vigilant, awake, 
attentive, wary, cautious, ob- 

ANT. Drowsy, slumbrous, in- 
observant, careless, heedless, in- 
attentive, unwary, incautious, 
remiss, distracted, inadvertent. 

Waver. Reel, totter, vacillate, 
fluctuate, hesitate, dubitate, be 
undetermined, alternate, be 
perplexed, scruple. 

ANT. Decide, choose, settle, 
determine, dispose of, be stead- 

Wavering, n. Fluctuation, hesi- 
tancy, indecision, vacillation; 
uncertainty, irresolution. 

ANT. Decision, determina- 
tion, resolution, promptness. 

Way. Path, road, route, street, 
track, alley, avenue, channel, 
course, highway, pathway, high- 
road, driveway, lane, pass, pas- 
sageway, passage, thoroughfare, 
roadway; distance, interval; 
motion, progression, journey; 

[ 283 ] 




means, scheme, device, plan; 
manner, method, mode, fashion, 
style ; practice, habit, habitude, 
custom, wont. 

ANT. Deviation, error, dis- 
cursion; deflection, divergence, 
rambling, wandering; excep- 
tion, variation. 

"Wayward. Disobedient, head- 
strong, froward, perverse, wil- 
ful, obstinate, stubborn, unruly, 
capricious, contrary. 

ANT. Amenable, docile, man- 
ageable, compliant, obedient. 

Weak. Feeble, infirm, sickly, ex- 
hausted, unable ; deficient ; soft, 
pliant, frail; low, faint; spir- 
itless; foolish, wavering, lack- 
ing; debilitated, unsound, in- 
valid, fragile, delicate, tender; 
exposed, unguarded, defense- 
less; pliable, irresolute; simple, 
silly, witless, shallow, imbecile, 
childish ; injudicious, unwise ; 
insipid, tasteless, thin, diluted, 
watery; imprudent, indiscreet, 
erring; flimsy, slight, frivolous; 
unsafe, unsubstantial, un- 
trustworthy ; ineffectual. 

ANT. Strong, sturdy, vigor- 
ous, hardy, robust, powerful; 
sound, hale, healthy, stout, 
able; efficient, capable, potent, 
mighty; firm, compact, secure, 
impregnable; forcible, intense, 
energetic; biting, sharp, racy, 
pungent; rank; tough, tena- 
cious, cohesive, resisting; stren- 
uous, ardent, eager, zealous, 
hearty; vivid, brilliant; solid, 
substantial; valid, confirmed, 

"Weaken. Debilitate, enfeeble, 
enervate; invalidate; depress, 
impair, reduce, lower, sap, di- 
lute, attenuate. 

ANT. Strengthen, empower, 
invigorate; confirm, corrobo- 
rate, substantiate; augment, in- 
crease, mend, improve; enhance. 

Weakness. Feebleness, debility, 
languor, imbecility, infirmity, 
decrepitude, faintness, frailty. 
ANT. Strength, vigor, tone, 
health, power, efficiency, nerve, 

Wealth. Riches, affluence, opu- 
lence, abundance, plenty, for- 
tune, competence, estate, treas- 
ure, money, funds, cash, prop- 
erty; luxury, satiety. 

ANT. Poverty, scarcity, in- 
digence, lack, want, need, impe- 

Wear. Carry, bear, have on ; use 
up; impair, waste, diminish, 
consume; last; don, exhibit, 

ANT. Doff, abandon; renew, 
renovate, repair; increase, aug- 
ment, swell. 

Weariness. Fatigue, languor, 
exhaustion, lassitude, prostra- 
tion, depression. 

ANT. Strength, vigor, force, 
energy, restedness. 

Wearisome. Tiresome, tedious, 
irksome, vexatious, fatiguing; 
trying, wearing; prosy, monot- 
onous, annoying, uninterest- 
ing; toilsome, laborious. 

ANT. Easy, pleasing, com- 
fortable; invigorating; facile; 
interesting, exciting, fascinat- 
ing, delightful, amusing, stir- 

Weary, a. Fatigued, tiresome, 
irksome, wearisome ; tired, sick, 

ANT. Energetic, strong, re- 
freshed, invigorated : pleased, 

Weave. Interlace, unite; com- 
pose, fabricate; intwine, plait, 
braid, plat. 

ANT. Disentangle, unravel, 
untwist, disunite, untwine; ex- 
tricate, simplify. 

Wed. Marry, espouse; unite, at- 

I 284 ] 



[who ' 

ANT. Separate, divorce. 

Wedding. Marriage, bridal, es- 
pousals, nuptials, nuptial cere- 

ANT. Celibacy, bachelorhood, 

Wedlock. Marriage, matrimony, 
nuptial state. 

ANT. Celibacy, bachelorhood, 

Weep. Cry, shed tears, lament, 
complain ; drip, be soaked ; sob, 
bewail, bemoan; droop. 

ANT. Laugh, smile; rejoice, 
be cheerful, enjoy. 

Weight. Heaviness ; pressure, 
burden; importance, influence, 
consequence, moment ; ponder- 
ousness, gravity, load, power; 
efficacy, impressiveness. 

ANT. Lightness, levity, vola- 
tility; insignificance, triviality, 
weakness, inefjlcacy, worthless- 
ness ;portableness, ease, facility. 

Weighty. Heavy, ponderous, 
burdensome, onerous; forcible, 
momentous ; efficacious, impres- 
sive, cogent. 

ANT. Easy, light, unencum- 
bered; active, swift ; slight, un- 
important; frivolous, volatile, 
unsettled, giddy. 

Welcome, n. Greeting, saluta- 
tion, reception. 

ANT. Farewell, adieu, part- 
ing, good-by, leave-taking; re- 
pulse, repudiation. 

Welcome, a. Grateful, pleasing, 
gladly entertained, acceptable, 
agreeable, gratifying; gratui- 
tous, free. 

ANT. Unwelcome, unpleas- 
ant, disagreeable, unacceptable. 

Welfare. Prosperity, happiness, 
well-being, enjoyment, success, 
weal, advantage, benefit, profit, 
luck, thrift. 

ANT. Adversity, misfortune, 
reverses, failure, ill luck, un- 

Well, a. Good, desirable, fortu- 
nate, advantageous; healthy; 
favored, lucky; hale, sound. 

ANT. Ill, sickly, diseased, 
unwell, poorly; unlucky, unfor- 

Well, adv. Justly, rightly, abun- 
dantly, fully, adequately, thor- 
oughly, satisfactorily, advanta- 
geously, conveniently, properly. 
ANT. Ill, wrongly, poorly, 
imperfectly, improperly, badly 

Wet. Damp, moist, rainy, hu- 
mid; nasty; dank; showery; 
lively, interesting. 

ANT. Dry, parched, thirsty, 
arid; plain, unvarnished; 
shrewd, sharp, quaint. 

Wheedle. Cajole, flatter, entice, 
coax, inveigle, fawn upon. 

ANT. Deter, undeceive, de- 
tract, decry; chide, scold, re- 
buke, blame. 

Whereas. Since, considering; 
when in fact, while, although; 
seeing that; inasmuch as. 

Whimsical. Capricious, fanciful, 
queer, strange, freakish, quaint, 

ANT. Staid, serious, softer, 
matter-of-fact, steady, sedate. 

White. Snowy, pale, pallid; un- 
blemished, innocent, pure ; gray, 
hoary; fortunate, happy, favor- 

ANT. Black, dark, colorless, 
negro, sooty, coallike; dismal, 
gloomy, forbidding, threaten- 
ing, sullen, foreboding; impure, 

Whole. All, total, complete, en- 
tire, undivided, uninjured, un- 
broken ; unimpaired, integral ; 
sound, perfect, faultless, strong, 
well, healthy. 

ANT. Partial, imperfect, un- 
sound, ill, sick; divided, frac- 

Wholesome. Salubrious, salu- 
tary, healthy, healthful, nour- 

[ 285 ] 



ishing, nutritious, strengthen- 
ing, invigorating; beneficial, 
good; fresh, sound, uncorrupt. 

ANT. Detrimental, deleteri- 
ous, prejudicial, hurtful, perni- 
cious, noxious. 

Wholly. Entirely, completely, 
perfectly, totally, fully, alto- 
gether, utterly. 

ANT. Partially, imperfectly, 
incompletely, separately, in 

Wicked. Sinful, criminal, guilty, 
immoral, ungodly, profane, un- 
righteous, atrocious, unholy, vi- 
cious, nefarious, heinous, aban- 
doned, iniquitous, depraved, 
unprincipled, irreverent, vile, 
abandoned, bad, evil, unjust, 
ill, outrageous, monstrous, vil- 

ANT. Good, righteous, just, 
godly, virtuous, fair, honorable, 
unsullied, pious, benevolent, up- 
right, reputable, true, excellent. 

Wickedness. Crime, sin, vice, 
iniquity, evil, depravity, im- 
morality, enormity; badness, 
vileness, corruption. 

ANT. Goodness, piety, godli- 
ness, righteousness, honor, vir- 
tue, benevolence. 

Wide. Broad, spacious, vast, ex- 
tensive, comprehensive, liberal; 
remote, distant, far; ample, ex- 

ANT. Narrow, contracted, 
confined, cramped, constricted, 
limited; bigoted, parsimonious; 
close, near. 

Wife. Married woman, consort, 
spouse, helpmate. 

ANT. Sweetheart, maiden; 

Wild, a. Untamed, uncultivated, 
undomesticated ; savage, unciv- 
ilized, rude, ferocious; violent, 
turbulent; disorderly, crazy, 
ungoverned; visionary; unshel- 
tered, exposed. 

ANT. Tame, domesticated, 
cultivated, civilized; populated, 
frequented; polite, gentle, re~ 
fined; rational, orderly, sane, 
controlled, sober, collected. 

Wile. Trick, snare, artifice, be- 
guilement, allurement, strata- 
gem, cheat, fraud, imposture, 
deceit, deception, contrivance, 

ANT. Artlessness, openness, 
candor, straightforwardness. 

Wilful. Self-determined, volun- 
tary; obstinate, perverse, stub- 
born, refractory ; self-willed, 
headstrong; wayward; inten- 
tional, prepense, preconceived, 
premeditated, designed, delib- 
erate, purposed. 

ANT. Concessive, compliant, 
amenable, obedient, docile, man- 
ageable; adventitious, acciden- 

Will, n. Choice, determination, 
preference, volition; decree, de- 
sire, command, purpose ; con- 
trol, disposal ; testament ; reso- 
lution, decision, self-reliance, 
force ; inclination, pleasure, dis- 
position; behest, order, direc- 

ANT. Indecision, vacillation, 
indeterminateness, indifference; 
sensibility, perception. 

Will, v. Bequeath, devise, direct; 
choose, decide, determine, de- 
cree; wish, desire, incline to 
have; be willing. 

ANT. Die intestate; be indif- 

Willing. Inclined, consenting, 
ready, complying; chosen, de- 
sired; disposed, minded, desir- 
ous; voluntary. 

ANT. Loath, disinclined, re- 
luctant, averse, backward. 

Win. Gain, get, procure, earn; 
be victorious, prevail; obtain; 
acquire, achieve; conquer; suc- 
ceed, accomplish. 

[ 286 ] 




ANT. Lose, fail of, miss, for- 
feit, be deprived or bereaved 

Wind, v. Coil, twine, wreathe, 
twist, turn ; enfold, encircle ; di- 
rect; insinuate. 

ANT. Straighten, unravel, 

Winding. Twisting, circuitous, 
bending, curving, meandering, 
flexuous, serpentine, sinuous. 

ANT. Straight, rectilinear, 
direct, undeviating, unswerving. 

Winning. Charming, attractive, 
alluring, pleasing, bewitching, 
winsome, fascinating, delight- 
ful, lovely, captivating, prepos- 
sessing, enchanting. 

ANT. Repulsive, unpleasing, 
repellent, disagreeable, offen- 
sive, repugnant, revolting, dis- 
gusting, odious. 

Wisdom. Judgment, prudence, 
reason, understanding, sense, 
skill, sagacity, attainment, dis- 
cernment, depth, discretion, in- 
formation, foresight, learning, 
profundity, reasonableness, pre- 
science, knowledge, insight, ju- 
diciousness, erudition, enlight- 

ANT. Folly, imbecility, stu- 
pidity, error, foolishness, fatu- 
ity, idiocy, absurdity, impru- 
dence, indiscretion, miscalcula- 
tion, nonsense, mis judgment, 
silliness, senselessness. 

Wise. Knowing, erudite, wary, 
learned, sagacious; crafty; ju- 
dicious, discreet; skilled, in- 
telligent, rational ; sage, sensi- 
ble ; logical ; deep, discerning, 
profound, philosophical. 

ANT. Senseless, idiotic, ir- 
rational; nonsensical, impru- 
dent, irrational, indiscreet, ri- 
diculous, preposterous, insen- 

Wish, v. Long for, hanker after, 
desire; invoke, imprecate. 

ANT. Despise, dislike; dia- 
relish, be averse to, displease. 

Wit. Ingenuity, humor, satire, 
sarcasm, irony, burlesque; in- 
tellect, mind, understanding, 
sense; man of genius or humor; 
penetration, discernment, in- 
sight, acumen ; facetiousness, 
drollery, waggery, jocularity, 
sparkle, repartee, joke, playful- 
ness, fun, witticism, pleasantry, 
banter, jest, raillery. 

ANT. Stupidity, inanity, ob- 
tuseness, vapidity, dulness, 
commonplace, matter-of-fact; 
irrationality, platitude; dolt, 
dullard; sobriety, solemnity, se- 
riousness, gravity, stolidity. 

Witchcraft. Sorcery, enchant- 
ment, magic, necromancy, con- 
juration, incantation, charm, 
spell, thaumaturgy. 

Witchery. Sorcery, witchcraft; 
fascination, enchantment, spell, 
entrancement, ravishment. 

ANT. Reality, actuality, dis- 
illusionment, bald facts. 

With. By, on the side of, by the 
help of; attending, accompany- 
ing, close ; against ; according 
to ; in contrast with ; upon, im- 
mediately after. 

Withdraw. Take back, recall, 
retire; draw back, remove; re- 
cede, depart. 

ANT. Offer, afford; produce; 
repeat, reiterate, confirm; re~ 
nor,- furnish, propose, give. 

Withhold. Hold back, restrain, 
impede, hamper; retain, refuse; 
suppress, check, rein in, inhibit, 
stint, forbear; detain. 

ANT. Let go, give, bestow, 
confer; admit, yield; furnish, 
allow, provide, permit; encour- 
age, embolden, cheer, hearten, 

Within, a. Inside, inwardly, in- 
ternally, indoors, in the limits 

[ 287 ] 




ANT. Without, outside, out- 
wardly, externally, outdoors. 

Without, prep. Out of, beyond, 
out of the limits of, in the ab- 
sence of, in separation from; 
independently of; exclusive of, 

ANT. Within, inside of, in 
the limits of, including, embrac- 

"Without, con;'. Unless, except. 

Withstand. Oppose, resist, con- 
front, thwart, combat, prevent, 

ANT. Concede, grant, assist, 
submit, acquiesce, abet, coun- 
tenance, encourage, support. 

Witness, n. Attestation, testi- 
mony, evidence, proof; one who 
attests or is directly cognizant 
of; eye-witness; deponent, cor- 
roborator ; spectator, auditor, 

ANT. Belief, hearsay, rumor, 
report ; invalidation, refutation. 

Witty. Acute, sharp, smart, fa- 
cetious, arch, keen, amusing, 
humorous, satirical, taunting, 

ANT. Dull, stupid, obtuse, 
dry, prosaic, prosy, tiresome, te- 
dious, serious. 

Woe. Grief, sorrow, misery, ca- 
lamity; curse, malediction; dis- 
consolateness, tribulation, mel- 
ancholy, agony, depression, un- 

ANT. Joy, delight, pleasure, 
prosperity, enjoyment, bliss, fe- 
licity, welfare, cheerfulness, 

Woful. Sorrowful, distressed, 
wretched, afflicted, unhappy, 
sad; paltry, poor, piteous, dis- 
consolate, miserable, burdened, 

ANT. Joyous, light-hearted, 
cheerful, merry, rejoiced, glad, 
delighted, gay, blessed. 

Womanhood. Muliebrity, ma- 

turity in woman, feminality; 
womanliness ; woman, woman- 

ANT. Manhood, manliness, 
masculinity; man, mankind. 

Womanish. Effeminate, weak, 
foolishly feminine. 

ANT. Mannish, aping a man, 
foolishly masculine. 

Womanly. Becoming a woman, 
feminine, delicate, refined. 

ANT. Manly, strong, virile, 
becoming a man. 

Wonder, n. Astonishment, ad- 
miration, amazement, surprise, 
awe, bewilderment, curiosity; 
portent, miracle, prodigy, mar- 
vel; phenomenon, sight, rarity, 

ANT. Expectation, anticipa- 
tion; familiarity, apathy, in- 
difference; foreknowledge, pre- 
science; ennui; satiety; plati- 
tude, truism, commonplace. 

Wonderful. Amazing, astonish' 
ing, marvelous, surprising, im- 
probable, strange, incredulous; 
startling, awesome, portentous, 
extraordinary, prodigious, won- 

ANT. Commonplace, famil- 
iar, expected, ordinary, wonted, 
hackneyed, customary, habitual. 

Wonted. Accustomed, usual, ha- 
bitual, customary, habituated, 
used, conventional, regular, fre- 
quent, common. 

ANT. Exceptional, unusual, 
unused, unconventional, infre- 
quent, irregular. 

Wood. Forest, grove, thicket; 
timber, trees; copse, woodland, 

ANT. Open, prairie, clear- 

Word. Term, expression, ac- 
cents, tongue, vocable ; account, 
tidinga, message ; statement, 
declaration, affirmation, prom- 
ise; (pi.) contention, dispute, 

288 ] 




wrangling, altercation; speech, 
talk, discourse, language. 

ANT. Idea, conception, sug- 
gestion; sentence, unit of com- 
position, paragraph. 

Work, n. Exertion, activity, ef- 
fort, toil, employment, labor; 
business, duty; product, fabric, 
production, performance, man- 
ufacture; act, deed, service, re- 
sult, effect, achievement, feat; 
composition, structure ; man- 
agement, treatment, operation, 
issue, fruit; occupation; ac-' 
tion. drudgery. 

ANT. Frustration, abortion, 
hodge-podge; failure, deficiency, 
defect, fault; miscarriage; rest, 
inertia, fruitlessness, inopera- 
tiveness; inefficiency, futility; 
repose, relaxation, ease, vaca- 
tion, idleness, leisure, recrea- 

Work, v. Exert one's self, labor, 
be engaged, toil; operate, act, 
perform; effect, affect, conduce, 
influence; strain; use, utilize; 
produce, accomplish ; prevail 
upon, manage, lead; ferment. 

ANT. Rest, recreate, stop, re- 
pose, halt, relax, be at ease, 
lie, recline, sleep, slumber; fail, 
miscarry, be wanting, lapse. 

Workman. Worker, artificer, la- 
borer, artisan, mechanic, opera- 
tive, craftsman; toiler, hand; 

ANT. Employer, superinten- 
dent, inspector, supervisor, di- 
rector, overseer. 

Workmanship. Handicraft, ex- 
ecution, skill, art, manipula- 
tion, handiwork. 

ANT. Bungling, botching. 

World. Earth, universe, crea- 
tion; affairs, interests, life, ac- 
tion, occupation ; inhabitants, 
people, mankind ; globe, cosmos, 
planet, nature; public, society, 
human race. 

ANT. Heaven; atom, indi- 

Worldly. Human, common ; sec- 
ular, temporal; mundane, ter- 
restrial, earthly; fleshly, car- 
nal; universal; sublunary; sor- 
did, selfish, ambitious, earth- 
born, groveling. 

ANT. Spiritual, ethereal, ce- 
lestial, heavenly, lunar, solar; 
incorporeal, ghostly; ideal, ab- 
stract, mental, intellectual; sa- 
cred, holy, pure. 

Worry, n. Care, anxiety, fret, 
solicitude, torment, vexation, 
trouble, annoyance, plague, dis- 
quiet ; perplexity, concern, fear, 
apprehension, uneasiness, mis- 

ANT. Trust, calm, courage, 
serenity, tranquillity, placidr 
ity, quiet, ease of mind, reso- 
lution, dauntlessness. 

Worship, n. Reverence, hom- 
age, adoration, submission, ob- 
sequiousness, honor, abject- 

ANT. Detestation, hatred, 
abhorrence, loathing, disgust, 
antipathy, assertion, defiance, 

Worship, v. Adore, reverence, 
revere, idolize, respect, defer, 
venerate, deify, honor, exalt. 

ANT. Defy, dare; abhor, de~ 
test, hate, disdain, abominate, 
contemn, loathe. 

Worth. Desert, merit, excel- 
lence; price, rate; value, qual- 
ity, equivalence ; virtue, char- 
acter, worthiness, integrity; 
credit, cost, estimate. 

ANT. Demerit, worthless- 
i*ess, cheapness, uselessness, fu- 
tility, poverty. 

Worthless. Undeserving, use- 
less, valueless, vile, mean, mis- 
erable, poor, wretched, abject, 
unworthy, ignoble, abandoned, 
depraved; refuse, waste. 

[ 289 ] 




Airr. Costly, valuable, dear, 
high-priced, expensive; sump- 
tuous, splendid, rich, precious ; 
useful, excellent, estimable, vir- 
tuous, worthy. 

Worthy. Valuable, deserving, 
estimable, virtuous; suitable, 
adapted, meritorious, exem- 
plary, upright, righteous, hon- 
est, honorable. 

ANT. Worthless, valueless, 
ignoble, defective, unsuitable, 

Wound, v. Hurt, injure, dam- 
age, harm, cut, stab, rend, lac- 
erate, pain; annoy, mortify, 

ANT. Heal, allay, cure, rem- 
edy, soothe, repair; appease, 
assuage, comfort, harmo- 

Wrap, v. Wind, fold, cover, en- 
velop, enfold, involve, conceal, 
hide, muffle. 

ANT. Unwind, unfold, lay 
bare, reveal, develop, expose. 

Wrath. Fury, ire, resentment, 
passion, anger, rage, exasper- 
ation, indignation, choler, irri- 

ANT. Calmness, control, re- 
straint, composure, placidity, 

Wrathful. Furious, raging, in- 
dignant, passionate, choleric, 
ireful, angry, exasperated, in- 
censed, irate, wroth, mad, pro- 
voked, resentful. 

ANT. Calm, collected, con- 
trolled, repressed, masterly, re- 
strained, good-tempered. 

Wreath. Garland, chaplet, fes- 
toon, crown, bays, diadem. 

Wreck, n. Ruins, remains, rub- 
bish, wreckage, debris; havoc, 
destruction, shipwreck, ruin, 

desolation, perdition, demoli 

ANT. Preservation, conser- 
vation, saving, protection, *. 

Wrench, v. Pull, twist, wrest, 
force, strain, sprain; pervert, 
distort, wring. 

ANT. Straighten, untwist; 

Wretched. Miserable, calami- 
tous, afflicted, unhappy, de- 
graded, woful; worthless, pal- 
try; forlorn, wobegone, com- 
fortless, distressed ; shocking, 
deplorable, depressing, sad; 
contemptible, mean, pitiful, de- 
based, humiliated. 

ANT. Prosperous, flourish- 
ing, fortunate, happy, enviable, 
felicitous, successful, thriving; 
valuable; honored, noble, ex- 

Wrong, a. Injurious, unjust, 
faulty, detrimental, unfit; im- 
proper, incorrect; mistaken, er- 
roneous; illegal, immoral. 

ANT. Right, upright, law- 
ful, equitable, fair, just, be- 
coming, proper, suitable, ap- 
propriate, fit; correct, true, ac- 
tual, real. 

Wrought. Worked, elaborated; 
performed, done, effected, exe- 
cuted, produced, manufactured. 
ANT. Rough, crude, coarse, 
raw, unpolished. 

Wry. Twisted, distorted; mis- 
directed, perverted, wrested ; 
askew, contorted, deformed, de- 
ranged; crooked, awry. 

ANT. Straight, rectilinear, 
direct, upright, erect; perpen- 
dicular, shapely, comely, sym- 
metrical, proper, well-formed. 

T 290 ] 




Yawn. Open wide, gape ; desire, 
be eager. 
ANT. Close, shut, engulf. 

Yearly. Annual, happening 
each year, per annum, every 
year, year by year. 

ANT. Perennial, everlast- 
ing, evergreen. 

Yearn. Long, desire, be eager, 
covet, crave, hanker. 

ANT. Loathe, revolt, recoil, 
shudder at, despise. 

Yell, v. Cry out, shriek, scream, 

ANT. Keep silence, subdue, 

Yet. Besides, nevertheless, not- 
withstanding, however, still, 
eventually, ultimately, at last, 
BO far, thus far, hitherto, at 
present; over and above; fur- 
ther; now. 

Yield. Furnish, produce, afford, 
bear, render; relinquish, give 
in, let go, forego; accede, ac- 
quiesce; resign, surrender, con- 
cede, allow, grant, submit, suc- 
cumb; comply, consent, agree. 
ANT. Withdraw, withhold, 
retain, deny, refuse, vindicate, 
assert, claim, disallow, appro- 
priate, resist, dissent, protest, 
struggle, strive. 

Yielding. Conceding, produc- 
ing, surrendering, supple, pli- 
ant, submissive, unresisting, 

obsequious, attentive, flexible, 
compliant, accommodating. 

ANT. Defiant, resisting, ob- 
stinate, firm, stiff, hard, per- 

Yoke, n. Bond, chain, link, tie; 
servitude, bondage, vassalage, 
service, thraldom, subjection, 

ANT. Freedom, liberty; au- 
thority, command. 

Yoke, v. Couple, conjoin, con- 
nect, link; enslave, subjugate. 
ANT. Dissever, divorce, dis- 
connect, liberate, release, man- 
umit, enfranchise. 

Young. Juvenile, immature ; in- 
experienced, innocent, igno- 
rant; youthful, boyish, girlish, 

ANT. Old, mature, adult; 
experienced, knowing; senile, 
aged, decrepit, venerable; an- 
. tique, antiquated, obsolete; su- 

Youth. Adolescence, childhood, 
infancy ; youthf ulness, juve- 
nility; minority; lad, boy, girl, 

ANT. Age, senility, maturity. 

Youthful. Puerile, juvenile, im- 
mature, young, fresh, vigorous, 
unripe, callow, childish, boyish, 
childlike, girlish, adolescent. 

ANT. Mature, adult, full- 
grown, ripe, ripened. 

Zeal. Ardor, eagerness, earnest- 
ness, fervor, enthusiasm, en- 
ergy, feeling, devotion, inten- 
sity, passion, spirit. 

ANT. Apathy, indifference, 
coldness, carelessness, sluggish- 

ness, torpor. 

Zealot. Partisan, bigot, enthusi- 
ast, fanatic, devotee, visionary, 

ANT. Renegade, traitor, de- 
serter; lukewarm person. 

Zealous. Ardent, anxious, ear- 
nest, enthusiastic, fervid, eager, 

[ 291 ] 




steadfast, keen, fervent, de- 
voted, prompt, ready, fiery, pas- 

ANT. Lukewarm, indiffer* 
ent, cold, apathetic, passion- 
less, phlegmatic. 

Zenith. Height, pinnacle, acme, 
summit, culmination, maxi- 
mum, apex, top. 

ANT. Nadir, lowest point, 
depth, minimum. 
Eephyr. West wind, breeze, 
gentle wind. 

ANT. Gate, furious wind. 

Zero. Naught, cipher, nothing. 
ANT. Something, existence, 
creation; infinity. 
Zest. Flavor, appetizer, pleasure, 
gusto, gust, enjoyment, relish, 
sharpener, enhancement, savor, 
taste, smack, sauce, appetite. 

ANT. Distaste, disrelish, 

Zone. Girdle, belt, girth, cinc- 
ture, band, baldric; region, 
climate, clime; circuit, circum- 
ference; zodiac; orbit. 
ANT. Sphere, universe. 

12*2 J 

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